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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Personality
Unique pattern of consistent feelings/thoughts/behaviors
Idiographic Method
Focuses on understanding the unique aspects of each individual’s personality
Nomothetic Method
Focuses on variables at the group level, identifying universal trait dimensions or relationships between different aspects of personality
Temperament
Infant’s natural disposition
Conscious
Everything that we are aware of at a particular moment
Preconscious
Contains thoughts, memories, feelings, and images that we can easily recall
Unconscious
Wishes, impulses, memories, feelings
Id
Guided by the pleasure principle, driven by instincts, irrational, self-centered; unconscious
Ego
Mediates between instinctual needs and conditions of surrounding environment; unconscious and conscious
Superego
Punishes us by guilt, rewards with pride; conscience and ego-ideal
Defense Mechanisms
Measure taken to relieve anxiety/stress; unconsciously deny/distort reality
Repression
Pushing away of threatening thoughts/feelings
Regression
Retreat to an earlier level of development; immature behavior
Rationalization
Offering socially acceptable reasons for inappropriate behavior
Projection
Attributing our own undesirable thoughts, feelings, or actions to others
Displacement
Shifting unacceptable thoughts from a more threatening person to a less threatening person
Reaction Formation
Acting in a manner exactly opposite to our true feelings
Sublimination
Redirection of unacceptable sexual or aggressive impulses into more socially acceptable behaviors
Oral Stage
Stage 1 of psychosexual development; Infant gains pleasure from its mouth by sucking/biting/chewing
Anal Stage
Stage 2; Child obtains pleasure from defecation
Phallic Stage
Stage 3; Stimulation of the genitals becomes a source of pleasure
Latency Stage/Period
Transform repressed sexual energy into developing social relationships/learning
Genital Stage
Adolescent develops feelings for others/sexual attraction
Personal unconscious
Storehouse of all memories, hidden instincts, and urges unique to us
Collective Unconscious
Powerful and influential system of the psyche that contains universal memories/ideas inherited from ancestors
Archetypes
Common themes found in all cultures/religions/literature
Individuation
Psychological process by which a person becomes an individual
Self-Actualization
Reaching towards the best person we can be
Self
Organized, consistent set of beliefs an perceptions about ourselves
Unconditional positive regard
Born with need to be loved and accepted
Ideal Self
What we think society wants
Fully-Functioning
Self-actualization
Personal Constructs
Trying to make sense of the world
Reciprocal determinism
Characteristics of the person, person’s behavior, and environment all affect one another in two-way causal relationships
Self-Efficacy
Belief that we can perform behaviors necessary to accomplishing tasks
Individualism
Identifying ourself in terms of personal traits with independent, personal goals
Collectivism
Primary identification of an individual as a member of a group
Collective Efficacy
Belief that our group with achieve desired outcome
Locus of control
The degree of which we expect that a reinforcement or outcome of our behavior
Behavioral Signatures
Consistent ways of responding in similar situations that characterize our personality
Trait
Relatively permanent characteristic of our personality
Cardinal Trait
Defining Characteristic in a small number of us, that dominates and shapes all of our behavior Ex. Altruism
Central Trait
General characteristic, which shape much of our behavior. Ex. Cheerfulness
Factor Analysis
Statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of items
Extroversion
Measures our sociability and tendency to pay attention to the external environment
Neuroticism
Measures level of instability
Psychoticism
Measures our level of tough-mindedness
Face Traits
Visible areas of personality
Source Traits
Underlying personality characteristics
Halo-effect
Tendency to generalize a favorable impression to unrelated dimensions of the subjects personality
Hawthorn Effect
People change their behavior to what they think the observer expects
Projective Personality Tests
Subject will project their unconscious feelings onto the stimuli
Self-report methods
Subject will project their unconscious feelings onto the stimuli
Self-report methods
Having a subject answer questions about themselves
Self-Esteem
How we evaluate ourselves