Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/77

Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mastication
chewing
deglutition
swallowing
salivary
pertaining to saliva
sublingual
under the tongue
pylorus
bottom portion of stomach
gastric
pertainign to the stomach
colon ca
colonoscopy to remove CA
bowel resection to remove CA
neoplasms
cancer
any esopageal disorder can cause it
appendicitis
inflammation of appendix if untreated can rupture
S\SX rebound pain, right lower quardant pain nausea and vomiting high WBC
obstruction
bowels not moving
listen to bowel sounds
hyperactive rt lower quadrant
* when the colon stops working it starts to die
irritable bowel syndrome
spastic colon
cause overuse of laxatives psych stress
tx psych support high fiber diet
diverticula
out pouching of intestines becareful with food eaten
high fiber diet
divericulitis
inflammation of intesonal outpouching
acute abdominal pain
can blled out very fast
result of diverticula
colon polyps
tumor like nodul in colon
pre cancerous
do polypectomy
inflamitroy bowel disease
ulcerative colitis or crohns
inflammation and ulceration of mucus membrane of the colon
chronic and reocurring
peritoneum
serous membrane that lines walls of body cavities and enclosing viscera
peritoneal cavity
the peritoneal space between the partietal and visceral layers of peritoneum
esophageal varices
crack in esophagus goes hand in hand with alcohol
Hemorrhoids
swollen blood vessle of anus or rectum
cause-straingin, pregnancy, aging, hereditery, anal sex
s/sx brightened blood after wiping
tx tucks pads, ice packs
pancreatitis
inflammation of pancreas
cause-back flush of enzymes if duct funtion property 90% caused by alcohol
S/SX abdominal pain in midgastric area. radiates to back
tx strict GI rest, upper serum amalyze Ng tube, low suction
alimentary
gastrointestinal
mesentery
folds of the peritoneum that provide support and protection to the intestines
omentum
a fold of peritoneum extending from the stomach to adjacent abdominal
buccal
cheek or mouth
sphincter
circular band of muscle fibers that closes a passage or natural opening to the body
villi
finger-like projections in the sm intestine that provide absorption area for nutrients to enter the blood stream
bile
fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that aids in fat digestion
rugae
folds of the stomach when its empty
(allows the stomach to expand when food is eaten
bilirubin
orange yellow pigment of bile, formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin in RBC after termination of their normal life span
stomach secretes ____ ml per day
1500-3000ml
stomach functions
recieving food
mixing food with gastric juices
initiates digestion of proteins into amino acids
digestion of straches
moves food into sm intestine
small intestine cont
where most absorption takes place (nutrients and elements)
recieves disestive enzymes
from liver and pancreas
finalizes digestion into chyme
biliary tract
liver
makes glycogen
stores vit a b12 d glycagin, iron removes damaged RBC and foregin substances
secretes bile, fibrogen, prothrombin
secretes albumin it stabilizes blood pressure breaks down fat and protein
hepatic potral circulation
recieve blood from pancreas, stomach, sm and lg intestine, circular up from liver for detox
gallbladder
stores bile
bile goes down common bile duct to sm intestine to digest fat pear shaped sac
pancreas
indocrin and exocrin function
secretes to down pancriatic duct acinar cells make up pancreas
secrete
1. amalase
2. trypsin
3. lipase
amalase
digest strach
trypin
digest protein
lipase
digest fat
lab tests
hemocult
stool samples
blood tests LFT
X-Rays
npo
flat plate
barium swallow
barium enema
ct/mri
endoscopy
sigmoidoscopy
colonoscopy
upper endoscopy
ERCP
liver biopsy
paracentesis
ERCP
endoscopic
retrograde
cholangio
pancreatography
stomach

ulcer
cause- h pylorie
s/sx pain nausea vomiting black tar poop coffee grounds emesis
TX upper endoscopy or upper GI series
esophageal

dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
Achalasia
narrowing or stricture in cardiac sphincter
open the narrowing surgically
risk aspiration, malnourishment
esophagitis
can be caused by GERD inflammation of esophagus
GERD
gastric esophageal reflux disease
"heartburn"
s/sx burning, pain
tx releved with antacids
hiatal hernia
allows the stomach to come up thru the cardiac spincter cause obesity, pregnancy, prolonged pressure
S/SX similar to GERD
DX barruim swallow
TX smae as GERD or surgery
zenkers diverticulum
out pouching in esophagus
can be caused by alcholo
s/sx bad breath, belching, regergitation
tx HOB 90 degrees
barium swallow
gastritis
acute inflammation
s/sx nausea and voitming, malasie, pain
cause-bad alcholo, diff meds
tx general GI assessment
lauage
leaving the body
gauage
going into the body
overuse of laxatives
change in bowel lining from rough rigged to smooth shining
gastric CA
cause chronic gastritis
tx gasterctomy
stomach ca= poor prognosis
dumoing syndrome
resection GI, missing all or some of the stomach
bolus of food drops straight down into small intestine
GI bleed
caused by trauma
growth that weakins wall of GI tract
S/SX black tary stool
hemocult in bm
shock
tx med intervention
enyyme
protein produced in a cell that activates or speeds up chemical reaction
what are the four main layers of the GI tract?
1. mucosa
2. submucosa
3. muscularis
4. serosa
what is mucosa?
mucos membrane layer
what is submucosa?
layer of connective tissue below mucosa contains nerves and blood vessels
what is muscularis?
muscular portion porvides parastlysis
what is serosa?
membrane that covers the outside of the peritanium
what are the functions of the GI system?
1.food processing and storage
2. secretion
3. absorption
4. reabsorption and elimination
mouth and salivary glands
normal Ph
Ph 6-7
tongue taste buds
salt, bitter, sour, sweet
sences temp
voluntary movement of food
pharynx
secrets salivary
esophagus
gullet 10 inch tube posterior to trach
has four layers that cause parastalsis
stomach
cardiac sphincter
reflux barrier, vent for upper gastric pressure muscular, collapsable pouch
small intestine
dudoenum 8-10 inches
jujunum 8 feet
ileum 11 feet
large intestine
aka bowel or colon
cecum, appendix, ascending, transverse, decesnding, sigmoid, rectum and anus manufactures vitamins reabsorption of electroyltes
accessory organs
1. liver
2. gallbladder
3. pancreas
pyloric sphincter
connects stomah to sm intestine
rugae, chyme
pepsinogen
secreated by pepscin cells
convertered to pepsinenzyme pepsin enzyme breaks down proteins moast active factor in digestion
gastric lipase
enzyme that breaks down fat in the stomach
HCL
hydorchloric acid
secreated by pariteal cells
activates pesingin into pepscin
kills invading most invading organisms
intrinsic factor
obsorption of b12