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102 Cards in this Set

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What is the triology of the mind?
The triology of the mind is a functional model of mental life that consists of motivation, emotion, and cognition.
What are the 3 components of the trilogy of the mind?
motivation = goal directed behavior; involves hypothal (ex. sex)
emotion = feelings; involves limbic system
cognition = how we structure mental life; involves cerebral cortex
*some people think that we should turn it into a quaternity by including consciousness.
The brain can be divided into three sets of neurological structures. What are these?
1. reptilian brain = responsible for instincts
2. paleomamalian brain = integration of thought and feeling as well as motivation, emotion, and memory
3. Neomamalian brain = most sophisticated area, responsibe for higher cognitive functions
Describe functions associated with the reptilian brain.
The reptilian brain is responsible for instincts and territorial behavior, reproduction, territorality, hunting for food, and defense.
Describe the function of the paleomamalian brain.
The paleomamalian brain:
-corresponds to limbic system structures
-caregiving for the young
-motivation, emotion and memory
-integration of thought and feeling
-social relationships
Describe the mamlian brain.
Mamalian:
-most sophisticated area
-only see mamalian brain in primates
-this part of the brain is responsible for higher cognitive functions.
********FOR FINAL, EXPLAIN A SOCIAL SITUATION IN TERMS OF CAPS (COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE MODEL)*******
********FOR FINAL, EXPLAIN A SOCIAL SITUATION IN TERMS OF CAPS (COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE MODEL)*******
Describe the four general areas of personality function (also known as the system set).
Note that this is not the same thing as CAPS (structures of social interaction).
1.executive consciousness = self awareness and self control
2.energy lattice = motives and emotion
3. knowledge works = mental models and intelligence
4. role player = social roles and how to carry them out.
The structures of social interaction (CAPS) are an example of what type of model?
CAPS is one of the connective structural models
Michel and Shoda's model is known as the Cognitive-Affective Model (CAPS). What are the components of CAPS?
1. Encodings = these are the categories into which we sort people, situations, and events
2. expectancies = outcomes that we think are possible in a situation
3. affects = emotions and related feelings to people, situations and outcomes
4. goals =desireable results that we hope for
5. self-regulatory plans = what we hope to do, based on our sense of competing beliefs.
Describe the executive consciousness area of personality function.
Executive consciousness is implicated in self-awareness and self-control
Describe the energy lattice, a component of personality function.
The energy lattice deals with motives and emotions.
The Knowledge works component of the system set deals with...
mental models and intelligence
The role player component of the systems set deals with..
social roles and how to carry them out.
What is the purpose of connective structural models?
-to connect personality to the surrounding world. An example of a connective structural model is the "structures of social interaction" model.
Describe the encodings portion of the CAPS model.
Encodings are categories into which we sort people, situations, and events.
Describe the "expectancies" feature of the cognitive-affective (CAPS model).
expectancies are outcomes that we think are possible in a situation.
Describe affects, a portion of the cognitive-affective model (CAPS).
affects are emotions and feelings that are related to people, situations, and outcomes.
Describe the GOALs component of CAPS
goals are desireable results that we hope for.
Describe the "self-regulatory plans" component of CAPS.
what we hope to do, based on our sense of competency and beliefs.
What are personality dynamics?
Personality dynamics deal with the ways inwhich the parts of personality influence each other and interact with the surroundings. We begin with an urge that is channeled into goals and is carried out with actions.
What are the different types of personality dynamics?
1. microdynamics = causal connections between small, specific parts of personality
2. mid-level or meso dynamics = include causal attributions (your ideas about what causes events)
3. macro-level dynamics = dynamics that influence the whole personality system
What are microdynamics? Give some examples.
Microdynamics are causal connections between small, specific parts of personality. For instance:
-how guilt interferes with love
-how using spatial intelligence helps you read a map
-dynamic traits = indicate tendencies towards certain classes of needs/goals. An example would be nAch.
Describe mid-level (meso) dynamics.
Meso dynamics are larger than microdynamics, but are not the largest scale. Mesodynamics include caual attributions (your ideas about what causes events).
Macro-level dynamics
dynamics that influence the whole personality system.
