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84 Cards in this Set

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The majority that ministers do is typically less than
10 sessions – typically 2-3 sessions.
Milton Erickson points out that most individuals are not seeking what?
enlightenment about the past but are seeking help with their dissatisfaction of the present and a desire for a better future.
What does Stone propose about longterm and short term counseling?
most people do not require long-term methods and that short-term methods will be equally effective
Must one get to the “root” of the problem to help someone?
Two things work against this assumption.
Exploration of a person’s history is not a condition for positive change.
Even profound insight frequently proves insufficient.
What do some people believe about finding the source of the problem? What does research indicate about this?
change accomplished without finding the source of the problem will be short lived.
Research indicates this kind of thinking is not validated.
When does the majority of change happen in counseling?
in the first few sessions
what are some reasons for choosing short term counseling?
Most people only come for a few sessions regardless of their initial commitment.
Efficiency is another reason for using short term methods.
These methods are better adapted for other responsibilities a minister has.
What sets the immediate context for responding to others?
time factor
The Time Factor.
To a significant degree, timing sets the immediate context for responding to others.
Time is important to both the helper and the person seeking help.
Time needs to be organized to be used as efficiently as possible.
Limiting the number of sessions is referred to as time-limited counseling.
A good reason for limiting sessions is to
encourage persons to focus on counseling during the sessions.
What does E.L. Philips say about time?
“Whenever something appears to be open ended as to time, it tends to lull us into inactivity, encourage postponement, wastefulness”
How does talking relate to problem solving?
Talking will not solve problems, it will only open the door to solve problems. It is information that will help you know some key issues, develop a plan, and take some concrete actions.
Why is it important to have a plan when solving problems?
- you can jump in and tell someone what to do without a plan and then you will end up going around in circles.
The helping process must be geared to what?
focus on key issues, develop a plan for change, and help counselees take concrete actions.
The helping process uses what?
the least extreme method, the least invasive, simplest approach in any situation.
The goal of brief counseling is not what?
to solve all of an individual’s or family’s problems.
The short term approach assumes what?
a ripple effect – change in one area will generalize and spread to other areas.
what can a small number of sessions hinder?
the formation of dependence.
Establish an Empathetic Relationship:
- Establish a solid base of rapport and acceptance with the troubled individual.
- Listen carefully, temporarily suspending judgment, offer appropriate warmth and respect.
- Most troubled people do not take helpers seriously unless they
what are some important elements of resolving the problem?
- Establish an epithetic relationship
- focus on the problem
- assess the problem
- look for exceptions
- establish limited goals
Focus on the problem:
First, identify the central problem.
The more concrete and specific the problem, the more readily solutions will be available.
The dominant concern is not basic personality change, but the management of specific problems.
Assess the problem:
- Assessment does not require all the facts before one can begin managing the problem.
- The focus is looking for cues (stimuli) that trigger the onset of the problem and the reinforcers (rewards) that maintain it.
- Extensively exploring a person’s history or discerning underlying causes is not necessary nor does the counselee need insight to act.

- Another phase of assessing the problem is to see how serious the person is about working to bring about change.
Check on what previous attempts at change have tried
Look for exceptions.
Do not just look at times when the problem is happening but at times when the problem is not happening.
Find out what is different during the times when the problem is not happening and use that to build strengths for change.
This approach does not suggest something new, it suggests using things already being used.
Establish limited goals.
Determine what the future will look like when the complaint is solved.
Define and work toward the goal, determining how they will get there.
There should be a clear description of the desired change or solution.
Critical to success is to not cover too much ground or try to change too quickly (limit goals).
Two methods to form a vision of the future:
Tell me how you want your life to be different months from now.
“The magic question” – If you woke up tomorrow and your problem was magically gone, how would you know it? How would your family and friends know and say how you had changed?
Married couples tend to describe their spouses in terms of their
behavioral flaws
Some individuals think of the problem only as
residing in someone or something outside of them.
What is an objective in resolving the problem
- is to change their view of themselves and their thinking about to problem so they begin to see that they have some part in the solution.
- Help the individuals choose one or two target goals and do not let other things that come up in the discussion bog down progress.
