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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Physiology
Functions in living organism.
Exercise physiology
Ways cells and tissues function during exercise.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Ability to deliver adequate supply of oxygen to exercising muscles.
Healthy Body Fat % for men
14-17%
Healthy Body Fat % for women
21-24%
Cardiovascular system
Heart and all vessels
Cardiopulmonary system
Heart, vessels, lungs
Pulmonary arteries v.s. Pulmonary veins
Pulmonary arteries have low O2 and Pulmonary veins have hi O2
Name 4 chambers of heart
Right and Left Atria and Right and Left Ventricles
Hemoglobin
Protein that carries O2 in red blood cells.
Name the 2 phases of cardiac cycle.
Systole and Diastole
Coronary Arteries
Supply heart with O2
What is the benefit of having a high level of cardiopulmonary fitness?
Heart spends more time resting (in diastole) in submaximal exercise intensity.
Cardiac Output (Q)
Amount of blood that flows from each ventricle in one minute.
Stroke Volume (SV)
Amount of blood pumped from each ventricle each time heart beats.
Cardiac Output (Q) = ____ x ____
Heart Rate x Stroke Volume
Ejection Fraction
% of total volume of blood in ventricle at end of diastole that is subsequently ejected during contraction(measures heart's efficiency)
Oxygen Extraction
Amount of O2 taken from hemoglobin and used during exercise
ATP
Body's energy source
3 pathways to replenish ATP
1. Aerobic
2. Ananrobic
3. Creatine phosphate
Mitochondria
Site of aerobic energy (ATP) production
Ischemia
Insufficient O2 supply
2 substances body uses to produce ATP
Fat and Carbohydrates
Anaerobic threshold
Intensity at which O2 supply is unavailable
Glycogen
Chains of glucose stored in liver and muscles
Kilocalorie (Kcal)
Amount of heat required to raise temperature of 1 Kg of water 1 degree C.
Lactic Acid
By product of anaerobic ATP production
VO2 Max
Total capacity to consume O2 at cellular level; i.e. maximal O2 consumption or maximum aerobic capacity
VO2 Max depends on 2 factors
VO2 Max = _____ x _____
Cardiac output (delivery of O2 to working muscles by blood) and Oxygen extraction (ability to extract O2 from blood for use in mitochondria)

(Cardiac output max) x (Oxygen extraction max)
MET
Resting VO2 = 3.5mL/kg/min
Firefighting activity = ____ METs
11 - 13 METs
Systolic BP
Pressure from contraction of left ventricle
Diastolic BP
Pressure remaining when heart relaxes b/w beats
During exercise, systolic BP should _____
Systolic BP should increase
3 Cardiovascular responses to exercise
1. Stroke volume increases
2. New capillaries are produced
3. Mitochondrial density increases
Overload principle
System must be made to work harder to improve
Principle of Specificity of Training
Aerobic exercise needs to be rhythmic, continuous, and involve large muscle groups
Muscle Pump
Rhythmic squeezing of large muscles against veins
Optimum exercise intensity is
Maximum O2 consumption of ___ to ___% or ___ to ____ % Maximum heart rate
Max. O2 Consumption 50 - 85% or 60 - 90% Max. HR
Borg Scale; Recommneded exercise intensity range
Rating of Perceived Exertion;
12 to 15 on scale of 6-20 or 3 to 5 on scale of 0-10
Minimum daily Aerobic activity = ____ min
10 min
Performance Interval Training
Very High Intensity; Competitive Performance
Fitness Interval Training
Modest to Vigorous Intensity; General Fitness
Minimum Days per Week to exercise = ____
3 days
Warm Up purposes
Increase muscle temperature and allow for blood shunt
Firefighting activity = ____ METs
11 - 13 METs
Systolic BP
Pressure from contraction of left ventricle
Diastolic BP
Pressure remaining when heart relaxes b/w beats
During exercise, systolic BP should _____
Systolic BP should increase
3 Cardiovascular responses to exercise
1. Stroke volume increases
2. New capillaries are produced
3. Mitochondrial density increases
Overload principle
System must be made to work harder to improve
Principle of Specificity of Training
Aerobic exercise needs to be rhythmic, continuous, and involve large muscle groups
Muscle Pump
Rhythmic squeezing of large muscles against veins
Optimum exercise intensity is
Maximum O2 consumption of ___ to ___% or ___ to ____ % Maximum heart rate
Max. O2 Consumption 50 - 85% or 60 - 90% Max. HR
Borg Scale; Recommneded exercise intensity range
Rating of Perceived Exertion;
12 to 15 on scale of 6-20 or 3 to 5 on scale of 0-10
Minimum daily Aerobic activity = ____ min
10 min
Performance Interval Training
Very High Intensity; Competitive Performance
Fitness Interval Training
Modest to Vigorous Intensity; General Fitness
Minimum Days per Week to exercise = ____
3 days
Warm Up purposes and time required
Increase muscle temperature and allow for blood shunt; 3-5 min.
Cool down until heart rate reaches ___ to ___ bpm to reverse blood shunt
108 - 120 bpm
3 primary types of muscle and locations of each
1. Cardiac - Heart
2. Smooth - Arteries/Intestines
3. Skeletal
2 main types of skeletal muscle fibers
Slow Twitch (Type I) and Fast Twitch (Type II)
Myofibrils
Strands of protein running the length of each muscle fiber
2 primary contractile proteins in myofibril
Actin and Myosin
Sacromere
Repeating units of myofibrils
3 types of muscle contraction
1. Concentric (shorten)
2. Eccentric (lengthen)
3. Isometric (no change)
2 factors affect amount of force generated during muscle contraction
1. Size of fibers contracting
2. Number of fibers contracting
Motor Unit
Single motor nerve and all muscle fibers it stimulates
Hypertrophy
Increase in size and number of myofibrils
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of muscle fibers (not proven in humans)
3 types of connective tissue
1. Cartilage (padding b/w bones)
2. Ligaments (connect bone/bone)
3. Tendons (connect muscle/bone)
Isotonic
Same tone and tension; External resistance challenged through entire range of motion
Dynamic constant external resistance
Fixed amount of external resistance; constant resistance throughout movement range
Dynamic variable external resistance
Automatically vary the resistance throughout movement range
Isokinetic
Same Speed; Max. force throughout entire range of movement, while keeping speed constant
2 types of exercise related soreness
1. Immediate (Lactic Acid)
2. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS); 1-3 days later; due to small tears in connective tissue
Causes of Muscle Fatigue at:
0-30 sec.; 40-60 min.; 60-180 min.
0-30 sec. - Active cells run out of ATP
40-60 min. - Lactic Acid
60-180 min. - Glycogen depleted
4 factors that limit flexibility
1. Ligaments and tendons
2. Muscle tissue
3. Bone/Joint structure
4. Skin
Muscle Spindles
Fibers in muscle tissue that protect against too much stretch