Distinguish between urges, needs, and presses.
urge = conscious psychological awareness of a need.
need = state of tension that can be satisfied with a specific goal
presses = environmental incentives and disincentives for acting
Discuss urges and give some examples.
An urge is the conscious psychological awareness of a need. Urges may be biological(eat, drink, sleep) or biosocial (affiliation, achievement).
Discuss needs and give some examples.
Needs are the state of tension that can be satisfied with a specific goal. For instance, hunger can be satisfied with eating.
Discuss presses and give some examples.
Presses are environmental incentives and disincentives for acting. They can elicit some motives and supress others. For instance, college supports studying and working at a science agency supports doing research.
What are the terms associated with Murray's model of need strength.
regnant process, prepotent needs, need fusion, subsidiary needs, determinate needs, and functionally autonomous needs.
In murray's model of need strength, what are determinate needs?
determinate needs determine all of the other needs.
In murray's model of need strength, what is a regnant process?
regnant processes tell us which process is controlling personality at a given moment (tells us whether we study or sleep); the idea of regnant processes brings up the concept that needs conflict.
In murray's model of need strength what are prepotent needs?
Prepotent needs are needs that are more important than other needs (for instance, hunger trumps academic activities).
In murray's model of need strength what is need fusion?
need fusiion involves satisfying 2 needs with one action. For example, getting paid to sing a solo satisfies the need for attention and the need to make money.
In murray's model of need strength what are subsidiary needs?
Subsidiary needs indicate that some needs may serve other ones. In other words, little needs can be satisfied to get to bigger ones.
In murray's model of need strength, what are functionally autonomous needs?
functionally autonomous needs start as subsidiary needs but then become important to you on their own. In other words, you start to do something for a different reason than you did originally.
Emmons and king studied what?
need conflicts
What were the types of need conflicts that were identified when people were told to list personal strivings?
1. conflictual strivings
2. ambivalent strivings
Describe conflictual strivings.
Conflictual strivings involve a clear and direct conflict between two strivings.
Describe Ambivalent strivings.
With ambivalent strivings, the goal has an intrinsic conflict.
Describe some of the qualities attributable to goal-conflicted people.
Goal conflicted people had more ruminations, more negative feelings, and a reduced sense of well being. They also had more trips to the student health service and more severe health problems.
Motives guide and direct us to goals. How are these motives elaborated in thoughts and feelings?
Emotions can amplify or supress motivation. There is network activation in memory for emotions and thoughts.
Describe the mood congruent congition effect.
We tend to gravitate towards a match between our mood states and our thoughts/ideas.
Desribe Isen, Clark, Shalker, and Karp's 1978 study on mood congruent judgement.
Isen, Clark, Shalker,and Karp gave gifts to some shoppers. Those that got gifts remembered more positive things about their appliances.
Discuss Raymond Cattell's Dynamic lattice.
The dynamic lattice is a model of relationships among motives, emotions, and attitudes. Ergs are basic mental energy , while sentiments are emotional attachments to ideas or activities.
In Raymond Cattell's Dynamic lattice, what are ergs?
Ergs are basic mental energy.
In Raymond Cattell's Dynamic lattice, what are sentiments?
Sentiments are emotional attachments to ideas or activities.
1. how does action develop?
2. How are needs turned into action?
1. motivation, which can be influenced by emotion in accordance with the mood congruent cognition effect
2. Automatic action tendencies like ideomotor action.
How are our needs turned into action?
by automatic action tendencies, of which ideomotor action is a part.
Define ideomotor action.
thinking about an act will increase the likelihood of bringing it about.
How has ideomotor action been investigated?
Bargh, Chen, and Burrows (1996) primed politeness or rudeness and found an affect on treatment of the experimenter during an interruption.
Likelihood of action is a function of two things. What are they?
Likelihood of action is a function of :
1.expectancy of reward
2. reward value
This is represented in the following equation
LA = EXP * RV
What would Freud say happens to urges that don't get through?
Freud thinks that the idea is repressed. The idea will be blocked from action and taken back to the unconscious.
Some ideas may be partially expressed, as is the case with parapraxes.
What are parapraxes?
Parapraxes are mistaken behaviors (slips of the tounge). Freud would say that this is a consequence of urges that have been repressed.
