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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Most common indication for surgical intervention
Appendicitis
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Most common cause of bowel obstruction in children less than 2 years of age
Intussusception
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Characterized by projectice, nonbilious vomiting in first-born males less than 2 months of age
Pyloric stenosis
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Air-enema is diagnostic and therapeutic
Intussusception
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Physical examinatino reveals an olive-shaped, mobile, nonttender mass
pyloric stenois
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Manifests as a crampy, abd pain with emesis and bloody, mucous in stool (currant jelly stool)
Intussusception
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
presents as a painless, rectal bleeding
Meckel's diverticulum
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
failure of ganglionic cell migration
Hirschsprung's disease
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Arises from "lead points" and is described as a "sausage-like mass" on examination
Intussusception
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Diagnosis requires a technetium pertechnetae scan that detects ectopic gastric mucosa
Meckel's diverticulum
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Diagnosis requires ultrasound and treatment is by surgical pylorotomy
Pyloric stenosis
Name the GI disease characterized by the following descriptions:
Presents as bilious emesis in a child <1 month of age; diagnosed by upper GI series
Malrotation
Risk factors include Meckel's diverticulum, intestinal lymphoma, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, celiac disease, CF, and infection
Intussusception (all can act as potential lead points)
Describe the major characteristics of Meckel's diverticulum.
"Rule of 2s"
Males are affected two times as often as females
2 feet proximal to the ileocecal valve
2 types of ectopic mucosa (gastric or pancreatic)
2% of population
2 years of age
What is the most frequent clinical sign of vesicoureteral reflux?
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs)
What is the diagnostic test of choice in vesicoureteral reflux?
Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
Name the most common penile congenital anomalyl.
Hypospadias
What are the two major complications of cryptochordism?
Impaired sperm production and increased risk of malignancy
Name the four characteristics of nephrotic syndrome.
proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemmia, and edema
What is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrom in children and what is the treatment?
Minimal change disease, steroids (best prognosis)
What is the hallmark of glomerulonephritis?
Hematuria
Name the glomerulonephritis characterized by the following descriptions:
Sudden onset of hematuria 2 weeks after streptococcal pharyngitis
Acute PSGN (most common)
Name the glomerulonephritis characterized by the following descriptions:
Hematuria with an insidious progression to renal failure and encephalopathy
Rapid progressive glomerulonephritis
Name the glomerulonephritis characterized by the following descriptions:
Palpable purpura on the lower limbs and buttocks followed by abdominal pain and hematuria
HSP (Henoch-Shonlein) purpura
Name the glomerulonephritis characterized by the following descriptions:
Nephritic clinical picture accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss
Alport's syndrome
Name the glomerulonephritis characterized by the following descriptions:
Elevated anti-DNAse and low complement C3 levels
Acute PSGN
What disease results from a lack of insulin production by B-cells in the pancreas?
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1)
What is the typical presentation of type 1 diabetes?
Polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue,and abdominal pain
What three screening tests should be performed annually in the pediatric patient with type 1 diabetes?
Urine screening for microalbuminemia, ophthalmologic exam for retinopathy, and lipid profile for hyperlipidemia
What are the key features of diabetic ketaacidosis (DKA)?
Fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy (until ketoacidosis resolves), and electrolyte management
What is the most feared complication in the treatment of DKA?
Cerebral edema (caused by rapid changes in serum osmotic pressure)
Constitutional delay or familial short stature?
Normal growth velocity at or below the 5% percentile
Constitutional delay
Constitutional delay or familial short stature?
Growth curve falls below the fifth percentile with abnormal growth velocity
Familial short stature
Constitutional delay or familial short stature?
Delay in bone age
Constitutional delay
Constitutional delay or familial short stature?
Puberty is typically delayed
Constitutional delay
Constitutional delay or familial short stature?
Normal bone age
Familial short stature
List the six most common pathologic causes of short stature.
1. Growth hormone deficiency
2. Primary hypothyroidism
3. Cushing's disease
4. Chronic systemic disease
5. Psychosocial deprivation
6. Turner's syndrome
What congenital hormonal deficiency can cause severe MR?
Congential hypothyroidism
What is the most common enzyme deficiency in congenital adrenal hyperplasia?
21-hydroxylase deficiency
What are the clinical manifestations of 21-hydroxylase deficiency?
Ambiguous genitalia in females, hyponatrema and hyperkalemia (from lack of aldosterone), and hypoglycemia (from insuffficient cortisol)
The elevation of what hormone is diagnostic for 21-hydroxylase deficiency?
17-hydroxyprogesterone
What hormonal therapy is used to treat 21-hydroxylase deficiency?
Cortisol (for suppression of androgen production) and mineralcorticoids (for electrolyte balance)