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'Imprisonment is not the most effective punishment for most crime (and) should be reserved for the very serious offenders'

Where does this quote come from?
Government Green Paper (1988)
GGP
"Prison is an expensive way of making bad people worse"

Where does this quote come from?
Government White Paper (1990)
GWP
Who said "Let us be clear. Prison works! It ensures that we are protected from murderers, muggers, rapists..."?
Michael Howard at a Tory Party Conference (1993)
Conservative
Who said "Prison's can be made to work"?
Jack Straw, on becoming Home Secretary
New Labour
What has happened to the numbers of the prison population in th uk since 1997?
Nearly doubled, now nearly 80,000 in prison
over crowding
Who wrote 'Does prison work?' (1997)?
Charles Murray
C. M.
What arguements are made in 'Does prison work?'- Murray (1997)?
There is a direct relationship between the risk of imprisonment and crime. Prison does work and so we may even need more of it.
He likes prisons.
Who said 'Of course prison can work if used with sufficient ruthlessness'?
Charles Murray (1997)
C. M.
What did Murray claim was the result of his natural prison experiment?
During the 1960's and 1970's the risk of prison went down leading to a growth in crime, whereas during the 1980's and 1990's increased risk of prison, crime stabilises and then it starts going down. Therefore low risk of prison causes high crime rate. Therefore prison works!
ups and downs
Who said "If the question is 'how can we deter people from commiting crimes?' then prison is an indispensable part of the answer....If the question is 'how can we restrain known criminals from murdering, raping, assulting and thieving?' prison is just about the perfect answer"?
Charles Murray (1997 p. 20)
C.M.
How many crimes did Levitt say a 1,000 increases in the US prison population prevented? (Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1996, pp319-51)? And so what was his conclusion?
4 murders, 53 rapes, 1,200 assaults, 2,600 burglaries and 9,200 larcenies (15 crimes per prisoner) So a cost effective policy.
Economics
By how much was violent crime reduced, during an increase in the US prison population between 1975 and 1989 (Justice Quarterly, 1991)?
10-15% (21 crimes per prisoner)
% and per prisoner
What are Jock Young's (1997) criticisms of Murray (1997)?
There is not a direct relationship between high risk of prison and level of crime, as some European coutries do not match evidence found from the US (e.g. Netherlands - risk of prison goes up, crime still goes up) Morally unsound "If it takes a Gulag to maintain a winner takes all society, then...society must be changed rather than the prison expanded"
Europe
What did Nick Flynn (1998, the prison trust) argue?
studies of sentencing in Florida and Texas demonstrate that incarcerating large numbers of offenders costs huge amounts of money and creates overcrowding, but fails to achieve it's desired purpose of crime reduction.
Florida and Texas
What did Morris and Rothman (1995) conclude about cross cultural imprisonment research?
Research into the use of imprisonment over time in different countries has failed to demonstrate any positive correlation between increasing the rate of imprisonment and reducing the crime rate.
crime rate
Murray says crime is low when crime doesn't pay, which theory of crime is he suggesting here?
Rational choice theory
Who argued that prisons are 'a terrible and senseless waste'?
Andrew Rutherford (1997)
Who did Andrew Rutherford compare Murray to?
J.Q Wilson and J J Dilulio (The broken windows thesis and the idea of zero tolerance)
What was Andrew Rutherford's (1997)main criticism of Murray?
"In the final analysis Murray's concerns have rather less to do with crime control than the expansion of prison and other control systems.
What did the channel 4 documentary 'the texas solution' conclude about texas crime policy?
Texas had the highest incarceration rate in the US, but 14 other states had achieved higher rates of crime reduction
What did NACRO (2000) say about 'International comparison of criminal justice statistics, 1998'?
More people in prison does not explain the fall inthe amount of crime in Britain
What did Rob Allen of Penlex say about murray's theory?
"Between 1994 and 1998 the prison population increased in most european countries, as well as in North America, Japan, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. Yet the crime rate fluctuated in these countries... It is time to move on from simplistic claims that 'prison works' and that the way to reduce crime is to lock up ever more people"
What does David Green argue about the debate on prisons?