Describe the experimental evidence for Freudian slips.
This experiment was performed on males, who were assigned to one of two conditions:
1. female experimenter dressed attractively in a short dress
2. the same female experimenter dressed less attractivel in long clothes.
Those in condition 1 said nice legs more often.
Describe the process by which acts are performed.
We start with urges that develop into intentions. The intentions are expressed through the primary motor cortex as social acts.
The primary motor cortex provides access to...
motility (movement).
what types of things are considered to be human communication channels?
language, emotional signals, and nonverbal cues are included.
Human commmunication channels have coevolved with facial expression. Each basic emotion has...
an involuntary facial expression (according to Ekman).
What is one of the examples of VOLUNTARY control of facial expression?
the social smile.
Language can be modified and amplified through specific body movements. What are the three types of body movements?
1. emblems
2. illustrators
3. locomotion
Describe emblems
Emblems are fairly precise gestures with specific cultural meaning. (ie, thumbs up)
Describe Illustrators
movement of hand/body to supplement speech (but can't replace speech). You take the meaning of the illustrator from the context.
Describe locomotion
Locomotion is the movement of the body or parts of the body to express reactions. For example, move away from someone coughing.
Detail how automatic forms of action are different from conscious forms of action.
Automized actions are acts that we have performed over and over, so that we no longer give any thought to them.
ex. Did I stop at red lights?
and PErson with temporal lobe amnesia has some procedural memory.
Describe the difference between latent and manifest content
latent = an underlying meaning that people can understand; also what the people might unknowingly intend
manifest content = what the person says the meaning is; manifest content is direct meaning.
Stagecraft and Self presentation asks what question?
Who are we in private and how do we present ourselves to others.
Stage craft and self presentation are able to explain...
the history of acting.
What are the two approaches to acting?
1. Method acting = get into the head of the character that you are playing.
2. Theatricalism = learning how you would move on a stage, pretend to be sad, etc. Involves how you project feeling so everyone can see them (larger than life).
Define symbolic interactionism.
Symbolic interactionism is a perspective that is interested in the self and in the way that we act in everyday life.
What are the core ideas associated with symbolic interactionism?
-we tend to think in the 3rd person (she, they)
-we have to capacity to act
-the way that we act can be analyzed according to the symbolic meanings that our actions express.
What is a symbolic interaction?
a symbolic interaction is any act that people use to portray themselves.
What are the 3 types of symbolic interactions?
1. disclamers = verbal devices to decrease negative implications of something that we are saying or doing.
2. accounts = include excuses and justification
3. altercasting = presenting another person in a somewhat different manner than they are accustomed to.
Describe disclaimers, which are a type of symbolic interaction.
disclamers = verbal devices to decrease negative implications of something that we are saying or doing
Describe accounts, which are a type of symbolic interaction.
There are two types of accounts:
1. excuses = deny responsibility, but acknowledge that it shouldn't have happened.
2.justification = accept responsibility, but deny any problem.
Describe altercasting, which is a type of symbolic interaction.
presenting another person in a different manner than they are accustomed.
example:present someone as a closer friend than they are
-altercasting can be negative in that you can be altercast by ethnicity or race
Describe the Machiavellian personality.
the machiavellian personality characterizes someone who is willing to use deceit and manipulation in order to obtain a goal.
Who developed the scale of Machavellianism?
Christie and Geis
People who score high on Machiavellianism are...
1. better and more convincing liars; they make closer eye contact and stick to their story
2.better suited for loosely structured settings with minimal constraints imposed by rules.
How is self control related to action?
Self control integrates your sense of self into plans for action.
What types of things does self control allow us to do?
self control allows us to meet our personal, physical, and social needs.
What are the 3 similarities that the ego bears to dictators?
1. egocentrism = your world revolves around your sense of you
2. benefectance = we take credit for good things and avoid responsibility for bad things
3. confirmation bias = we attempt to confirm or affirm our already held beliefs.
Feedback allows us to receive information about how we are doing. What is a feedback loop?
Feedback loops are cycles of acting, getting feedback, and acting again. They come in different forms, including the negative feedback loop.
Discuss the negative feedback loop.
