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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the cause of anemia in the following descriptions:
Most common cause of anemia in the pediatric population
Iron deficiency anemia
Name the cause of anemia in the following descriptions:
Patients present with bone/chest pain, dactylitis, priapism, or strokes
Sickle cell disease
Name the cause of anemia in the following descriptions:
Inherited hemolytic anemia caused by malformation or malfunction of globin subunits of the hemoglobim molecule
Thalassemia
Name the cause of anemia in the following descriptions:
Treatment of acute symptoms consists of oxygen, fluids, analgesia, antibiotics, and exchange transfusion
Sickle cell disease
Name the cause of anemia in the following descriptions:
Caused by exclusive feeding with cow's milk without mineral supplementaiton
Iron deficiency anemia (iron in breast milk is more bioavailable)
Name the cause of anemia in the following descriptions:
Typically presents at 4 months of age as hemoglobin F levels begin to decline
Sickle cell disease
Name the cause of anemia in the following descriptions:
X-linked recessive disease that presents during oxidative stress caused by fava beans or drug exposure (dapsone, sulfonamides, and antimalarials)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Name the cause of anemia in the following descriptions:
Patients are at greatest risk for infection and sepsis from H. influenza and S. pneumoniae
Sickle cell disease (spleen may be compromised due to autoinfarction)
Name the complication of sickle cell disease described below:
Caused by repeated infarction of lung tissue
Acute chest syndrome
Name the complication of sickle cell disease described below:
Painful swelling of the hands and feet
Dactylitis
Name the complication of sickle cell disease described below:
potentially fatal complication typically induced by parvovirus B19 infection
Aplastic crisis (must check reticulocyte count in sickle patients)
Name the complication of sickle cell disease described below:
Complication that causes pain, priapism, gallbladder disease, chronic renal failure, splenic infarction and avascular necrosis of the femoral head
Vasooculsive crisis
Name the complication of sickle cell disease described below:
Sickel cells cause microvascular obstruction and lead to fibrosis of the spleen
Autoinfarction (increased susceptibility of infection with encapsulated organisms)
Name the coagulation disorder(s) charcterized by the following statements:
X-linked recessive disease caused by a deficiency in factor VIII
Hemophilia A
Name the coagulation disorder(s) charcterized by the following statements:
X-linked recessive disease caused by a deficiency in factor IX
Hemophilia B
Name the coagulation disorder(s) charcterized by the following statements:
Treated with desmopressin acetate (DDAVP)
Von Willebrand's disease and hemophilia A (DDAVP causes release of factor VIII and von Willebrand's factor [vWF] from endothelial cells)
Name the coagulation disorder(s) charcterized by the following statements:
Bleeding sites are from mucous membranes, skin, and vagina during menstruation
von Willebrand's disease
Name the coagulation disorder(s) charcterized by the following statements:
Bleeding causes hemarthroses and intramuscular bleeds
Hemophilia A and B
Name the coagulation disorder(s) charcterized by the following statements:
Increase in partial thromboplastin time (PTT) with normal prothrombin time (PT) and platelet aggregation
Hemophilia A/B and von Willebrand's disease
What is the most common childhood malignancy?
Leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia is the most common)
What type of leukemia is more common in African American males of any age?
AML
Waht type of leukemia is more common in White males, 3-5 years of age?
ALl
What is the typical initial presentation of a patient with leukemia?
Lethargy, malaise, anorexia, and weight loss
What are the typical late presenting signs of leukemia?
Bone pain and arthralgia
The cluster of petechiae, pallor, ecchymosis, and fever in a patient with a history of leukemia is evidence of what pathophysiologic process?
Bone marrow failure
What is the treatment for leukemia?
Prednisone, vincristine, and L-asparaginase
What is the most common solid tumor and the second most comon malignancy in childhood?
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors
Where do CNS tumors typically occur?
Infratentorial (cerebellum, midbrain, brainstem) most adult CNS tumors are supratentorial
Name the clinical manifestations of CNS tumors.
Truncal ataxia, coordination/gait disturbances, and head tilt (due to cranial nerve palsies)
What are the symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP)?
Headaches, vomiting, and lethargy
What are the signs of increased ICP?
Papilledema, altered mental status, and Cushing's triad (hypertension, bradycardia, Cheyne-Stokes respiration - a late finding)
Name the malignancy of primitive neural crest cells of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia.
Neuroblastoma
What is the most common presentation of neuroblastoma?
Painless abdominal mass
What two diagnostic tests provide the definitive diagnosis of neuroblastoma?
Elevated urinary catecholamines and pathologic identification of tumor tissue
What congenital anomalies are associated with Wilm's tumor?
WAGR- Wilm's tumor, Aniridia, ambiguous Genitalia, mental Retardation
Ewing's sarcoma or osteosarcoma?
Occurs on the midshaft of bones
Ewing's sarcma (osteosarcoma at epiphysis)
Ewing's sarcoma or osteosarcoma?
Classic "sunburst appearance" on radiograph
Osteosarcoma
Ewing's sarcoma or osteosarcoma?
Malignant tumor of osteoblasts
osteosarcoma (osteoblasts)
Ewing's sarcoma or osteosarcoma?
Undifferentiated sarcoma
Ewing's sarcoma
Ewing's sarcoma or osteosarcoma?
Increased alkaline phosphatase may be used as a diagnosit test and as a treatment marker
osteosarcoma
Ewing's sarcoma or osteosarcoma?
Higher probablility of lung metastasis
osteosarcoma (chest CT to rule out pulmonary metastasis)