"Crime is falling because prison works" and so we should lock up even more offenders because "prison is a bargain", "If the government is to keep crime falling, it will need to build more prisons.. there is no substitute for the almost total public protection afforded by prison"
What did Langan and Farrington (1998) find in their comparison of US and England and Wales, crime rate and risk of imprisonment between 1981 and 1996?
The study found that the chances of being imprisoned increased in the USA between 1981 and 1995 and fell in England and Wales. During the same period, crime fell in the USA and increased in England and Wales.
The major exception to the trend is the murder rate. The 1996 US murder rate was nearly six times higher than the rate in England and Wales, although the difference between the two countries narrowed from 1981 to 1996. Guns were more frequently used in violent crimes in the United States than in England and Wales. According to 1996 police statistics, firearms were used in 68% of US murders and in 7% of English and Welsh murders, and in 41% of US robberies but only 5% of English and Welsh robberies.
However, the correlations between the severity of punishment and the crime rate were mixed. There was, however, a strong link between the severity of punishment of car thieves and the rate of vehicle theft. After 1981, the proportion of car thieves sentenced to prison, their average sentence, the time served and the percentage of sentence served, as well as the number of days of actual incarceration, all fell. During this time, vehicle theft rose according to both the British Crime Survey and police records.
the important factor in reducing crime is the risk of imprisonment rather than the severity of the sentence as such
Comparison of the policies pursued in the US and England and Wales suggests that the strategy outlined in Justice for All is unlikely to achieve its intended purpose. For crimes such as robbery, burglary, car theft and assault, increasing the risk of imprisonment has produced a fall in crime in the USA. It appears to be less effective for murder and rape and we may conjecture that this is because the motives or emotional drives leading to these offences are less subject to rational calculation. Where the crimes are calculated to acquire material possessions, potential offenders may be more likely to weigh up the risk of being punished
What criminologists are most associated with deterrence and rational choice theory?
Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham.
What are Currie (1996) criticisms of incapacitation as a justification for punishment?
The effect on the crime rate is distressingly small in relation to the huge costs involved.
What are Mauer (1997) criticisms of incapicitation as punishment?
Racial inequalities, one in nine african-american males aged 20-29 is in prison in US, whilst one in three is either in prison, on probation or on parole.
What was the prison population on the 3rd Nov 2006, according to the Bromley Breifing's prison factfile, from the prison reform trust?
79,829
What percentage of victims do not think that the use of prison stops re-offending for petty crime, such as shop-lifting, stealing cars and vandalism?
61% (Bromley Breifing's prison factfile, from the prison reform trust) Nov 2006
What percentage of victims think that sending drug addicts to prison is an effective way of reducing their re-offending?
29%, 72% want more drug treatment programmes in the community to fight crime(Bromley Breifing's prison factfile, from the prison reform trust) Nov 2006
What has the trend been in number of people being found guilty by the courts between 1993 and 2004?
It has remained largely constant.(Bromley Breifing's prison factfile, from the prison reform trust) Nov 2006
What is the average cost to keep a person in prison?
44,992 pounds. (Bromley Breifing's prison factfile, from the prison reform trust) Nov 2006
What did the Carter report, managing offenders, reducing crime (2003) conclude about prison pop, and crime rate?
a 22% increase in
the prison population since 1997 is
estimated to have reduced crime by around
5% during a period when overall crime fell
by 30%. The report states: ‘There is no
convincing evidence that further increases in
the use of custody would significantly reduce
crime’.26
What is the re-conviction rate from UK prisons after 2 years?
67.4% for young men aged 18-21 it is 78.4%(Bromley Breifing's prison factfile, from the prison reform trust) Nov 2006
How much does the social exclusion unit argue that re-offending from ex prisoners costs society a year?
11 billion, ex prisoners are responsible for about one in five of all recorded crimes
What does Farrington (1986) argue about desistence from crime?
even a 5 or 10 year gap is not a guarantee a person won't return to crime.
What does Akers (1998) argue is the the best single predictor of onset or desistance from crime?
