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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What congenital neurologic disorder is diagnosed by an increased maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein level?
Neural tube defect
Name the perinatal supplement that can reduce the incidence of neural tube defects?
Folic acid
What type of epileptic seizure frequently presents as a blank stare in children less than 10 y/o?
Absence seizure
Name the ECG pattern that is diagnostic of absence seizure.
Three-per-second spike and wave pattern.
What seizure, occuring in children between 2 and 7 months of age, manifests as extensor-flexor spasms occuring up to 100 times a day?
Infantile spasm
Name the EEG pattern that is diagnostic of infantile spasms.
Hypsarrhythmia (chaotic pattern)
Define febrile seizure.
Nonepileptic seizure in children 6 months to 5 years of age that occurs in the setting of fever
What is the cause of febrile seizures?
Rapidly increasing body temperature (not the absolute temperature)
Simple of complex seizure?
Duration less than 15 min
Simple of complex seizure?
More than one seizure in a 24-h period
Simple of complex seizure?
Characterized by a focal seizure
Complex (simple seizures are always generalized)
Simple of complex seizure?
Treatment consists of fever reduction (antipyretics)
Simple of complex seizure?
Associated with a 10% risk of epilepsy
Complex (may require anticonvulsant therapy, must perform EEG and MRI to rule out neurologic disease)
What nonprogressive, nonhereditary movement and posture disorder is associated with perinatal brain damage?
Cerebral palsy (CP)
List the risk factors for CP.
1. Prematurity
2. MR
3. Low birth weight
4. Fetal malformation
5. Neonatal seizures
6. Neonatal cerebral hemorrhage
7. Perinatal asphyxia
What is the most frequent presenting sign of CP?
Delayed motor development (often missed until
What percentage of CP patients show mental retardation?
About 50%
What is the most common form of CP?
Pyramidal (characterized by spasticity in all affected limbs)
What is the treatment of CP?
Benzodiazepines, dantrolene, and baclofen (goal is to reduce spasticity)