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29 Cards in this Set

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What is Atomic Radii?
The distance from the center of an atom's nucleus to its outermost electron (how big the atom is)
What is Ionic Radii?
The distance form the center of an ion's nucleus to its outermost electron (how big the ion is)
What is an Ion?
Contains a negative or positive charge.
What is Ionization Energy?
How much energy is needed to lose an electron, how tightly an atom is holding onto electrons.
What is Electron Affinity?
The energy needed to gain an electron.
What is Electron affinity related to?
The number of electrons an atom needs to fill its outer energy level.
What do atoms with higher electron affinity have?
The ability (need) to gain electrons to fill the outer energy level.
What do atoms that lose electrons have?
They have one complete outer shell remaining and a lower electron affinity.
What is Electronegativity?
The ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond.
Why does atomic radius INCREASE as you move DOWN the periodic table?
Atomic radii increase as you move down the periodic table because the number of energy levels increases.
Why does atomic radius DECREASE as you move ACROSS the periodic table?
Increased number of protons-->the greater the number of protons, the stronger the attractive force from the nucleus. Valence electrons are pulled by this towards the nucleus, making the atom smaller.
Why does ionic radius INCREASE as you move DOWN the periodic table?
The number of energy levels increases as you move down the table.
Why does ionic radius DECREASE as you move ACROSS the periodic table?
Increased number of protons-->the greater the number of protons, the stronger the attractive force from the nucleus. Valence electrons are pulled by this towards the nucleus, making the atom smaller.
What is a Cation?
When an atom LOSES an electron.
What is an Anion?
When an atom GAINS an electron.
What happens when an atom LOSES an electron?
The ion SHRINKS (there is less repulsion between electrons which would cause them to spread apart)
What happens when an atom GAINS an electron?
The ion EXPANDS (there is more repulsion between electrons which causes them to spread apart)
Why does ionization energy DECREASE as you move DOWN the periodic table?
Atoms become larger as you move down the periodic table. The larger the atom, the less energy is needed to remove an electron, making the energy needed to lose an electron decrease as you move down the table.
Why does ionization energy INCREASE as you move ACROSS the periodic table?
The size of atoms decrease as you move across the periodic table, keeping electrons close to the attractive force of the nucleus, making it harder to lose an electron and therefore causing the energy required to lose an electron increase.
What is electron affinity related to?
The number of electrons an atoms needs to fill its outer energy level.
Which atoms have higher electron affinity?
Atoms that gain electrons to fill the outer energy level (takes more energy)
Which atoms have a lower electron affinity?
1. Atoms that lose electrons to have one complete outer shell remaining (takes less energy)

2. electron affinity of an atom INCREASES NEGATIVELY as you move across the periodic table
What is the Octet Rule?
ATOMS TEND TO GAIN, LOSE OR SHARE ELECTRONS IN ORDER TO AQUIRE A FULL SET (8) VALENCE ELECTRONS.
What is an Octet?
A group of eight electrons.
Which elements tend to gain electrons to form ANIONS?
Elements on the right hand side of the periodic table.
Which elements tend to lose electrons to form a CATION?
Elements on the left hand side of the table.
When does electronegativity increase?
As you move across and towards FLUORINE
Which is the most electronegative element?
Fluorine (strong ability to attract electrons)
Which is the least electronegative element?
Cesium (does not attract electrons)