Differential association with law-violating or norm-violating peers.
How does Marriage affect desistance according to Horney et al. (1995)?
Moving in with wife doubles odds of desistance, leaving wife doubles odds of starting offending, cohabitation is much less positive.
What did Baskin and Somers (1998) argue about desistence from crime?
3 stage process.
1. Forming a commitment to change
2. Discontinuance requiring public announcement that offending will stop( Objective change=new social networks, subjective change= new social identity)
3. Maintenance of decision to stop- building and maintaining a network of primary relations who accept and support non-deviant identity.
3. Maintenance of decision to stop- building and maintaining a network of primary relations who accept and support non-deviant identity.
What did Gluecks (1974) was an important factor in likely hood of desisting from crime?
Maturation
What did Maruna (2001) say was important to the long term process of desistance?
The necessity of identity reconstruction.
What did Abbott (1997) say was important in desistancing from crime?
Turning points (life changing events)
What did Caspi and Moffat (1995) say was important in desistancing from crime?
Knifing-off or cutting off from delinquent peers (Marriage, military service)
What did Becker (1960)say was important in desistancing from crime?
Investment in alternative life choices.
Why did Laub and Sampson (2001) propose the offender desists?
'from our analysis it appears that the offender desists as a result of a combination of individual actions (choice) in conjunction with situational contexts and structural influences linked to important institutions.
What did Glaser (1969) note about desistance from crime?
'criminals go from noncrime to crime and noncrime again. Sometimes this sequence is repeated many times, but sometimes criminals clearly go to crime only once. Sometimes these shifts are for long durations or even permanent, and sometimes they are short-lived.'
What does the International convention on civil and political rights (1976) say about what the conditions in prison should be like?
'All person's deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect, and the inherent dignity of the human person'
What does the prison board statement of purposes say is the purpose of prison?
'Her Majesty's Prison Service serves the public by keeping in custody all those committed by the courts. Our duty is to look after them with humanity and to help them lead law-abiding and useful lives in custody and after release'
What are the negative physical conditions in prison?
Overcrowding, sensory deprivation
Who suffers most from violence in prison?
Young and asian prisoners
Who suffers most from lack of contact with the outside world?
Young, Women and long term prisoners.
How many under 18's never have a visit in Jail?
1/4
Who is most at risk of suicide?
Mentally disordered, young 1/6 of suicides under 21, women 1/3 of women in holloway prison have been on suicide watch . Also many suicides occur in the first week of prison
How prevelant are personality disorders in prison compared with general population?
50-78% prison, 3.4-5.4% general population.
How prevelant are neurotic disorders in prison compared with general population?
40-76% prison, 17.3 general population.
How prevelant is drug dependency in prison compared with general population?
34-52% prison, 4.2% general population.
What percentage of prisoners had psychiatric help the year before entering prison? Male and Female
40% Females, 18% males
What does Pauline Campbell campaign for in relation to prisons?
Better conditions and treatment of mentally ill, her daughter committed suicide in prison.
How many of those that serve time in prison on remand do so unecessarily?
half (2/3 of women)
What was Lord Woolf's suggestion to prevent prison overcrowding (1991)?
waiting lists
How has the Howard League for Penal Reform sucessfully influenced the penal system?
Judicial review set the guidelines for local authorities to make proper plans for children before they are released from custody.
5000 children benefited from the citizen and crime prevention programme, learning about their rights, how the penal system works and how they can play a part in creating a better society.
Public education campaign raised the issue of child deaths in custody.
Individual legal advice given to children in prisons, secure training centres and local authority secure children's homes.
Training and education provided to youth offending teams, students, probation and prison staff, lawyers and other proffesionals.
New university campaigns educate and campaign with students.
What did Ann Owers Cheif inspector of prisons comment on weekend prisons in Nov 2006?
'I think the motives were very good ones but I don't think the outcome was very very sucessful.'
Why did Baroness Scotland, Home Office argue that the weekend prison scheme in the UK was abandoned Nov 2006?
Not cost effective, as empty cells during the week as 88% prison at weekend rather than during the week.
