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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an attitude?
When people decide whether to do something, they weigh the options, the resulting answer for what the outcome is and it's desirability forms an atitude about the behavior.
When an attitude stems from your own wants, what is it called?
Personal Orientation.
Subjective norms, what are they?
The combination of what others want you to do and how much it matters to the individual.
Azjen and Fishbein proposed a mental algebra for Intentions. What is the formula?
Attitudes + Subjective Norms = Intentions
Why do specific high level goals lead to better performance? (3 Reasons)
A person tries Harder
A person is more persistent
A person concentrates more
Intention can be divided into two processes, what are they?
Goal Intention
Implementation Intention
How do Implementation Intentions work on schemas?
By making situational cues recognizable, thus allowing for awareness of cue to strategy to action
What are the two mindsets used to form and execute intentions?
Deliberative Mindset (the formation of)
Implemental Mindset (the execution of)
Where is the Deliberative Mindset thought to exist in the anatomical brain?
The Frontal Cortex
What are the four parts of the negative feedback loop and what are their functions?
Goal setting: Setting Value (Goal)
Input: Observation of present behavior
Comparator: Compares Goal and input
Output: Changes in behavior to fit goal
Another name for the feedback loop?
Control System
What are some stimuli that direct attention to the self and how do they effect the feedback loop?
An audience
A mirror
A Tv Camera

They all activate the comparator
In a hierarchical organization of the feedback loop, where do lower level loops connect to the higher level loops?
At the Output node, behavior is adjust to have lower level loops.
In Power's theory of hierarchical Organization of feedback loops, what are the three divisions of System Concepts?
System Concept: abstract ideal
Principal: broad guidelines
Program: behavioral scripts
At what level do functionally superordinate goals function?
Lower level and they are disconnected from the upper level goals
Define action identification?
How one perceives an action as to concrete or abstract (normally on a scale).
Concrete goals are more easy to accomplish= brushing my teeth compared to i have to whiten them
How do abstract and concrete goals relate on a time scale (present/future)
The further into the future a goal is, the more abstract it becomes and vice versa
What role do emotions play in self regulation theory?
An internal call to rearrange priorities.

Ex: Anxiety=goals of well being in danger
Anger = autonomy is threatened
When would individuals decide to disengage on a goal?
When doubt arises in achieving the goal
Explain Bandura's theory of efficacy expectancy in goal attainment?
The belief and confidence that one knows HOW to accomplish a goal is a good predictor for their reaching the goal
The method where goal is scaled back a little?
Partial Disengagement
What is meant by Avoidance in the Approach & Avoidance explanation of Self regulation?
Avoidance is meant to describe the avoidance of failures or threats to accomplishing the goal
What is meant by Stimulus based action in Self regulation?
Subliminal or non, Priming, activating associations in the mind towards a goal
Describe the Self control model in self regulation theory?
The control of ones impulses towards one goal in order to achieve another.
What individual differences (traits) are associated with Self regulation?
Curiosity and probing negative feelings
How do problems arise in the self regulation perspective? (3 reasons)
Conflict between goals
Lack of strategy
Inability to disengage
Explain the "means-end analysis" strategy
The individual compares the present self to the ideal self and creates a strategy to achieve a means to the end (ideal self)
What three perspective have parallels to psychoanalysis?
Self Regulation
cognitive Perspectives
Evolutionarily, Genes associate with which part of Psychoanalysis?
ID (This is a motivator)
The Ego from Psychoanalysis is paralleled to what in evolutionary perspectives? (Anatomy)
Cerebral Cortex (Behavioral Management)
To what is the Superego associated in the evolutionary perspective?
Reciprocal Altruism gene
The need to help and maintain a group through norms
Which scientists paralleled evolutionary perspectives to Psychoanalysis?
Christopher and Leak
What is the parallel in evolutionary theory and psychoanalysis in mating?
Men: Try to prove worth by showing power and mating often (like those stuck in the phallic stage)
Women: try to prove worth by looking attractive and being selective of mates (like women stuck in the phallic stage)
Explain the parallels in self regulation theory and psychoanalysis using the hierarchy system and psychoanalysis.
When high level control is not exerted, low level control takes an impulse and automatic form of response to the environment much like the ID
The Program control relates to the Ego
The Principal control relates to the SuperEgo
What is the perceptual defense?
A cognitive process of denial and repression or forgetting use to cope with threats or stress
What are the two links between Cognitive and Psychoanalytic perspectives proposed by Erdelyi?
-Filtering process of information related to stress (defense mechanisms)
-Levels of processing are similar to the topography of the mind (conscious and preconscious)
-Distortions of the mind are similar to biases in processing
Explain transference effects found in psychoanalysis through the cognitive perspective.
During therapy evoked memories partially activate schemas associated with behavior, this in turn induces the individual to act on that script due it's partial activation.
In what areas do social learning, cognition and self regulation all overlap?
The cognitive Process
Goal orientation or incentives
In what way do social learning, cognition and self regulation differ in using cognitive processes (theory wise)
Social learning: cognition includes mental representation and how this transforms the personality, each person has a different one

Cognitive: Cognition is the central process to all of personality

Self regulation: Cognition's role in determining what and how behaviors are made and executed
How did Bandura define reinforcers?
Reinforcers created expectancies to what actions will be useful in certain situations
Name two areas of similarity between Maslows Hierarchy (Self actualization) and Self regulation theory's hierarchies.
The highest levels are more abstract and integrate into the lower levels easily

The lowest levels require the most attention because troubles to accomplish these hinder performance on higher levels
The concepts of real self and idealized self are predominant in what two perspective?
Self actualization
Self regulation

Both theories also include a "comparator" to contrast ideal and real selves
What perspectives assume an personality as an long lasting disposition or permanent aspects of human personality?

Optionally: Learning (in that self efficacy increases ability to learn) and Self regulation (in that level of self reflectivity increases self regulation)
What are the two fundamental issues or concepts that are examined in all personality perspectives?
That of Restraint Vs. Impulse
That of Individual Vs. Group needs