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61 Cards in this Set

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(6) Methods of Transmission
1. Anal Sex
2. Vaginal Sex
3. Oral Sex
4. Sexual contact skin to skin
5. Blood
6. Breast Milk
(3) Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections
1. Chlamydia
2. Gonorrhea
3. Syphilis
CHLAMYDIA
Method of Transmission
1. Body Fluids via vaginal, anal, or oral
2. can be passed from infected mother to her baby at birth
CHLAMYDIA
Symptoms in Women


75% have no symptoms
1. abnormal vaginal discharge
2. burning with urination
3. pain with intercourse
4. vaginal bleeding between periods
5. painful inflammation of oviducts
CHLAMYDIA
Complications in Women
PID- pelvic inflammatory disease
CHLAMYDIA
PID
- occurs in up to 40% of untreated women
- may cause damage to fallopian tubes, uterus and surrounding tissues
- damage can lead to chronic pelvic pain, potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy, and infertility
CHLAMYDIA
Symptoms in Men


50% have no symptoms
1. burning sensation during urination
2. watery discharge from the penis
3. pain and swelling in testicles
CHLAMYDIA
Complications in Men
1. Urinary tract infections
2. Epididymitis (inflammation of the testicles)
3. Infertility (rarely)
CHLAMYDIA
Tests and Treatments
Women- vaginal swab
Men- urine test, urethral swab

treatment: antibiotics for cure
GONORRHEA
Methods of Transmission
1. Spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus
2. Ejaculation does not have to occur for transmission
GONORRHEA
Symptoms in Women
1. Most females are asymptomatic
2. They can be so non-specific as to be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection.
GONORRHEA
Complications in Women
PID
GONORRHEA
Symptoms in Men
1. Urethritis
2. Painful urination
3. Thick yellowish white or green discharge from the penis
4. Lips of the urethral opening may become inflamed and swollen
5. Lymph glands in the groin become enlarged and swollen
GONORRHEA
Complications in Men
1. Urethritis
2. Epididymitis (may lead to infertility if untreated)
GONORRHEA
Tests and Treatments
Samples of urine, cervical, urethral, throat or rectal fluids

