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32 Cards in this Set

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hypertonic
isotonic
hypotonic
*pulls fluid from cells, they shrink
*same
*moves fluid into cells, they swell
Late signs of dehydration
decreased bp, increased pulse, rapid and weak respirations
Late signs of overhydration
raised bp, breathlessness, edema, rapid respirations, moist cough, frothy sputum, increased intracranial pressure
osmolality is __ during dehydration because __
increased, the serum is more concentrated.
Hypernatremia and it's cardiovascular manifestations include ___
>145. decreased cardiac contractility, diminished cardiac output, Hr up, Bp up
Early hypernatremia
muscle twitching, contractions
Late hpernatremia
muscle weakness, rigid paralysis, diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes
What do you administer to one with hypernatremia
isotonic saline, hypotonic saline, or D5W
What is hyponatremia ?
loss of total body Na, movement of Na from blood to other fluid spaces, dilution of serum Na as with excessive water intake
What will you hear when listening to breath sounds of someone with hyponatremia in the later stages ?
crackles
hyponatremia CNS manifestations
headache, behavioral changes
GI manifestations hyponatremia
increased motility, nausea, hyperactive bowel sounds, diarrhea
IV solutionos
d5w - isotonic
half normal saline is
9%nacl (NS) is
hypotonic
isotonic
hypokalemia reduces
excitability of cells
pulse is thready and weak with __
hypokalemia
A person with hypokalemia is at risk for falls due to __
ortho hypotension
gi manifestations with hypokelamia are__
slowed. loss of motility
hyperkalemia
movement of k from icf to ecf
heartrate in hyperkalemia is __
irregular, usually slow. BP is lowered.
Early vs late phase hyperkalemia
early - twitches, cramps
late- weakness, paralysis
people taking __ are at risk for hyperkalemia
diuretics
glucose solutions with insulin are used to manage __
hyperkalemia. it helps move k from ecf to icf.
does sweating occur during heat exhaustion or heat stroke ?
exhaustion
d10 w is
hypertonic
hypotonic fluids __ osmolality of the interstitial space
decreases
pts are at risk for __ when receiving hypertonic solutions.
edema
normal ph is __
normal PaCO2 is __
normal bicarb is __
7.35-7.45
35-45
22-26
PaO2 levels should be __
80-100
O2 sat should be __
95-100
paco2 is __
acidic, the higher more acidic
Hco3 is __
alkaline. the higher more alkaline