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76 Cards in this Set

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Compare crystallized and fluid intelligence.
crystal = well learned material acquired through previous experience

fluid = active, immediately occuring processes that we use on new probs.
~the two work together~
Distinguish between concrete and abstract reasoning.
concrete = tangible things only. most people can do this.

abstract = analyze relationships between things, look at similarities and differences and draw conclusions. The higher your ability to reason abstractly, the higher your overall intelligence.
People whose mental processes mature quickly tend to do what on intelligence tests?
they score high.
Define adaptation.
adaptation is resourcefulness of coping. It asks "How well do you cope with challenges?"
Discuss the stability or instability of IQ
IQs are generally pretty stable, particularly after age 9 or 10.
Does IQ correlate with educational achievement?
yes. IQ was designed to preduct educational performance.
Does emotional intelligence matter in school?
EQ measures don't add any predictive validity, uless ET is cruicial to performance in a particular field (ie, therapist).
Discuss how a person with high IQ might act in terms of on task behavior.
High IQ might take longer to start task because they are trying to get a sense of the task.
Discuss the relationship between ocupational sucess and IQ.
Correlation between rated prestige of a job and IQ is .80.
Discuss the implications of practical intelligence
higher pi is correlated with greater prestige and salary.
Discuss some of the implications of creativity.
innovative people, distinctive occupations, unexpected paths/detours
People with high EI tend to have...
-fewer prob behaviors
-lower risk of excessive substance use
-less likely to smoke
-decr tendency to get into fights
-have smoother and closer interpersonal relationships (closer social networks)
-parents with higher EI have more securely attached kids.
Discuss the relationship between IQ and marriage.
People tend to marry those with similar IQs.
How did James view the self?
James thought of the self as knower.
What were two topics that were of interest to james?
functionalism = each mental process has a function

introspection = thinking about thinking.
In very general terms, discuss the self.
the self is the part of you that observes and has awareness of what is going on in your mind.

The self is a very personal sense of observing.
How did Freud view the self?
To Freud, the self was the ego. The ego is the partially conscious sense of self. Freud thought that the ego was incharge of thought and self-control. Some planning is not conscious, it helps repress unpleasant material.
Discuss the dialogical self.
Hermans developed the idea of the dialogical self. The dialogical self shifts around the person, breathing action into other entities. The dialogical self is a more flexible version of the self as knower.
What are the three aspects of consciousness?
1. self awareness (reflective awareness)
2. access to information
3. sentinence (your internal, subjective experience)
what is another term for self awareness?
reflective awareness.
Discuss the aspect of consciousness that deals with acess to info.
We can shine spotlight on stuff we want to attend to.
Stuff in the attention zone gets our good attention, while stuff on the peripery leads to cognitive errors.
-having the attention zone/periphery has a survival/evolutionary purpose.
Discuss sentinence
sentinence is an aspect of consciousness that is your internal subjective experience; what it feels like to be use. Your stream of consciousness provides you with your own personal eyes on yourself and the world.
Define subjective realism
All mental events are caused by some set of physical events.
We are hooked up to our own neurons, so we experience those events differently.
Discuss the bicameral theory of mind
The bicameral theory of mind suggests that the mind is dependent upon both hemispheres of the brain.

The hemispheres do things in different ways and may not be fully integrated with one another.
Discuss the work of Crick and Koch
Crick and Koch looked for areas of the brain that only operate when you are awake and alert to find consciousness

they looked for synchronized neural firing to find evidence of integration
Define the will.
The will is the part of the mind that exerts conscious, intentional control over thoughts and actions. The will makes decisions.
William James deliniated categories of decisions based on how much will was involved in making the decision. Describe these categories.
1. Decisions requiring little will
2. Decisions in which outside pressures are present and we don't really care
3. decisions in which the will is strongly experienced
-alternatives are kept firmly in mind as we consider the possible outcomes of our decisions
-we may have difficulty making a decision because we recognize the cost.
Discuss the free will perspective. Who believed this?
The free will perspective establishes that there is a part of mental life that is unconstrained and can choose to do whatever it wants.

Descartes believed that there was a soul and that it was independent of pressures from the body.

Henry murray (of TAT fame) also adopted the free will perspective.
Discuss determinism. Who believed this?
At its strictest level, determinism supports the notion that everything in the universe caused by something that came before it

Calvin- god chooses each human's fate before they are ever born; you have to monitor your behavior carefully to figure out what has been decided.

