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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
1. Somatic motor
2.Autonomic
-Parasympathetic
-sympathetic
parasympathetic nervous system
Rest and Digest
-heart rate
-gastric secretions
-bladder and bowel
-vision
-bronchial smooth muscle
sympathetic nervous system
-regulation of cardiovascular system
-regulation of body temp
-fight or flight response
transmitters
-transmit impulses
-stimulate release of epinephrine and norepinephrine
-activate receptors
receptors
when activated cause a specific effect on an organ
-Vasodialation
-Relaxation
transmitters of the pns
-Aceytlcholine
-Norepinephrine
-epinephrine
-dopamine
receptors of the pns
-cholinergic
-adrenergic
cholergenic
-mediated by aceylcholine (ACh)
adrenergic
-mediated by norepinephrine and epinephrine
cholinergic receptors
-Nicotinic n
-Nicotinic m
-Muscarinic
Adrenergic receptors
-Alpha 1 and Alpha 2
-Beta 1 and Beta 2
-Dopamine
Nicotinic n (neuronal)
Class: Cholinergic Receptor

Function:
-promotes ganglia transmission
-promotes release of epinephrine
Nicotonic m (muscle)
Class: Cholinergic Receptor

Function: Contraction of skeletal muscles
Muscarinic
Class: cholinergic receptor

Function: Activates parasympathetic nervous system
alpha 1
Class: Adrenergic Receptor

Function:
-Vasoconstriction
-Ejaculation
-Contraction of bladder neck and prostate
alpha 2
Class: Adrenergic Receptor

Function:
-Located int eh presynaptic junction
-minimal clincal significance
beta 2
Class: Adrenergic receptor

Function:
-Bronchial dilation
-relaxation of uterine muscles
-vasodilation
-glycogenolysis
dopamine
class: Adrenergic receptor

Function:
-Dilates renal blood vessels
alpha agonists
stimulate alpha receptors
alpha blockers
block alpha receptors
beta agonist
stimulate beta receptors
beta blockers
block beta receptors
Drugs that MIMIC pns
-parasympathomimetics
-cholinergic drugs
-cholinergic agonists
-muscarinic drugs
Drugs thatBLOCK pns
-parasympatholytic drugs
-anticholinergics
-cholinergic antagonists
-antimuscarinics
Drugs that MIMIC sympathetic nervous system
-sympathoimetic
-adrenergics
-adrenergic agonists
effects of SNS
-BP increase
-Pulse increse
-pupils dialate
-secretions decrease
effects of PNS
-BP decrease
-pulse decrease
-pupils constrict
-secretions increase
muscarinic poisoning
-Source: ingestion of mushrooms
-Overdose
treatment for muscarinic poisoning
muscarinic blocking agents-atropine
pilocarpine
-Class: muscarinic agonists
-Prototype Drug? yes

Effects:
-constricts pupils and cillary muscle improving aqueous humor drainage (decrease ocular pressure)

Nursing Considerations:
-teach proper eye drop admin
-begin med in PM
-report any eye pain
-avoid OTC drugs
-report respitory problems

Other uses: for xerostomatitis

Contradictions:
-Asthma
-peptic ulcer disease(PUD)

Side Effects:
-CV symptoms: dizzy,flushing,diaphoresis,reflex tachycardia,risk of A fib
-Bronchospasm
-increased lacrimation
-decrease vision
bethanacol
Class: muscarinic agonist
Prototype drug? yes

Uses:
-acute urinary retention
-GERD
-Ileus
-postoperative abdominal distention
Administration: PO or SC
CAUTION: do not give IM or IV or with mechanical GI obstruction or after GI surgery
Nursing Considerations:
-atropine on standby
-assess bowel sounds and skin flushing
-may catheretize in 30min if no response
muscarinic antagonists
drugs that block the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors
atropine
Actions:
-increases heart rate
-decreases secretions
-relaxes bronchial muscle
-decreases bladder tone
-decreases GI tone and motility
-dilates the pupil
-CNS excitation

Uses:
-Pre-anesthestic
-Disorders of the eye
-bradycardia
-intestinal hypertoxicity and hypermotility
-muscarinic agonist poisoning
-asthma
-biliary colic
-peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

Adverse effects:
-dry mouth (xerostomia)
-blurred vision
-photophobia
-increaes intraocular pressure
-urinary retention
-constipation
-tachycardia
-anhydrosis (lack of sweating)
-asthma
antimuscarinic/Anticholinergics
Uses:
-symptomatic bradycardia
-eye exams
-bladder spasms
-urinary frequency or incontinence
-rhinorrhea
-mushroom poisoning
antimuscarinic/anticholinergic drugs
Uses:
-Symptomatic bradycardia
-eye exams
-bladder spasms
-urinary frequency or incontinence
-rhinorrhea
-mushroom poisoning
*w/ anesthesia
-decrease bronchia secretions
-prevent bradycardia
-prevent side effects of AChEt

Side Effects:
-dilation of pupils (photophobia)
-absolute contraindication: Glaucoma(increased intraocular pressure)
-slows GI tract motility:constipation
-urinary retention
-respiratory distress:thickened secretions
-speeds heart rate
-xerostomia
examples of antimuscarinic drugs
-Scpolamine
-Ipatoprium bromide
-dicyclomine
--trihexyphenidyle (Artane)
-Benztropine (cogentin)
*last two in Parkinson's disease
antimuscarinic poisoning

cause?
caused because epinepherine predominates
sources of antimuscarinic poisoning
-Atropa belladonna
-datura stramonium
-antihistamines
-phenothiazines
-tricyclic antidepressants
-atropine
-scopolamine
symptoms of antimuscarinic poisoning
direct result of excessive muscarinic blackade
-dry mouth
-blurred vision
-phtophobia
-hypethermia
-CNS effects(delerium)
-flushing
-respiratory depression causing death
treatment of antimuscarinic poisoning
1. Minimize intestinal absorbtion
-syrup of ipecac
-activated charcoal
2.Administer the antidote
-Phystigmine (neostigmine) (AChel)
-This will compete with the antimuscarnic agent for receptor binding, there byreversing excessive muscarinic blockade
cholinesterase inhibitors
-drugs that prevent the degradation of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase
effects of cholinesterase inhibitors
-effects muscarinic and nicotinic receptors
-same as parasympathomimetic drugs
---excessive slaivation,sweating,urinary urgency,diarrhea