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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
1 mo
Weight gain of 150-210 g (5-7 oz) weekly for first 6 mo
Height gain of 2.5 cm (1 in) monthly for first 6 mo
Head circumference increases by 1.5 cm (0.6 in) monthly for first 6 mo
Primitive reflexes present and strong
Doll's eye reflex and dance reflex fading
Obligatory nose breathing (most infants)
▪ Assumes flexed position with pelvis high but knees not under abdomen when prone (at birth, knees flexed under abdomen)
▪ Can turn head from side to side when prone; lifts head momentarily from bed
Has marked head lag, especially when pulled from lying to sitting position
Holds head momentarily parallel and in midline when suspended in prone position
Assumes asymmetric tonic neck flex position when supine
When held in standing position, is limp at knees and hips
In sitting position, has uniformly rounded back, absence of head control
Hands predominantly closed
Grasp reflex strong
Clenches hand on contact with rattle
▪ Able to fixate on moving object in range of 45 degrees when held at distance of 20-25 cm (8-10 in)
Visual acuity approaches 20/100*
Follows light to midline
Quiets when hears a voice
Cries to express displeasure
Makes small, throaty sounds
Makes comfort sounds during feeding
Is in sensorimotor phase, stage I, use of reflexes (birth–1 mo); and stage II, primary circular reactions (1-4 mo)
Watches parent's face intently as she or he talks to infant
2 mo
Posterior fontanel closed
Crawling reflex disappears
▪ Assumes less flexed position when prone—hips flat, legs extended, arms flexed, head to side
Less head lag when pulled to sitting position
Can maintain head in same plane as rest of body when held in ventral suspension
When prone, can lift head almost 45 degrees off table
When held in sitting position, can hold head up, but bends forward
Assumes asymmetric tonic neck flex position intermittently
Hands often open
Grasp reflex fading
Binocular fixation and convergence to near objects beginning
When supine, follows dangling toy from side to point beyond midline
Visually searches to locate sounds
Turns head to side when sound is made at level of ear
▪ Vocalizes, distinct from crying
Crying becomes differentiated
Vocalizes to familiar voice
▪ Demonstrates social smile in response to various stimuli
3 mos
Primitive reflexes fading
Able to hold head more erect when sitting, but still bobs forward
Has only slight head lag when pulled to sitting position
Assumes symmetric body positioning
Able to raise head and shoulders from prone position to 45- to 90-degree angle from table; bears weight on forearms
When held in standing position, able to bear slight fraction of weight on legs
Regards own hand
▪ Actively holds rattle but will not reach for it Grasp reflex absent
Hands kept loosely open
Clutches own hand; pulls at blankets and clothes
▪ Follows objects to periphery (180 degrees)
▪ Locates sound by turning head to side and looking in same direction
Begins to have ability to coordinate stimuli from various sense organs
▪ Squeals aloud to show pleasure
Coos, babbles, chuckles
Vocalizes when smiling
“Talks” a great deal when spoken to
Less crying during periods of wakefulness
Displays considerable interest in surroundings
Ceases crying when parent enters room
Can recognize familiar faces and objects, such as feeding bottle
Shows awareness of strange situations
4 mos
Drooling begins
▪ Moro, tonic neck, and rooting reflexes disappeared
▪ Has almost no head lag when pulled to sitting position
▪ Balances head well in sitting position
Back less rounded, curved only in lumbar area
Able to sit erect if propped up
Able to raise head and chest off surface to angle of 90 degrees
Assumes predominant symmetric position
▪ Rolls from back to side
▪ Inspects and plays with hands; pulls clothing or blanket over face in play
Tries to reach objects with hand but overshoots
Grasps object with both hands
Plays with rattle placed in hand, shakes it, but cannot pick it up if dropped
Can carry objects to mouth
Able to accommodate to near objects
Binocular vision fairly well established
Can focus on a 1.25-cm (0.5-in) block
