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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
amygdala
the almond-shaped structure in the brain's limbic system that encodes emotional messages to long-term storage
brain stem
one of the major parts of the brain, it receives sensory input and monitors vital functions such as heartbeat, body temp and digestion
cerebellum
one of the major parts of the brain, it coordinates muscle movement
cerebrum
the largest of the major parts of the brain, it controls sensory interpretation, thinking, and memory
corpus callosum
the bridge of nerve fibers that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and allows communication between them
cortex
the thin but tough layer of cells covering the cerebrum that contains all the neurons used for cognitive and motor processing
frontal lobe
the front part of the brain that monitors higher-order thinking, directs problem solving, and regulates the excesses of the emotional (limbic) system
hippocampus
a brain structure that compares new learning to past learning and encodes information from working memory to long-term storage
hypothalamus
a small brain structure at the base of the limbic area that regulates body functions in response to internal and external stimuli
thalamus
a part of the limbic system that receives all incoming sensory information, except smell, and shunts it to other area of the cortex for additional processing
dendrite
the branched extension from the cell body of a neuron that receives impulses from nearby neurons through synaptic contacts
axon
the neuron's long and unbranched fiber that carries impulses from the cell to the next neuron
myelin
a fatty substance that surrounds and insulates a neuron's axon
neurotransmitter
one of several dozen chemicals stored in axon sacs that transmit impulses from neuron to neuron across the synaptic gap
synapse
the microscopic gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another
cell body
the compact area of a nerve cell that constitutes the nucleus and surrounding cytoplasm, excluding the axons and dendrites
axon terminal button
where the neurotransmitters are stored; transition between electric and chemical
synaptic vescile
a small secretory vesicle that contains a neurotransmitter, is found inside an axon near the presynaptic membrane, and releases its contents into the synaptic cleft after fusing with the membrane