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39 Cards in this Set

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is a continuous stream of slow, sinuous, writhing movements, typically of the hands and feet.
athetosis
meaning "behind" and tonos meaning "tension", is a state of a severe hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual's head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete "bridging" or "arching" position. This abnormal posturing is an extrapyramidal effect and is caused by spasm of the axial muscles along the spinal column.
opisthotonic/opisthotonos
is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure. The swelling is usually bilateral and can occur over a period of hours to weeks
papilledema,
is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other.[2] It typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles that prevents bringing the gaze of each eye to the same point in space and preventing proper binocular vision, which may adversely affect depth perception
strabismus
Not a disease, syndrome from impaired circulation & abs of CSF, congenital, enlarged ventricles
Hydrocephalus
Infants- head grows at abnormal rate, 1st sign- bulging fontanel, dilated scalp veins, irritable, lethargic, feeds poorly, opisthotonos, lower extremity spasticity, chiari r/t brainstem compression; child- HA on awakening w improvement, emesis, papilledema, strabismus, chiari r/t spinal cord dysfxn
Hydrocephalus
Surgical V-P shunt for mgmt (drains fluids), change as child grows
Relieve ventricular pressure, tx cause ventriculomegaly, tx assoc complications, mgmt problems r/t psychomotor devel
Hydrocephalus
Pre/post-op: lay on opposite side, skin care, place flat, supine, gradually raise HOB, prevent vomit (ICP), nutritional support
Daily head circumference, palpate fontanel & sutures, watch alt consciousness
Hydrocephalus
Inflammation of meninges, viral/bacterial, bacteremia in subarachnoid space, WBC accumulate, if spreads to ventricleshydrocephalus
Meningitis
HA, photophobic(sensitivity to light)
Infants- flat/bulging fontanel, fever, change in feeding pattern, V/D, alert, restless, irritable
Children- confusion, irritable, lethargic, vomit, muscle/joint pain; opisthotonic position w neck & head hyperextend
Meningitis
Lumbar puncture- look for WBC, protein, glucose in CSF
CBC
Electrolytes/ osmolality
Blood cultures
Meningitis
Reduce inc ICP- dexamethasone
Control seizures w meds
Meningitis
Isolation, initiate Abx, maintain hydration & ventilation, make room dark, blanket over eyes, min noise in room, mgmt shock, control temp, treat complications, * know when antimicrobial therapy is started
Meningitis
Abnormal electrical d/c in brain caused by many things; 2+ seizures; caused byspontaneous electrical discharges initiated by hyperexcitable cells Partial (Focal)- 1 part, Generalized- diffuse, all over, symmetrical;
Febrile- quick temp 102, status epilepticus- cont >30min
Seizure
Involuntary mvmts, behavior & sensory alt, some have aura, cyanosis, hypoglycemic
Seizure
Inc BMRmetabolic, EEG
1. determine whether epilepsy/ seizures exist & 2 define underlying cause
Seizure
Status epilepticus- lorazepam & diazepam; maintain airway, ensure safety, admin med
Teach caregivers appropriate interventions during seizure, emphasize antiepileptic therapy- admin & scheduling, help family cope
Seizure
Disorder of mvmt posture, result of non-progressive abnormality of brain, occurs pre-natally or after birth; class based on where at in brain; most d/t abnormality or insult to CNS, infection in utero
Cerebral Palsy
Hypotonia, hypertonia- rigidiity/ spasticity, athetosis- invol wirithing motions, ataxia, delayed gross motor devel, abnormal motor performance, alt in muscle tone, abnormal postures
Cerebral Palsy
MRI; metabolic & genetic testing if no structural abnormality identified; asymmetric tonic reflex, Moro reflex >4mo, crossed extensor reflex
Cerebral Palsy
Baclofen- admin intrafecally to help w spasms; Robenol for in secretions; Anti-seizure meds;
Goals: early rec & promotion optimum decal course, est locomotion, communication, & self help, optimum appearance & fxn, correct assoc defects, promote socialization
Cerebral Palsy
Reinforce therapeutic plan, assist in normalization, address health maintenance needs, support family, support hospitalized child
Cerebral Palsy
Mildest form neural tube defect, midline vertebrae; no protrusion of spinal cord or meninges, asymptomatic, may have tuft of hair on small of back; r/t pregnancy w/o folic acid vit
Spina Bifida
Defect apparent on inspection, except occulta; sensory disturbances, motor dysfunction, defective nerve supply to bladder, poor anal sphincter tone
Spina Bifida
Prenatal; based on CM & exam of meningeal sac; MRI, ultrasound, CT, myelography
Spina Bifida
Prevent infection, neuro assessment, early closure, antibiotics initiated, neurotoxic substances avoided, orthopedic considerations, mgmt GU fxn
Spina Bifida
Support family, encourage therapies, address health needs, support hospitalized child; * avoid measuring rectal temp
Spina Bifida
is a malformation of the brain. It consists of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and the medulla[1] through the foramen magnum, sometimes causing hydrocephalus as a result of obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow [2]. The cerebrospinal fluid outflow being caused by phase difference in outflow and influx of blood in the vasculature of the brain.
type 2 chiari
benzodiazepine drug with short to medium duration of action. It has all five intrinsic benzodiazepine effects: anxiolytic, amnesic, sedative/hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant.[4] It is a powerful anxiolytic and since its introduction
LORAZEPAM/adivan
is a commonly used antiepileptic. Phenytoin acts to dampen the unwanted, runaway brain activity seen in seizure by reducing electrical conductance among brain cells by stabilizing the inactive state of voltage gated sodium channels. Aside from seizures, it is an option in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia as well as certain cardiac arrhythmias
Phenytoin sodium
is a succinimide anticonvulsant, used mainly in absence seizures
Ethosuximide
is a chemical compound that has found clinical use as an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and less commonly major depression. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and schizophrenia.
Valproic Acid-
Asthma Corticosteroid Suppress inflam. and normal immune response PO HTN, anorexia, nausea, adrenal suppression Assess resp. status periodically while administering
Solumedrol
Asthma Beta agonist, bronchodilator Binds to beta adrenergic receptors  dec intracellular Ca relaxes smooth muscle in air way, bronchodilation inhal Nervousness, tremor, hyperactivity, CP, palpitations Quick relief. Assess lung sounds, pulse, and BP before and at peak. Use spacer for children <8 y/o
Albuterol (Proventil)
Asthma Anticholinergic, bronchodilator Inhibits cholinergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle Inhal Dizziness, HA Assess resp status before and peak.
atrovent
Asthma Leukotriene, anti-inflam. Antagonizes the effects of leukotrienes, which mediate: airway edema, smooth muscle constriction, altered cellular activity  dec inflam. process PO Diarrhea, nausea Prevention and chronic tx. Assess lung sounds prior and periodically
singulair
Mucolytic Decreases mucous viscosity Inhal/PO N/V, rhinorrhea, diarrhea
mucomyst CF
CF Anti-infective Inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria IM, IV, PO Ataxia, ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity Assess for s/s of infec
tobramycin
Antibiotic Binds to bacterial cell wall  cell death PO Diarrhea, rashes, anaphylaxis, pseudomembranous colitis, seizures Watch for s/s of anaphylaxis. Monitor bowel function.
amoxicillin OM