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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
__________ is a set of behaviorial, emotional and cognitive tendences that people display over time and across situations- they distinguish people from each other.
__________ has come up with 50 different definitions for personality.
Gordon Allport
Four important questions asked by personality theorists include:
1.) how consistent or stable is personality
2.)is personality innate or learned
3.)is personality conscious or unconscious
4.) is personality influenced by internal or external factors.
List the 7 main approaches to personality:
trait approaches
social cognitive
Who was a strong advocate of the "Dynamic Personality" theory?
Sigmund Frued.
______________ : all mental acivity and behavior is caused by previous events that continue to influence the present.
psychological determinism
________________: people are generally unaware of the prcesses and factors that motivate their behavior and mental activity.
unconscious motivation
the two major drives of the "dynamic personality" are:
In freud's dynamic personality, consciousness was divided into three layers. list them.
explain conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
conscious = thoughts,feelings, and motivations of which you are aware

preconscious = underlying thought processes that can easily be brough into the conscious but of which you are unaware of most the time

unconscious= driving forces of which you are unaware.
List Freuds three personality structures.
ID - the irrational, unconscious .. seeks to reduce stress and tension and seek pleasurable experiences at any cost.
Ego- the mediator of personality that copes rationally with reality. it lives by the reality principle .
Superego - the moral voice that is last to develop and gives a sense of right and wrong. developed from the voice of our parents and society.
Frued proposes that there are _____ psychosexual stages.

if a child does not fufill all these stages they will develop a fixation... which will result in __________ an abnormal pattern resulting from a conflict between the ego and the ________ and/or_______.
5....neurosis... ID and or Superego
Frued processed that people establish ____________ in response to frustrations, conflict etc. Used to protect themselves from unpleasant emotions (anxiety guilt)... he claims they were natural and only became a problem when overused.
Defense Mechanisms.
_________ rejected frued's exclusive emphasis on sexuality and aggression as the human motivator. He said that all humans inheirted a desire to seek higher religious fulfillment and connections to our common ancestry.
Carl Jung.
________ viewed people as motivated by purposes and goals. He argues that the primary motivator in life is not pleasure seeking as freud argues, rather the desire to from social relationships.
Alfred Adler.
________ argued that much of life is a struggle over our inferiority complex. To overcome this we strive to belong socially. This is the source of all motivation.
Alfred Adler.
_________ agreed w/Freud about the important role of childhood expression and disagreed with him about sexuality and agression.
Karen Horney
Karen Horney emphasized the importance of ________ factors in personality and the need for ______ as a prime motive in human existance.
Sociocultural; security.
Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Sigmund Freud, Karen Horney all took the ____________ approach to personality.
List some strengths of the psychodynamic perspective.
early experiences usually do play a role in shaping personality. (thus making sense to examine it developmentally)

we do often mentally transform our experiences to give them meaning- this shapes our personality.

most agree that at least some unconscious motives are behind some of our behaviors.

the inner world may conflict with the demands of reality

we do use defense mechanisms regularly

the proprietors of this theory point out that personality and adjustment are legitimate areas of scientific enquiry.
List some of the weaknesses of the psychodynamic approach.
can't test these theories empirically

very open ended definitions- allowing these to morph with time and common opinion.

may be too negative- pessimistic

much of the theories seem focused on analyzing disturbed adults, mostly women talking about their past.

may place too much emphasis on the unconscious process.
____________ thinks positively- focuses on the aspects of the individual. It stresses the capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose, and positive human qualites.
Humanistic Psychology.
In humanistic psychology the focus is on the _________ and the drive towards ____________ is the innate motivation to attain their highest emotional and intellectual potential.
individual; self-actualization
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are both associated with __________ psychology.
_________ is noted for his formulation of client-centered therapy... He believed that self-concept is central to personality development.
Carl Rogers.
Carl Rogers argued that _______ and ____________ can prevent humans from having positive self-concepts and reaching full potential.
Societal constraints and negative feedback.
According to Carl Rogers (Humanistic psychology)"The_____" emerges from individual experiences with the world tied to our overall percptions of our abilities, behaviors, and how we respond.
The Self.
according to Rogers, the _______ represents the person we wish we were.
Ideal Self.
According to Rogers, the driving force in_____________ is to actualize, maintain life, and enhance our life.
personality development.
____________ was a humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation based on a hierarchy of physical and emotional needs- lower level needs must be met before higher needs.
Abraham Maslow.
Abraham Maslow agreed that _______________ (development of ones full potential)is the highest form of motivation and is the most important motivator of personality- though it is difficult to reach.
self actualization.
List some strengths of humanistic psychology.
Many agree that how we percieve ourselves in our environment is a key element of personality.

humanistic theories appeal because of their emphasis on the uniquenss of each person and free will.
Humanistic psychology paved the way for a new psychology called ____________.
Positive Psychology.
List some weaknesses of humanistic philosophy.
Hard to test empirically.