Freud and Carl Rogers both believed in determinism.
On which side did Maslow fall on the free will/determinism debate?
Neither. Maslow believed in an individual differences variable.
Discuss the debate about voluntary action vs involuntary action.
-voluntary/involuntary action is a different frame on the free will/determinism debate

Voluntary action allows us to improve ourselves and our world. It includes self control, self expression, ability to rationally deliberate and be morally accountable. It also acknowledges that some stuff is determined.
Distinguish between free will and voluntary action
free will = there is a part of mental life that is unconstrained and can choose to do whatever it wants

voluntary action = allows us to imporve ourselves and our world. Includes self control, self expression, ability to rationally deliberate, and to be morally accountable.
Define voluntary movement.
Voluntary movement is caused by the person. We attribute causality when 3 things are present:
1. cause preceeds the mvmt (effect)
2. cause is consistent with the movement
3. cause occurs in the absence of a competing explanation.
We attribute causality when what 3 things are present?
We attribute causality when 3 things are present:
1. cause preceeds the mvmt (effect)
2. cause is consistent with the movement
3. cause occurs in the absence of a competing explanation.
Discuss the Wegner and Wheatly study. (1999)
This study asked the following question: Is will (voluntary action) an experience fabricated from perceiving a causal link between thought and action?

Participants were told to stop the cursor every 30 secs and rate the personal intentionality of the stop.

~Participants believed that they had made the stop, even when the confederate was the one doing the stopping. This effect was even stronger when they heard the prime just before the stopping time.
Describe the concept of agencies.
-Self-agencies are sub personalities that tie together various functions of the personality.

-Each sub personality is thought to function semi-autonomously.

-agencies will organize and periodically govern our actions.

-the conscious self is a special class of agency.

-dissociative disorders support the idea that we have diff agencies
Dissociative disorders support the idea that we have diff agencies. How so?
Dissociative disorders involve separation of a person from an identity or memory.

Dissociated ideas might continue to operate even if they are not fully acessible to consciousness.
Describe DID.
If you have more than one identity, each one is called an ALTER.

With DID, people exhibit different behaviors depending upon which identity is in control. Different brain patterns occur depending upon which alter is active.

DID is very rare

People with DID have a general tendency to dissociate (seperate into diff agencies)

People with DID are very suggestible and suseptible to hypnosis.

In addition, people with DID have ordinarily had a lot of early trauma.
Describe the id as it relates to Freud's alternative to the conscious self.
ID is responsible for animal-like motives and emotions.

The ID operates on the pleasure principle.

The ID draws on unconscious energies and is a cauldron of unacceptable impulses.

In Freud's model, each of the entities could variously take control.
Describe the ego as it relates to Freud's alternative to the conscious self.
Ego mediates the id and superego

It is the seat of rationality

In Freud's model, each of the entities could variously take control.
Describe the superego as it relates to Freud's alternative to the conscious self.
The superego has 2 parts
1. ego ideal - what the ego aspires to be
2. conscience - societal rules that govern the ego

In Freud's model, each of the entities could variously take control.
When considering the way in which the conscious self is expressed, we think of the contents of consciousness. What are the contents of consciousness?
1. qualia - sounds, sights, thoughts, and urges that pass through our conscious awareness

2. most common contents of consciousness are our current concerns.

3. dadreams-thoughts of ours that fill in the gaps. They usually have clear beginings and endings, are composed of everyday behaviors, and lack a disciplined focus.

4. Rumination - repetitive thoughts associated with goals that are blocked or difficult to reach.
Rumination is usually not pleasant. Ruminations are accompanied by a lot of sadness and fear and are often associated with depression. We also ruminate a lot when we fall in love.
The structure and flow of consciousness can be...
diffuse or structured
Discuss flow.
Flow is the STRUCTURING ELEMENT to consciousness. Flow includes things like concentration on a task. During a time when you are experiencing flow, you will lose self consciousness and acquire a sense of timelessness.

Flow is easier to achieve if you have clear goals or feedback for a task.

When you experience flow, you experience a sense of organization and coordination.
Describe Direct consciousness.
direct consciousness is the idea of attention or awareness
Describe Reflective consciousness.
reflective conscious is a higher order level of consciousness that involves taking note of the fact that you notice something. In other words, if I am aware that I see red, my awareness of seing red is reflective consciousness.
Distinguish between direct consciousness and reflective consciousness.
Both are levels of consciousness.
1. direct consciousness is the idea of attention or awareness
2.reflective conscious is a higher order level of consciousness that involves taking note of the fact that you notice something. In other words, if I am aware that I see red, my awareness of seing red is reflective consciousness.
Describe Self-determination theory.
Self determination theory asks "How much does the self act in accordance with its own desires versus how much does it act in accordance with everyday outside pressures.
Descrive Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation occurs when we act voluntarily and according to our own needs.
This is rewarding to the individual in and of themselves.
Describe extrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivation ivolves doing things to meet outside expectations.
There is a special type of extrinsic motivation ( I think) that is called identified extrinsic motivation. What is it?
Identified extrinsic motivation occurs if something was done originally because of outside pressures, but you have come to define it as "for the best."
Define Amotivation.
Amotiviation refers to a lack of motivation. We feel amotivated about tasks for which we don't feel that we can be sucessful.
Define personality structure.
A structure is a relatively static, long term division of personality. Structures are divided into relatively stable and distinct functions, processes, or other qualities of personality.
It's important to have sturcture because examining parts together as well as seperately gives an overall picture.
What are some general features of personality structures?
-there are mutliple maps for complex systems
-different maps provide opportunities to emphasize different attributes of the system
-not all maps may be equally valid
-without maps, we wouldn't be able to conceptualize personality
What are the structural divisions of personality structures?
1. comprehensiveness-divisions should cover everything or nearly so.