No matter how complex a problem is, often what is needed to begin resolution of a problem is what?
one small change
Developing the plan is primarily the responsibility of what?
the helper
Two things important to the success of the plan:
- Individuals must comprehend the specific steps needed to address their difficulties.
- The steps taken must be achievable in a short period of time.
the helper needs to remain proactive by doing what?
selecting the specific change procedures to be used
how do you assign doable homework tasks?
by addressing and acting on the specific issue in real life throuhgh the use of outside of session tasks
you should build couselee's strenghts by showing them hospitality (true or false)
True
people often ignore their own strenghts and resources (T/F)
True
the purpose of counseling is not to
resolve all the problems but to make an initial break-through
an intiatial breakthrough helps counselees...
aquire some basic skills they'll need for continued development & growth after counseling has ended
You needs to let individuals know they can return for help whenever new or recurring issues emerge (T/F)
True
what are the 9 diff homework tasks?
Select directly related tasks.
Develop appropriate level tasks.
Assign tasks of increasing difficulty.
Negotiate homework options rather than simply prescribing them.
The importance of the task needs to be understood by the person doing them. Give recognition for accomplished tasks.
Remove confusion about the task by giving specific details.
Make sure the person is committed to the task.
Make sure the person learns what they are supposed to learn.
10 types of homework
Assessment of the problems that are in the relationship.
Recognize and record specific behavior.
Keep a journal.
Reading books or articles.
Note and record exceptions – what you do to avoid a specific problems.
Assign new experiences -- something different.
Assign interpersonal tasks – write a letter.
Self-improvement tasks – exercise program, relaxation exercises.
Paradoxical tasks – telling people to do what the therapists doesn’t want them to do it – the therapist wants them to change by rebelling.
If people are going to resist, encourage them to exist.
(ex: tell an insomniac to stay awake, give a nervous person permission to be nervous)
the final goal of all helping is to get an
action that brings about problem management
action needs to be directed toward what?
specific identifiable problems in their daily lives
the five tasks of problem management is G.R.A.C.E. grace=
Goals, Resources, Alternatives, Commitment to action, Evaluation
Paradoxical tasks is
telling people to do what the therapists doesn’t want them to do it – the therapist wants them to change by rebelling
Paradoxical Strategies in addressing Marital Distress is (2)
Reframing & Prescription
Reframing (4)-
accepting the counselee’s problems at face value
not trying to argue them out of their “frame”
focuses on how people think about events.
Offers a different interpretation of experiences
prescription-
directing a person to do certain things, much as a physician prescribes medicine, can be a very helpful thing.
Symptom prescription is
prescribing things that are being done – prescribing fighting if a person fights but changing how the problem is practiced
Paradoxical intervention = Symptom modification
makes the symptom a duty that is no longer forbidden and will often loose its appeal
Paradoxical intervention = Confusion
Prefacing a crucial counseling intervention with deliberately confusing words. Clients will often try to correct.
Paradoxical intervention = Convince me you should change
convinces the person to convince the helper about their motivations rather than vice versa.
paradoxical interventions = Dereflection
thoughts and activities that are explored and experiments conducted until productive ones are discovered (a cold shower).
paradoxical interventions = Benevolent sabotage
an acknowledgment of what is expected but followed by a frank acknowledgment that one is not is a position to do anything if compliance is not given.
paradoxical interventions = Relabeling
describes a negative characteristic in a more positive light with a new and more realistic way.
What should the preacher consider beofre getting invovled? (4)
The person – we all have different talents.
The situation – The “country preacher” because of his situation, may not have many counseling opportunities.
The agreement w/the elders.
The opportunities.
Questions one should ask before getting involved: (8)
Why do I want to counsel?
Do I have the ability to counsel effectively?
What is my role as a counselor?
Do I understand my own vulnerability?
Do I understand my own sexuality especially when counseling the opposite sex?
What kind of person do I need to be?
What must I do to help others know, say, be, do?
Do I have someone to talk to?