Treatments: antibiotics
SYPHILIS
Cause
caused by bacteria known as treponema pallidum
SYPHILIS
Method of Transmission
Through direct contact with the syphilis sore
- anal or vaginal intercourse
- oral genital contact
- mother to child at birth
SYPHILIS
Primary Stage
- Chancre (firm, round, small and painless sore) appears w/in 10-90 days after exposure
- Chancres are highly contagious when present and can last 3-6 weeks. They heal without treatment.
- If the disease is not treated during this stage, the infection progresses to the secondary stage.
SYPHILIS
Secondary Stage
- Characterized by a skin rash and mucous membrane lesions
- Starts with the development of a rash on 1 or more areas of the body.
- Rashes can appear as the chancre is healing or several weeks after the chancre has healed.
- The signs and symptoms will resolve with or without treatment, but without treatment, the infection will progress to the latent and late stages of disease.
SYPHILIS
Tertiary or Latent Stage
- Begins when secondary symptoms disappear
- Usually begins from 6 months to 2 years after the initial infection
- Damage to the brain, nerves, eyes heart, blood vessels, liver, bones and joints
- Blindness
- Severe dementia
- Death
SYPHILIS
Test
- Observing material from chancre under a microscope
- Blood Test
SYPHILIS
Treatments
- A single intramuscular injection of penicillin, will cure a person who has had syphilis for less than a year.
- must abstain from sexual contact with new partners until the syphilis sores are completely healed.
Parasitic Sexually Transmitted Disease
Trichomoniasis
TRICHOMONIASIS
Causes
caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite
- vagina common site in women
- urethra common site of infection in men
TRICHOMONIASIS
Transmission
Penis-to-vagina contact
Vulva to Vulva
TRICHOMONIASIS
Symptoms in Women
- Frothy yellow-green foul smelling vaginal discharge
- Severe itching and irritation of the vagina and vulva
- Painful sexual intercourse
- Lower abdominal discomfort (rare)
- Discomfort during urination
- May be asymptomatic
- Symptoms will appear w/in 5-28 days of being infected
TRICHOMONIASIS
Symptoms in Men
- Discharge from urethra
- Irritation inside of penis (along urethra)
- Burning sensation during or after urination or ejaculation
TRICHOMONIASIS
Complications
- can increase a women’s susceptibility to HIV if she is exposed to the HIV virus
DEFINE STEM CELLS
a special protective mechanism that exists for certain cells
How does cancer arise?
From a single cell that is mutated or exposed to a carcinogen- cancer causing substance
Initiating Event
occurs as a result of an error in duplication or in response to a carcinogen
Oncogene
gene that drives a cell to grow and divide regardless of signals from surrounding cells
Tumor
mass of extra tissue; may be benign or malignant
Malignant Tumor
(neoplasm) cancerous, can invade surrounding tissue
Benign Tumor
mass of cells enclosed in a membrane that prevents their spreading to other tissues
Metastasis
the spreading of cancer cells, occurs because cancer cells do not stick to each other as strongly as normal cells; results in secondary tumor
Carcinomas
arise from the epithelial tissue, which includes the skin, the lining of the intestines and body cavities, the surface of body organs, and the outer portions of the glands.
Sarcomas
originate in connective and fibrous tissues; bone, tendon, muscle, cartilage, membranes covering muscle or fat tissues.
Lymphomas
originate in the lymph nodes or glands
Leukemias
cancers of the blood and originate in the bone marrow are lymphatic system
Classifying Cancers
graded on the basis of the degree to which the tumor cells resemble healthy cells of the same type under the microscope
Grade I
tumor cells are very similar to the healthy cells, the tumor cells are considered well differentiated and low grade
Grade IV
tumor cells are very different from healthy cells, the tumor cells are considered poorly differentiated and high grade
Classifying Cancers in Systems
System 1
Five Categories (Stage 0, Stage I, Stage II, Stage III and Stage IV.
1st System
Categories
Stage 0- “cancer in sutu”
Stage 1- generally small and localized to the original site
Stage II and III- locally advanced and may or may not involve local lymph nodes
Stage IV- metastasized to distant sites
2nd System
TNM
Tumors, nodes and metastasis are rated based on size and extent of spread
Tumor size rated 0-4
Nodes rated 0-3
Metastasis rated 0 or 1, present or not
4 most common cancers
lung, colon, breast, and prostate- account for nearly 50% of cancer deaths
Risk factors for Lung Cancer
- use of smoking tobacco products
-exposure to
carcinogenic chemicals
arsenic
radon
asbestos
air pollution
Signs and Symptoms of Lung Cancer
coughin
blood streaked sputum
chest pain
difficulty breathing
recurrent lung infections
Treatment of Lung Cancer
small tumors- surgery
more advanced- combo of radiation and chemotherapy
Survival Rates of Cancers
Lung Cancer
1 year- 42% 5 year- 15%
Breast Cancer
5 year- 86.6%
Prostate Cancer
5 yr- 98%, 10 yr- 84%, 15 yr-56%
Colorectal Cancer (Colon or Rectum) Risk Factors
Age, Heredity (genetics), Lifestyle (diet), smoking, alcohol use, obesity, physical inactivity
Polyps
small growths on the wall of the colon that may gradually develop into malignancies
Colorectal Cancer Warning Signs
change in bowel movements, change in stool size or shape, pain in abdomen, blood in stool
Breast Cancer Risk Factors
Controllable
- never having children
- having 1st child after 30
- obesity after menopause
- hormone replacement therapy
- drinking 2 or more beverages/day
Breast Cancer Risk Factors
Noncontrollable
- early menstruation
- late menopause
- family history in 1st degree relative
- older age
- genes BRCA1 and BRCA2
Breast Cancer Screening Options
1. Mammography
2. Clinical Breast Exam
3. Breast Self Exam (BSE)
Prostate Cancer
Risk Factors
65 years or older
family history
being african american
high fat diet
Cervical Cancer
Risk Factors
- early sexual activity
- multiple sex partners
- cigarette smoking
- low socioeconomic status
Other name for uterine cancer
endometrial cancer
Ovarian Cancer similarity to breast cancer
genes present- BRCA1 and BRCA2