Beginning eye-hand coordination
Makes consonant sounds n, k, g, p, b
▪ Laughs aloud
Vocalization changes according to mood
Is in stage III, secondary circular reactions
Demands attention by fussing; becomes bored if left alone
Enjoys social interaction
Anticipates feeding when sees bottle or mother if breast-feeding
Shows excitement with whole body, squeals, breathes heavily
Shows interest in strange stimuli
Begins to show memory
5 mos
Beginning signs of tooth eruption
Birth weight doubles
No head lag when pulled to sitting position
When sitting, able to hold head erect and steady
Able to sit for longer periods when back is well supported
Back straight
When prone, assumes symmetric positioning with arms extended
▪ Can turn over from abdomen to back
When supine, puts feet to mouth
▪ Able to grasp objects voluntarily
Uses palmar grasp, bidextrous approach
Plays with toes
Takes objects directly to mouth
Holds 1 cube while regarding a 2nd one
Visually pursues dropped object
Is able to sustain visual inspection of object
Can localize sounds made below ear
Makes cooing vowel sounds interspersed with consonant sounds (e.g., ah-goo)
Smiles at mirror image
Pats bottle or breast with both hands
More enthusiastically playful, but may have rapid mood swings
Is able to discriminate strangers from family
Vocalizes displeasure when object is taken away
Discovers parts of body
6 mos
Growth rate may begin to decline
Weight gain of 90-150 g (3-5 oz) weekly for next 6 mo
Height gain of 1.25 cm (0.5 in) monthly for next 6 mo
▪ May begin teething with eruption of 2 lower central incisors
▪ May chew and bite
When prone, can lift chest and upper abdomen off surface, bearing weight on hands
When about to be pulled to sitting position, lifts head
Sits in high chair with back straight
Rolls from back to abdomen
When held in standing position, bears almost all of weight
Hand regard absent
Resecures a dropped object
Drops 1 cube when another is given
Grasps and manipulates small objects
Holds bottle
Grasps feet and pulls to mouth
Adjusts posture to see object
Prefers more complex visual stimuli
Can localize sounds made above ear
Will turn head to side, then look up or down
▪ Begins to imitate sounds
▪ Babbling resembles 1-syllable utterances—ma, mu, da, di, hi
Vocalizes to toys, mirror image
Takes pleasure in hearing own sounds (self-reinforcement)
Recognizes parents; begins to fear strangers
Holds arms out to be picked up
Has definite likes and dislikes
Begins to imitate (cough, protrusion of tongue)
Excites on hearing footsteps
Laughs when head is hidden in towel
▪ Briefly searches for dropped object (object permanence beginning)
Frequent mood swings from crying to laughing with little or no provocation
7 mos
Eruption of upper central incisors
When supine, spontaneously lifts head off surface
▪ Sits, leaning forward on both hands
When prone, bears weight on 1 hand
Sits erect momentarily
Bears full weight on feet When held in standing position, bounces actively
▪ Transfers objects from one hand to other
Has unidextrous approach and grasp
Holds 2 cubes more than momentarily
Bangs cubes on table
Rakes at small object
▪ Can fixate on very small objects
Responds to own name
Localizes sound by turning head in curving arch
Beginning awareness of depth and space
Has taste preferences
▪ Produces vowel sounds and chained syllables—baba, dada, kaka
Vocalizes 4 distinct vowel sounds
“Talks” when others are talking
▪ Increasing fear of strangers; shows signs of fretfulness when parent disappears
Imitates simple acts and noises
Tries to attract attention by coughing or snorting
Plays peek-a-boo
Demonstrates dislike of food by keeping lips closed
Exhibits oral aggressiveness in biting and mouthing
Demonstrates expectation in response to repetition of stimuli
8 mos
Begins to show regular patterns in bladder and bowel elimination
Parachute reflex appears
▪ Sits steadily unsupported
Readily bears weight on legs when supported; may stand holding onto furniture
Adjusts posture to reach object
Has beginning pincer grasp using index, 4th, and 5th fingers against lower part of thumb
Releases objects at will
Rings bell purposely
Retains 2 cubes while regarding 3rd cube