The people it dealt with were not a prioity. 'All of our attention, energies and resources must go into protecting the public from the most serious offenders.'
What were Aitkin (2006) critisms of weekend prisons?
Soft target for drugs as less security.
What were Martinson's (1974) conclusion in his 'What works' paper?
'With few and isolated exceptions the rehabilitative efforts that have been reported so far have had no appreciable effect on recidivism.
Who came up with the social bonds theory of desisting from crime?
Hirschi (1969)
Who argued that social bonds often increase with age?
Stark (1969)
What does the leader of the liberal democrats Ming Campbell, suggest in his 'we can cut crime campaign' Jan (2007)?
We can make prisons work by providing inmates with jobs and an education as this will make them less likely to reoffend when they are released. Community sentences should be used for non violent offenders as they are more effective.
What did Shepard and Whiting (2006) find in their study on how length of custody effects recidivism rate?
Reconviction statistics seem to suggest that longer sentences, are a better individual deterrent than shorter sentences as reconviction rates are higher for custodial sentences of less than a year (70 per cent), compared to custodial sentences of over a year (49 per cent), and perhaps surprisingly those who had been given longer sentences had fewer convictions than those given sentences of less than a year. However offender characteristics of those discharged from longer custodial sentences are associated with lower re-offending, including being older, having fewer previous convictions, and the offence types they were convicted for.
How did recidivism rates compare for custody and community orders according to sheppard and whiting (2006)?
show that the recidivism rate of offenders released from prison is 65.8 per cent. Which is higher than recidivism rates for offenders given community sentences (53.4 per cent).
However different community sentences do appear to differ in effectiveness according to recidivism rates. Community Punishment Orders had the best recidivism rate at 39.5 per cent, Community Punishment and Rehabilitation Orders had a recidivism rate of 54.7 per cent, and community Rehabilitation Orders had a recidivism rate of 60.6 per cent. Which were all lower than the rates of recidivism of offenders who were given prison sentences, however offenders given drug treatment and testing orders had a recidivism rate of 86.3 per cent, which was the highest re-offending rate however those who completed the order were found to have much lower recidivism than expected (53 per cent) Shepard and Whiting (2006). However comparing effectiveness of sentences through simple comparison of reconviction rates is likely to produce misleading results, as sentences are determined on factors that are related to likelihood of re-offending (Lloyd, Mair and Hough, 1994).
What did 2005 channel four documentary America's brutal prisons suggest about the nature of abuse in prisons?
The programme suggests that the cause is not a few ‘bad apples’, but a pervasive culture of dehumanisation and brutality.
Who came up with the concept of differential association?
Sutherland (1883-1950)
Who suggested that delinquents most often drift in and out of crime?
Matza (1964)
How does Mathiesen (1974) criticise the use of prisons?
Prison is used predominently to punish those without power, from the working class for a select group of crimes whilst the rich and powerful 'socially dangerous acts are increasingly being committed by individuals and classes with power in society' the publically labelling less powerful deviants and locking them away creates a scapegoat and distracts from worse criminals.
What did Farrington (1992) argue about the onset and desistance from crime?
the onset of antisocial behavior is due to changes in social influence
from parents to peers and that desistance is due to changes in
social influence from peers to spouses.
What does Cline (1988) note about crime desistance?
Many adolescent offenders do not go on to be career criminals, and some career criminals did not have records at adolescence, those who desist from crime tended to be those who had more favourable circumstances.
What did Glaser argue was a major factor in preventing recidivism?
Employment, many offenders had unrealistic career expectation, when these are failed to be acheived recidivism is likely lack of skill and work
experience were the major obstacles to finding a good job.
What did Glueck's 1968 find about the relationship between factors that predict delinquency and desistence?
individual characteristics
and family circumstances measured in childhood that are known to
predict delinquency and adult criminality have a limited capacity to
predict desistanc
According to the office of national statistics what percentage of offenders were mentally ill or addicted to drugs or alcohol?
90%
What is one way that the high number of prisoners today have been accomadated Feb 2007?
Ashworth high-security hospital is to be converted in part to be a prison