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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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exertoceptors
sensory end organ that responds to stimuli from the external world
interoceptors
nerve ending situated in a visceral organ: responds to changes and stimuli within the the body's internal environment
proprioceptors
senses movement in the musculoskeletal system; more specifically they sense stretching in muscles, tendons and joint capsules
classification of sensory receptors based on location
1) exertoceptors
2) interoceptors
3) proprioceptors
classification of sensory receptors by stimuli detected
1) mechanoreceptors
2) thermoreceptors
3) photoreceptors
4) nociceptors
mechanoreceptors
receptor sensitive to mechanical forces such as touch, stretch, pressure or vibration
thermoreceptors
receptor sensitive to temperature change
photoreceptors
specialized receptor cells that respond to light energy
nociceptors
respond to harmful stimuli that result in pain
sensory and motor outputs in the PNS are classified as ...
somatic (outer tube) or visceral (visceral organs or inner tube)
sensory inputs of the PNS are classified by
general (widespread)
specialized (localized, ie special senses)
structures of the PNS
1) sensory receptors
2) nerves and ganglia
3) motor endings
sensory receptors
pick up stimuli from inside and outside the body and initiate impulses in sensory axons, carry it to the CNS
nerves and ganglia
nerves: bundles of peripheral axons
ganglia: clusters of peripheral cell bodies
most are mixed nerves
motor endings
axon terminals of motor neurons that innervate the effector organs, muscles and glands
peripheral sensory receptors
structures that pick up sensory stimuli and then initiate signals in the sensory axons
classification of sensory receptors based on structure
general sensory receptors
free nerve endings
encapsulated nerve endings
free nerve endings of sensory fibers
prominent in the epithelia, monitor pain and temperature
light touch (merckel discs)
merckel disc
tactile epithelial cell
slow adapting receptor for light touch
encapsulated nerve endings
consist of one or more end fibers of sensory neurons enclosed in a capsule of connective tissue
main types of encapsulated nerve endings are
1) tactile (Meissner's Corpuscle)
2) lamellar ( pacinian corpuslce)
3) ruffini's corpuslces
Meissner's Corpuscles (tactile)
a few spiral nerve endings are surrounded by schwann cells

light tough, found in dermal papillae , palms, fingertips lips
Pacinian Corpuslce (lamellar)
scattered throughout the deep connective tissue of the body

monitor vibration, adaptive, sense mechanical pressure
Ruffini's Corpuscle
located in the dermis
nerve endings enclosed in a thin flattened capsule

respond to pressure and touch, not very adaptive
monitor continuous pressure placed on the skin
proprioception
virtually all proprioceptors are encapsulated nerve endings and include: tendon organs and joint kinesthetic
Tendon Organ
(golgi tendon organ)
located near the muscle-tendon junction, monitor tension within the tendons
"knee jerk reflex"
joint kinesthetic
monitor stretch in synovial joints
within each joint capsule, 4 types of joint kinesthetic are present
1) Pancinian Corpuslces
2) Ruffini Endings
3) Free Nerve endings
4) tendon organs
motor end plate
similar to a synapse
point where the nerve ending and the fiber meet
Cranial Nerves
12 pairs
2 attach to the forebrain
10 attach to the brainstem
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory
sensory nerves of smell
(cribiform plate of the ethmoid)
Cranial Nerve II
Optic
sensory nerve of vision
(optic foramen)
Cranial Nerve III
Oculomotor
motor nerve runs the eye muscles
(superior orbital fissure)
Cranial Nerve IV
Trochlear
motore nerve that runs superior oblique eye muscle
(superior orbital fissure)
Cranial Nerve V
Trigeminal
means 3 fold, refers to the 3 branches
ophthalmic, Maxillary, Mandibular

sensory innervation of the face and motor innervation of the chewing muscles
(superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale)

location: nuclei of pons
Cranial Nerve VI
Abducens
motor nerve runs lateral rectus eye muscle
location: Pons
(superior orbital fissure)
Cranial Nerve VII
Facial
mixed sensory, innervates the muscles of facial expression as well as other structures, PONS
(internal accoustic canal to stylomastoid foramen)
Cranial Nerve VIII
Vestibulcochlear
sensory nerve of hearing and equilibrium (PONS and medulla oblongata)
( internal acoustic foramen)
Cranial Nerve IX
Glossopharyngeal
means tongue and pharanyx
mixed sensory and swallowing
(jugular foramen)
Cranial Nerve X
Vagus
mixed, very important to the ANS, wanders beyond the head into thorax and abdomen
(jugular foramen)

Location: Medulla
Cranial Nerve XI
Accessory
motor, swallowing, innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoiod
(jugular foramen)
location: Medulla
Cranial Nerve XII
Hypogloassal
motor, innervates the tongue
(hypoglossal canal
mesencephalon
midbrain
spinal nerves
31 pairs, attach to the spinal cord, named for their point of issue from the vertebral column
roots
lie medial to the spinal nerves and are strictly sensory (dorsal root) OR strictly motor (ventral root)
rami
lateral branches of the spinal nerves containing both sensory and motor fibers
phrenic nerve
innervates the diaphragm
part of the cervical plexus
musculocutaneous nerve
innervates the biceps brachi and brachialis muscles

part of the brachial plexus
median nerve
innervates lateral flexors, (anterior forearm and lateral palm)

part of brachial plexus
ulnar nerve
innervates medial flexors

part of brachial plexus
radial nerve
innervates forearm extensors
largest branch of the brachial plexus
femoral nerve
largest terminal branch
innervates muscles of the anterior thigh compartment
lumbosacral trunk
nervous tissue that connects the lumbar plexus with the sacral plexus.
obturator nerve
innervates the adductor muscle groups and skin of the supermedial thigh
sciatic nerve
thickest and longest nerve in the body
composed of 2 nerves: tibial and common fibular
innervates the hamstrings
shingles
viral infection of the sensory nerves innervating the skin
initial infection: chicken pox
in dorsal root ganglia and cranial nerves