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44 Cards in this Set

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Question
Answer
Sodium- function
Sodium- function maintain extracellular volume and water balance aids to transmit nerve impulses
Hypernatremia- causes
Hypernatremia- causes Decreased water intake Fluid loss Osmotic diuresis Hyperglycemia Salt water intake Profuse diaphoresis accompanied by low water intake Hyperaldosteronism-too much sodium in blood. Diabetes Insipidus
Hypernatremia- Clinical manifestations
Hypernatremia- Clinical manifestations Decreased mental status Decreased turgor Dry skin and dry mucous membranes Thirst
Hypernatremia- interventions
Hypernatremia- interventions Administer hypotonic IV (0.455% NSS) Water Administer oral hygeine
Hyponatremia- causes
Hyponatremia- causes Sweating followed by large plain water intake causes dilution of plasma sodium Increased ADH Adrenal Insufficiency (decreased aldosterone so Na levels fall)
Hyponatremia- clinical manifestations
Hyponatremia- clinical manifestations Neurological symptoms due to brain swelling Weight gain Edema Rales Abdominal cramps Low hematocrit Low BUN Orthostatic hypotension
Hyponatremia- Interventions
Hyponatremia- Interventions Administer hypotonic IV Diuretics
Potassium value
Potassium value 3.5-5 mEq/L
Potassium- Functions
Potassium- Functions Cellular metabolism Transmission of neuromuscular impulses supports cardiac cycle Acid base balance Any condition that increases urinary output decreases potassium
Hypokalemia- Causes
Hypokalemia- Causes Diuretics GI Losses Adrenal Tumor- may cause excess secretion of aldosterone,which then secretes too much Ka
Hypokalemia- clinical manifestations
Hypokalemia- clinical manifestations Malaise Muscle Weakness Leg Cramps Fatigue Decreased reflexes Abnormal ECG and dysrhythmias
Hypokalemia- interventions
Hypokalemia- interventions Administer potassium Oral or IV (NEVER IV PUSH potassium, THIS CAN BE FATAL)
Hyperkalemia- causes
Hyperkalemia- causes Renal insufficiency Cellular destruction Excessive administration of Ka Adrenal Insufficiency- too little aldosterone.
Hyperkalemia- clinical manifestations
Hyperkalemia- clinical manifestations Mental changes Abnormal ECG Lethal disrhythmia Dialysis (#1 cause)
Calcium value
Calcium value 8.5-10.5mEq/L
Calcium- function
Calcium- function formation of bone and teeth blood clotting myocardial contractility nerve impulse conduction (suppressant effect)
Calcium- regulation
Calcium- regulation Vitamin D Parathyroid
Hypocalcemia- causes
Hypocalcemia- causes Hypoparathyroid Pancreatitis Low dietary Ca Alkalosis Renal disease (kidneys activate V-D, Vit D helps absorb Ca)
Hypocalcemia- clinical manifestations
Hypocalcemia- clinical manifestations hyperactive reflexes tingling in face fingers toes Muscle spasm tetany Decreased blood clotting Bronchospasms (assess by checking trousseau's signs)
Hypocalcemia- interventions
Hypocalcemia- interventions Oral or IV calcium (NEVER IM CALCIUM)
Hypercalcemia- causes
Hypercalcemia- causes Hyperparathyroidism- causes too much Ca to be retained Malignancies-some cancers produce pth. Osteoporosis Prolonged immobility Decreased renal function
Hypercalcemia- clinical manifestations
Hypercalcemia- clinical manifestations Hypotonicity Lethargy Increased blood clotting Extreme thirst Decreased neuromuscular function Kidney Stones Fractures-too much Ca can cause breaks.
Hypercalcemia- interventions
Hypercalcemia- interventions Parathyroidectomy Steriods (they decrease GI absorption of Ca) Mitromycin Calcitonin
Magnesium value
Magnesium value 1.5-2.5mEq/L
Hypomagnesemia-causes
Hypomagnesemia-causes Decreased Mg intake Malnutrition Alcoholism
Hypomagnesemia-clinical manifestations
Hypomagnesemia-clinical manifestations tremors hyperactivity tetany positive Trousseau's Confusion Agitation
Hypomagnesemia- interventions
Hypomagnesemia- interventions Replace Magnesium- IV (Mg salts)IV Mg can cause cardiac arrest if given too quickly. Oral IM
Hypermagnesemia- causes
Hypermagnesemia- causes Renal failure- may be exacerbated by meds containing magnesium.
Hypermagnesemia- clinical manifestations
Hypermagnesemia- clinical manifestations Lethargy Slow/Weak pulse Low BP Decreased tonicity Brachypnea
Hypermagnesemia- interventions
Hypermagnesemia- interventions Dialysis Stop intake of Mg.
Magnesium- function
Magnesium- function Nerve impulse conduction Chemical metabolism Cardiac conduction
Trousseaus Signs
Trousseaus Signs BP cuff inflated for 3-4 minutes hand claws up.
Electrolytes
Electrolytes - substances which when dissolved in water separate into ions (capable of conducting electricity)
Intracellular Electrolytes
Intracellular Electrolytes potassium(K) and magnesium (Mg)
Extracellular Electrolytes
Extracellular Electrolytes Sodium and Chloride
Third Spacing
Third Spacing - shift of fluid from vascular space to another part of the body (interstitial space)
Third spacing- causes
Third spacing- causes increased hydrostatic pressure- as seen in CHF Too much fluid in vessels Decreased plasma proteins Liver disease Increased capillary permeability- sepsis, trauma and burns
Third Spacing- clinical manifestations
Third Spacing- clinical manifestations Weak right sided pressure Low albumin levels Protein levels
Third Spacing- interventions
Third Spacing- interventions IV albumin Lasix after IV treatment In sepsis, treat cause
SIADH (Syndrome Of Inappropriate Diuretic Hormone)
SIADH (Syndrome Of Inappropriate Diuretic Hormone) Excessive ADH production
Antidiuretic Hormone - function
Antidiuretic Hormone - function - produced & stored in the hypothalamus - stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water decreasing urine output, supporting BP and blood volume - stimulate peripheral blood vessels to constrict
Cacitonin - function
Cacitonin - function - targets bone and kidney cells - to regulate calcium ion concentration in body fluids
Function T4 - Thyroxine T3 - Triiodothyronine
Function T4 - Thyroxine T3 - Triiodothyronine - bind to mitochondria and nucleus of cells to increase the rate of ATP production