Secures object by pulling on string
Reaches persistently for toys out of reach
Makes consonant sounds t, d, and w
Listens selectively to familiar words
Utterances signal emphasis and emotion
Combines syllables, such as dada, but does not ascribe meaning to them
Increasing anxiety over loss of parent, particularly mother, and fear of strangers
Responds to word “no”
Dislikes dressing, diaper change
9 mos
Eruption of upper lateral incisor may begin
Creeps on hands and knees
Sits steadily on floor for prolonged time (10 min)
Recovers balance when leaning forward but cannot do so when leaning sideways
▪ Pulls self to standing position and stands holding onto furniture
▪ Uses thumb and index finger in crude pincer grasp
Preference for use of dominant hand now evident
Grasps 3rd cube
Compares 2 cubes by bringing them together
Localizes sounds by turning head diagonally and directly toward sound
Depth perception increasing
Responds to simple verbal commands
Comprehends “no-no”
Parent (mother) is increasingly important for own sake
Shows increasing interest in pleasing parent
Begins to show fears of going to bed and being left alone
Puts arms in front of face to avoid having it washed
10 mos
Labyrinth-righting reflex strongest when infant in prone or supine position; is able to raise head
Can change from prone to sitting position
Stands while holding onto furniture, sits by falling down
Recovers balance easily while sitting
While standing, lifts one foot to take step
Crude release of an object beginning
Grasps bell by handle
▪ Says “dada,” “mama” with meaning
Comprehends “bye-bye”
May say one word (e.g., “hi,” “bye,” “no”)
Inhibits behavior to verbal command of “no-no” or own name
Imitates facial expressions; waves bye-bye
Extends toy to another person but will not release it
▪ Develops object permanence
Repeats actions that attract attention and cause laughter
Pulls clothes of another to attract attention
Plays interactive games such as pat-a-cake
Reacts to adult anger; cries when scolded
Demonstrates independence in dressing, feeding, locomotive skills, and testing of parents
Looks at and follows picture in book
11 mos
Eruption of lower lateral incisor may begin
When sitting, pivots to reach toward back to pick up an object
▪ Cruises or walks holding onto furniture or with both hands held
Explores objects more thoroughly (e.g., clapper inside bell)
Has neat pincer grasp
Drops object deliberately for it to be picked up
Puts one object after another into container (sequential play)
Able to manipulate object to remove it from tight-fitting enclosure
Imitates definite speech sounds
Experiences joy and satisfaction when task is mastered
Reacts to restrictions with frustration
Rolls ball to another on request
Anticipates body gestures when familiar nursery rhyme or story is being told (e.g., holds toes and feet in response to “This little piggy went to market”)
Plays games up-down, “so big,” or peek-a-boo
Shakes head for “no”
12 mos
▪ Birth weight tripled
▪ Birth length increased by 50%
Head and chest circumference equal (head circumference 46 cm [18 in])
Has total of 6-8 deciduous teeth
Anterior fontanel almost closed
Landau reflex fading
Babinski reflex disappears
Lumbar curve develops; lordosis evident during walking
▪ Walks with 1 hand held
Cruises well
▪ May attempt to stand alone momentarily; may attempt 1st step alone
Can sit down from standing position without help
Releases cube in cup
Attempts to build 2-block tower but fails
Tries to insert pellet into narrow-necked bottle but fails
Can turn pages in book, many at a time
Discriminates simple geometric forms (e.g., circle)
Amblyopia may develop with lack of binocularity
Can follow rapidly moving object
Controls and adjusts response to sound; listens for sound to recur
▪ Says 3-5 words besides “dada,” “mama”
Comprehends meaning of several words (comprehension always precedes verbalization)
Recognizes objects by name
Imitates animal sounds
Understands simple verbal commands (e.g., “Give it to me,” “Show me your eyes”)
Shows emotions such as jealousy, affection (may give hug or kiss on request), anger, fear
Enjoys familiar surroundings and explores away from parent
Is fearful in strange situation; clings to parent
