Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
when is a cough considered chronic
common cause of chronic cough
viral URTI
3 causes of acute cough
bacterial URTI
aspiration of FB (toddlers)
Give the etiology for the following types of cough:
environmental irritant, asthma, fungal infection
croup, subglottic disease or foreign body
Brassy or honking
habitual cough, tracheitis
pertussis, Chlamydia, mycoplasma, foreign body
Worse at night
asthma, sinusitis
Disappears at night
Associated with gagging or choking
gastroesophageal reflux
Dx: chronic cough and change in voice
dysphonia or hoarseness may suggest laryngeal irritation due to chronic rhinitis or gastroesophageal reflux
Dx: child with chronic cough that's worse at night and headache
frontal or orbital headaches may suggest a sinusitis, a common cause of persistent cough in children due to the associated post-nasal drip, which is often worse at night when the child is supine
Name the triad of Atopic diathesis
eczema, asthma, hayfever. diathesis means predisposition/tendency
Dx: child with cough, wheezing and her heart feels funny
CHF most likely secondary to infectious myocarditis
Dx: child with cough and sore throat
post-nasal drip and pharyngeal irritation due to allergies or sinusitis
prolonged cough following a URI in a child that is not immunized
asymptomatic or insidious onset of a chronic, nonproductive cough that typically does not disturb sleep. Other signs may include dyspnea, tachypnea, exercise intolerance, pleuritic chest pain, or flu-like symptoms (headache, fatigue, or fever).
fungal pneumonia
child c dyspnea, flu-like symptoms who lives near a construction site exposed to bird/bat droppings
green rhinorrhea > 1wk, sore throat, fever, nocturnal cough, malodorous breath, irritability, cobblestoning of posterior pharynx
pathophys of cobblestoning
lymphoid hyperplasia of the posterior pharynx results from chronic post-nasal drip
nasal polyps
normal inspiratory: expiratory ratio in kids
long, musical sounds that are generally heard during expiration and are associated with a variable obstruction of moderate-sized airways (i.e., bronchi and bronchioles)
Inspiratory sound that are loud and low in pitch and suggest secretions in the larger airways.
Rhonchi (or coarse crackles)
inspiratory sound that are softer and shorter in duration, and higher in pitch, than rhonchi. Suggests secretions or early collapse of small airways.
Rales (or fine crackles)
inspiratory wheeze that is the result of a partial obstruction of the larynx or trachea.
DDx of stridor (3)
inhaled foreign body with partial obstruction
Adventitious (extra) lung sounds that occur only during one phase of respiration (i.e., inspiration or during expiration only)
variable obstruction.
Sounds that occur during both inspiration and expiration
fixed stenosis of the airway.
asthma: <2d/w, <2n/mo
step1: mild persistent
asthma: continual frequent symptoms
step 4 severe persistent
>2x/w, but <1/day
step 2
mild persistent
moderate persistent
MCC of chest pain in a teen
precordial catch syndrome
Tanner stage: Childlike phallus, testicular volume 1.6-6 ml, reddened thinner and larger scrotum, small amount of fine hair along the base of scrotum and phallus.
Tanner stage: Adult scrotum and phallus, testicular volume >20 ml. adult-type hair extending to medial surface of thighs.
Tanner stage: Increased phallus length, testicular volume 6-12 ml, greater scrotal enlargement, moderate amount of more curly, pigmented, coarser hair extending laterally.
Tanner stage: Increased phallus length and circumference, testicular volume 12-20 ml, further scrotal enlargement and darkening, and coarse curly adultlike hair that doesn't yet extend to the medial surface of thighs.
teen with sudden, sporadic onset of sharp pain, usually along the left sternal border, which is often exacerbated with deep inspiration.
precordial catch syndrome
type of metabolic derangement in pyloric stenosis
hypocloremic metabolic alkalosis
MCC gastroenteritis in a 6wk old
rotavirus esp. winter
2 heart defects likely to be picked up in preschool age
coarctation of the aorta
murmur, hypertension in the upper extremities, and a discrepancy between the upper and lower extremity blood pressures.
coarctation of the aorta
systolic ejection murmur and widely split, fixed S2 in a 3-5yo
name 4 congenital heart defects that cause CHF
Ventricular septal defect
Patent ductus arteriosus
Aortic stenosis
Coarctation of the aorta
tx for CHF d/t VSD
Digoxin and diuretics
bad complication of unclosed VSD
Pulmonary vascular obstructive disease, or Eisenmenger's disease
swelling, pain and tenderness just below the knee in young athletes
Osgood Schlatter
complication of SCFE
DDX of eosinophilia
Connective tissue disorder
5 characteristics of febrile seizure
5 F's:
Five months to Five years,
< Fifteen minutes
Family history.