2. scientific foundation - should be empirically supported

3. distinctiveness-each division should explain something different from everything else.

4. Structure needs to have an appropriate number of divisions -
< 3 is too simple
>7 involves too much overlap
GOOD QUESTION FOR FINAL EXAM

PICK THE THEORY OF YOUR CHOICE AND ANALYZE IT ACCORDING TO THE 4 STRUCTURE THINGS.
. comprehensiveness-divisions should cover everything or nearly so.

2. scientific foundation - should be empirically supported

3. distinctiveness-each division should explain something different from everything else.

4. Structure needs to have an appropriate number of divisions -
< 3 is too simple
>7 involves too much overlap
Distinguish between data driven and theory driven models of personality. What is an example of each?
Data driven = comes from data. An example is the Big Five model of personality, which draws from the lexical hypothesis.
Theory driven models come from something you think about.I'm not sure of an example.
The big 5 model of personality utilizes the lexical hypothesis. What is the lexical hypothesis?
The lexical hypothesis states that all important traits can be found in the language.
How was the big 5 model of personality created?
All trait words were factor analyzed in order to discover certain traits.

From 30000 words to 100 words to 5 factors.
religious-nonreligious
-thrifty-spendthrifty
What are some of the limitations of the big 5 model?
We're limited to 30 or so traits

Big 5 model is data driven so traits are based on lay perception rather than professional expertise

Within the big 5, not all traits are understood

Certain traits are excluded from the model, like verbal intelligence, internal-external locus of control, emotional intelligence, and machiavellianism.
What models serve as the alternative to trait models?
Strucutal models of awareness are alternative models to the trait models.
Describe some of the features of the structural model of awareness (which serves as an alternative to trait model)
Structural models of awareness distinguish between the unconscious and the conscious. They divide the contents of the mind into what we are aware of vs. what we are not aware of.
Visual illusions work because of what type of consciousness?
The no acess unconscious.
Describe the no acess unconscious.
The no acess unconscious is the unconscious proper.

Activities in the no-acess unconscious are mental activities to which consciousness is simply not connected

Example: Neurons departing from the retina. We have no idea how our visual system works - its function is unconscious.
What is another name for the automatic unconscious?
The implicit unconscious.
Describe the automatic unconscious.
The automatic unconscious might also be considered the implicit unconscious.

Cognitive processes operate independently of consciousness but (consciousness?) directs our thoughts, behaviors and judgment.

The automatic unconscious is filtering through your ideas and you are not aware of it.

false fame effect and perceptual priming are associated with the automatic unconscious.
The false fame effect and perceptual priming are both associated with which form of awareness?
The automatic unconscious
Describe the unnoticed unconscious.
We could know it or have acess to it but we don't notice.
What line of research deals with the unnoticed unconscious?
Bowers (1984) and the landscape preferences
List the types of structural models of awareness (4)
1. no acess unconscious = visual illusions

2. automatic unconscious = implicit uncoscious. Filters thru our idease but we have no awareness of it. includes perceptual/conceptual priming and false fame effect

3. unnoticed unconscious - bowers landscape picking experiment; operant conditioning is part of this.

4. dynamic unconscious
Describe Bowers's experiment.
this experiment deals with the unnoticed unconscious

Participants were shown pairs of portraits and landscapes and gave their preference.

They then went thru another series of trials where they were reinforced for choosing the opposite.

Many claimed that they were expressing their genuine preference throughout - were unaware of the shift.
Operant conditioning is an example of what type of awareness?
Unnoticed unconscious
Describe the dynamic unconscious.
The dynamic unconscious consists of :
1.consciousness = internal "eye or sense organ on the brain
2. preconscious = may not be thinking about now, but you can get to it if necessary
3. unconscious = matters that one doesn't know about
What does Freud say about human motives and awareness?
Freud says that many human motives are unconscious.

Either their is no access - as in the primary unconscious
-or, there is active repression - consciousness (or the ego) expels thoughts and feelings

-we use defense mechan to defend consciousness.
Describe the dynamic unconscious.
The dynamic unconscious consists of :
1.consciousness = internal "eye or sense organ on the brain
2. preconscious = may not be thinking about now, but you can get to it if necessary
3. unconscious = matters that one doesn't know about
What does Freud say about human motives and awareness?
Freud says that many human motives are unconscious.

Either their is no access - as in the primary unconscious
-or, there is active repression - consciousness (or the ego) expels thoughts and feelings

-we use defense mechan to defend consciousness.