May develop habit of “security blanket” or favorite toy
Has increasing determination to practice locomotor skills
▪ Searches for object even if it has not been hidden, but searches only where object was last seen
15 mos
Steady growth in height and weight
Head circumference 48 cm (19 in)
Weight 11 kg (24 lb)
Height 78.7 cm (31 in)
Walks without help (usually since age 13 months)
Creeps up stairs
Kneels without support
Cannot walk around corners or stop suddenly without losing balance
Assumes standing position without support
Cannot throw ball without falling
Constantly casting objects to floor
Builds tower of 2 cubes
Holds 2 cubes in 1 hand
Releases pellet into narrow-necked bottle
Scribbles spontaneously
Uses cup well but often rotates spoon
Able to identify geometric forms; places round object into appropriate hole
Binocular vision well developed
Displays intense and prolonged interest in pictures
Uses expressive jargon
Says 4-6 words, including names
Asks for objects by pointing
Understands simple commands
May shake head to denote “no”
Uses “no” even while agreeing to the request
Uses common gestures such as putting cup to mouth when empty
Says 10 or more words
Points to common object, such as shoe or ball, and to 2-3 body parts
Forms word combinations
Forms gesture-word combinations (points while naming)
Forms gesture-gesture combinations
Tolerates some separation from parent
Less likely to fear strangers
Beginning to imitate parents, such as cleaning house
(sweeping, dusting), folding clothes
May discard bottle
Manages spoon but rotates it near mouth
Kisses and hugs parents; may kiss pictures in book
Expresses emotions; has temper tantrums
Great imitator (domestic mimicry)
Takes off gloves, socks, and shoes, and unzips zippers
Temper tantrums may be more evident
Beginning awareness of ownership (“my toy”)
May develop dependency on transitional objects, such as “security blanket”
18 mos
Physiologic anorexia from decreased growth needs
Anterior fontanel closed
Physiologically able to control sphincters
Runs clumsily; falls often
Walks up stairs with 1 hand held
Pulls and pushes toys
Jumps in place with both feet
Seats self on chair
Throws ball overhand without falling
Builds tower of 3-4 cubes
Release, prehension, and reach well developed
Turns 2-3 pages in book at a time
In drawing, makes stroke imitatively
Manages spoon without rotation
24 mos
Head circumference 49-50 cm (19.5-20 in)
Chest circumference exceeds head circumference
Lateral diameter of chest exceeds anteroposterior diameter
Usual weight gain of 1.8-2.7 kg (4-6 lb)
Usual gain in height of 10-12.5 cm (4-5 in)
Adult height approximately double height at 2 yr
May be ready to begin daytime control of bowel and bladder
Primary dentition of 16 teeth
Goes up and down stairs alone with 2 feet on each step
Runs fairly well, with wide stance
Picks up object without falling
Kicks ball forward without overbalancing
Builds tower of 6-7 cubes
Aligns 2 or more cubes like a train
Turns pages of book 1 at a time
In drawing, imitates vertical and circular strokes
Turns doorknob, unscrews lid
Accommodation well developed in geometric discrimination; able to insert square block into oblong space
Has vocabulary of approximately 300 words
Uses 2-or 3-word phrases
Uses pronouns “I,” “me,” “you”
Understands directional commands
Gives 1st name; refers to self by name
Verbalizes need for toileting, food, or drink
Talks incessantly
Able to remember and imitate arbitrary sequences of manual actions and gestures
Stage of parallel play
Has sustained attention span
Temper tantrums decreasing
Pulls people to show them something
Increased independence from parent
Dresses self in simple clothing
Develops visual recognition and verbal self-reference (“me big”)
Develops awareness that feelings and desires of others may be different and begins to explore implications and consequences
Separates more easily from parent
In play, helps put things away; can carry breakable objects; pushes with good steering
Begins to notice gender differences; knows own gender
May attend to toilet needs without help except for wiping
Emotions expand to include pride, shame, guilt, embarrassment