Negative feedback loops help us eliminate discrepencies between where you are and where you would like to be.

internal = happens inside you, for example, the person is impressed
external = for example, you speak
What is Kelley's Circumspection-Premption-Control model?
the cpc model allows us to look at the elements of goals in relation to personality
Describe the "construct system" and how it is related to Kelley's CPC cycle.
The construct system is a set of mental models about how our future will go (given that we like to be able to control our futures). The types of models (constructs) that you have will determine how you circumspect.
What are the 3 types of constructs (assoc w/ Kelley's CPC model)?
1. dilated constructs = too broadly applying a model to different areas of your life
2. tight constructs = you make unvarying predictions about what will happen; means that you don't try new things.
3.loose constructs = rough drafts. Maybe it will be diff this time.
Distinguish between dilated constructs and loose constructs.
1. dilated constructs = too broadly applying a model to different areas of your life
3.loose constructs = rough drafts. Maybe it will be diff this time.
Describe the preemption aspect of Kelley's CPC model.
With preemption, we are working to narrow the alternatives to a few. We are also trying to choose before the opportunity is lost. (control involves choosing a single course of action)
Do we naturally seek feedback?
yes
In discussing the effects of feedback, what concept should be considered?
self-monitoring.
With self monitoring, you collect feedback about the self and use it to guid behavior. The high self monitor is viligant about acquiring cues and thus adapt their behavior.
Discuss Defensive Pessimism (a coping strategy)
-Defensive pessimism is a form of "rigging" or altering feedback to suit your purposes
-defensive pessimists believe that they will do poorly, even when their is evidence that they will do fine.
-there are two consequences of defensive pessimism
1. you feel more calm (be/c failure is not as intimidating)
2. you are motivated to study hard in order to avoid failure.
What does the concept of standard mental control indicate?
Standard mental control indicates that consciousness and action are joined.
Describe dissociation.
Dissociation involves the splitting of conscious cognitive activity

Disociation was originally thought to be due to trauma and repression, but this may not always be the case (it could be due to the reallocation of resources).
Describe Neo-dissociationism.
According to Ernest Hilgard, cognitive barriers can be established so as to isolate or modularize some part of the mind (an example is lamazze).
what is the diff betw dissociation an neo-dissociationism.
Dissociation involves the splitting of conscious cognitive activity

Disociation was originally thought to be due to trauma and repression, but this may not always be the case (it could be due to the reallocation of resources).
WHEREAS
in neodissociationism, cognitive barriers can be established so as to isolate or modularize some part of the mind (an example is lamazze).
There are individual differences in the ability to disocciate. People who are good at ___ ____ tend to be good at disociation.
People who are good at conscious absorption tend to be good at dissociation.

Conscious absorption is the ability to become lost in a stream of consciousness and lose track of all else.
Is the classic suggestion effect an example of hypnosis?
The classic suggestion effect is not hypnosis, but it predicts whether someone is able to be hypnotized.
What happens with the classic suggestion effect?
In the classic suggestion effect:
-instructions are for the participant to imagine a movement or idea
-some people will then make the movement or imagine the idea vividly
-the experience may be felt as outside of their control

~the classic suggestion effect is not hypnosis, but it does predict whether someone is able to be hypnotized
Describe hypnosis.
Hypnosis is known as non conscious personal control, whereby you allow someone else to control a portion of your mental processes.
Describe the relative percentages of people who are and are not able to be hypnotized.
1/3 of people are unaffected
2/3 are increasingly susceptible
a sm percentage are hypnotic virtuosos - people who hypnotize easily and deeply.
Describe the characteristics of hypnotic trance.
1. supression of planning occurs
2. redistribution of attention (whereby you screen out some stuff but attend to the rest)
3. enhanced availibility of unusual and emotional memories(recall past in a more intense manner)
4. reduction in reality testing (hypnotized people are more apt to imagine and accept alternative realities)
5. increased suggestibility(both while in the trance and for post-hypnosic suggestions)
6. role behavior (it is easier to act out unacustomed or forgotten roles)
7. spontaneous amnesia - hypnotized people report forgetting some or all of the session;they do not remember post-hypnotic suggestions)