many critics believe that humanistic theorists are too optimistic about human nature given the amount of violence and evil in the world.
Advocates of the __________ theories argue that personality is a set of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive tendencies that people display over time--- they help distinguish people from eachother.
True or False. Traits are not always a good indicator of in predicting behavior because the situation also effects behavior.
True or False. Traits are generally inconsisent in similar situations but consisent in different situations.
True or False. Some people argue that situations shape personalities/traits. (Its not just traits that effect how you respond to situations - situations actually shape your traits.)
The more narrowly a trait is defined the __________ (better or worse) it predicts a behavior, but the fewer situations there are to which it can be applied.
Though situations can shape traits- people also often have the ability to shape their _________. These choices are made according to their personality/traits.
_____________ will influence how people perceive, encode, remember, and respond in any situation.
Hans Eysenck and Gordon Allport were both advocates of the ____________ theory.
Trait theory of personality.
List Hans Eysenck's three central traits
______________: traits related to social deviance, criminality, and lack of coventional socialism
__________: trait related to anxiety, hostility, depression, impulsiveness, vulnerability.
____________: is related to warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness.
Gordon Allport discussed three types of traits:
Cardinal traits
Central traits
secondary traits
According to Allport _____________ traits are most influential and few posess them.
According to Allport, __________ are 6-12 main traits (of which we are usually influenced by 5-7 of).
Central Traits
According to Allport, _________ have limited influence.
Secondary Traits
_______________ some researchers have used the statistical technique of factor analysis to discover whether certain traits are associated and together constitute a more general trait called personality dimensions or superfactors.
Modern Trait Theories
___________, _________, and __________ are advocates of the big five or five factor model.
Goldberg, Digman, and Johnson.
Using factor analysis, researchers have identified 5 major personality traits. List them.
Agreeableness (trust, modesty, tenderness straightforwardness)
Conscientiousness (competence, order, dutifulness, achievment, self-discipline)
Openness (fanasty, aesthetics, feelings, ideas, values)
List some Pros of trait theory.
Most people use traits to describe people... so they have practical value (this only gives a partitial view of personality)
Environment/situations do play a huge part in our actions... traits aren't always consistent.
Some of the earliest personality theories go back to ___________ who argued that personality is determined by different "humors" in the body. If they were out of balance the person would develop different personalities.
Humors (4 = black bile, blood, phlegm, and yellow bile.)
The phrenologist who studied bumps on the head was ________. He argued that different patterns of bumps result in different personalities.
Franz Gall
__________ argued that body types determine personality.
William Sheldon.
According to Sheldon the Endomorphic body type (________) resulted in a ________________ individual.
results in sociable, agreeable, relaxed, even tempered individual.
According to Sheldon, the Mesomorphic body type (_________) results in a ______________ individual
results in a bold, competitive, energetic, domineering, agressive individual.
According to Sheldon, the Ectomorphic body type (_________) results in a _______________ individual.
results in an introverted, reflective, intellectual, self-conscious individual.
____________ proposed a classification system of personality dimensions rooted in biological mechanisms. It's called the alternate five.
List Zuckerman's alternate five.


Impulsive sensation seeking

Activity - need for high energy

Agression/hostility - tendency towards antisocial behavior.
__________ proposed two underlying biological systems that explain aspects of personality. (BAS and BIS)
Jeffrey Gray
BAS stands for _________ and is a mechanism based on activation or reward- similar to "Approach" strategies.
Biological Activation System.
(associated with extraversion)
BIS stands for ________ and is associated with withdrawal strategies. Associated with nueroticism. Whats it activated by?
Behavioral Inhibition System. It's activated by threats which cause anxiety and inhibit behavior.
who proposes that people differ on 4 basic personality dimensions?
List Cloninger's four differing personality dimensions.
a. reward dependence/independence
b. harm avoidance-non avoidance
c. novelty seeking - avoidance
d. persistence - vacillation
Cloninger proposes that each of his four differing personality dimensions correspond with some combination of the Big Five Superfactors and biological systems. Give two examples.
Novelty seeking is similar to sensation seeking, which corresponds to high scores on extroversion and low scores on conscientiousness.

Harm avoidance is related to neurotransmitter serotonin. (which also acts as a nueromodulator- controlling anxiety levels)
The _________ perspective of personality theory states that personality is an overt behavior that is determined by external environmental influences.
Behavioral perpective
the ____________ perspective of personality theory states that personality is shaped primarily by the way the person views the world.
Expectancies, locus of control, and self-efficacy are all concepts of the _________ perspective.
_________ is the extent to which one believes they are in control of their life. Internal = they are responsible for their fate
External= a greater being/destiny is in control.
Locus of Control
Social Cognitive perspective combines _________, _________, and _________ elements in the shaping of personality.
social, behavorial, cognitive
_________ is associated with social cognitive theory. Observational learning is key to how we learn we form ideas about other's behavior and possibly adopt that behavior.
Albert Bandura
True or False. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social Cognitive Perspectives are more concerned with enduring characteristics than with situations.
True or False. Behavioral Perspective has fostered a scientific climate for studying personality.
True or False. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social Cognitive perspective play down the role of biology in personality.
Personality differences between males and females (are or are not) very great.
are not.
True or False. The differences in personality within a sex are greater than from sex to sex.
__________ (women or men) score higher on social conectedness(value relations) and are more nurturing than ________ (women or men) who score higher on autonomy and individuality.
women. men.
________ (men or women) score lower on neuroticism.
________ (men or women)do better on assessing emotion in others.
________ (men or women) score lower on anger, aggression, and assertiveness.
to explain the difference between the sexes, the__________ proposes that boys and girls learn different skills and beliefs
social role theory
T or F. The Big Five personality factors have been found to be the same in many cultures- though not all.
Personality differences have been found between collectivist and individualist cultures. In collectivist cultures students are lower in __________ and higher in ___________________.
extroversion (excitment seeking, competence, and altruism

People from a (individualist/collectivist) society are more likely to have their mood effected by a situation