COUNSELOR CHARACTERISTICS
Awareness of self and one’s values
Awareness of cultural experiences
Ability to “analyze” one’s feelings
Ability to serve as a model
Strong ethical stance
Honest, genuine, and sincere
Ability to confront with love
Caring, warm, empathic
Open, tolerant, accepting
Competent in field
Believe clients are unique and have value
Believe clients can change
Good common sense
Willingness to become involved
Ability to appropriately self-disclose
Ability to protect self
Ability to love
the most important skill in counseling is
listeening
listening is NOT
Passive
Thinking ahead to plan the perfect reply
Talking
Waiting while you discover the right solution
Conquering the other person
listening IS
Caring enough to give your very best (yourself)
Giving the other person your full attention
Taking him or her seriously
Hearing feelings as well as facts
Letting that person lead the conversation (one of the hardest things to learn)
Be willing to follow
*COUNSELING SKILLS* (10)
Listening
Rapport building
Information gathering
Structuring
Reflecting
Leading – exploration
Confrontation – challenging
Interpretation
Self-disclosure
Summarizing
CLIENTS ARE PEOPLE WHO ARE IN THE IMAGE OF GOD WHO HAVE POTENTIAL FOR GROWTH TOWARD WHOLENESS
(t/f)
true
BLOCKED GROWTH WILL CAUSE
PEOPLE TO BE UNABLE TO RELATE IN WAYS THAT SATISFY THEIR NEEDS REQUIRED FOR HEALTHY PERSONALITY GROWTH
3 DIFFERENT FACTORS CAN CONSTRICT GROWTH TOWARD WHOLENESS (Clinebell)
Lack of adequate supply of mature love in early life.
A traumatic crisis or series of crises
Paralysis caused by inner conflicts
4 DIFFERENT FACTORS CAN CONSTRICT GROWTH TOWARD WHOLENESS (Clinebell)
Debilitating anxieties.
Accumulated consequences of irresponsible living.
Toxic marriage or other close relationships.
Societal and institutional growth oppression and injustice.
* THREE THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT CLIENTS*
EITHER:
Fixed on the past.
Obsessed with the present.
Or, anxious about the future.
* RELUCTANT CLIENTS *
FEATURES:
Someone else is responsible for their being in counseling.
May feel rejected or rebellious.
* RELUCTANT CLIENTS *
COUNSELOR RESPONSE:
What is he/she trying to do to me?
What am I doing in return?
Am I really interested?
Should we make agreement to do counseling?
* RESISTANT CLIENTS *
FEATURES:
Don’t want changes to occur.
Treat you like someone else (transference).
Can be short and sharp with you.
Silent, closed, rarely add to or start a conversation.
Will laugh or make a joke.
Talk too much.
Intellectualize.
Generalize.
* MOTIVATION FOR RESISTING: *
SECONDARY GAIN – MARTYR COMPLEX
* COUNSELOR RESPONSE: *
Reflect what client is doing.
Confront.
Understand reason for the resistance. Their behavior is a way of coping. What is it doing for the client?
Refer cases you can’t handle.
VALUE IN HOMEWORK for counseling
IT IS NOT DESIGNED TO BE BUSY WORK.
Homework is a way of extending the session; client does the homework, apart form the session; the client should bring the results to the next session; it gives client practice in doing things on their own.
types of homework:
Prayer and meditation.
Testing.
Reading (Bible study).
Relaxation tapes – for people under extreme stress.
* STEPS IN THE COUNSELING PROCESS *
BUILDING A RELATIONSHIP – this is the foundation of counseling
EXPLORING THE PROBLEMS – counseling is more than just problem solving
DECIDE ON A COURSE OF ACTION – the greatest problem the client has is the inability to take some action
STIMULATE THEM TO TAKE ACTION – the client usually can not get started on their own.
TERMINATING THE RELATIONSHIP – you do not want the client to grow dependent on you.
105
105
The perspective of brief pastoral counseling
establish a brief counseling orientation
establish an empathetic relationship
focus on the problem
assess the problem
look for exceptions
the use of homework tasks
select directly related tasks
develop appropriate level tasks
assign a series of graded tasks
plan mutually developed tasks
convey the importance of homework tasks
what listening is/isnt
a:
-individual counseling shud look 4 exceptions: means
a:
resistant/reluctant clients (features & differances)
a:
2 things that work against th assumption that getting to the root of the problem is th best/only means of releiving it
a:
3 reasons short term counseling is the best
a:
peridoxical means-
a:
steps in the counseling process
BEDST