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16 Cards in this Set

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Describe Erickson’s stage of initiative vs. guilt
Children discover that they are persons of their own; during early childhood, they must discover what type of person they will become. They identify most with their parents. They use their perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things happen. They have a lot of energy that allows them to forget failures quickly and to approach new areas even if they seem dangerous. On their own initiative, children at this stage move out into a wider social world. Initiative ties with conscience. Children now not only feel afraid of being found out when they do something wrong, but they also begin to hear the inner voices of self-observation, self-guidance, and self-punishment. Their initiative and enthusiasm may bring them not only rewards but also guilt, which lowers self-esteem. The response of the parents to self-initiated activities will influence if the child’s initiative will outweigh their guilt. If a parent looks down on their fantasy or play, they will feel shameful and not initiate that activity anymore.
• What components of self-understanding occur at this age?
This is the representation of self, the substance and content of self-conceptions. Self-understanding involves self- recognition. For example, appx. 18 months a child will recognize their body part in the mirror. 2 and 3 they develop a sense of “me”. By 4 they describe themselves with physical and material attributes.
•Bandura's theory: Authoritarian parenting
A restrictive punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect work and effort. The authoritarian parent places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange. Authoritarian parenting is associated with children’s social incompetence. They may spank their children or enforce rules rigidly, but not explain them & show rage to children. Children of these parents may feel unhappy, fearful and have poor communication skills.
Bandura's theory: Aurthorative parenting
- A parenting style in which parents encourage their children to be independent but still place limits and controls their actions. Extensive verbal give-and- take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant toward the child. Authoritative parenting is associated with children’s social competence. This parents hugs the child and says,” you shouldn’t have done that, and let’s talk about a way you can handle this better next time”. Children of these parents are cheerful, self-controlled, get along with peers and achievement- oriented
Bandura's theory: Neglectful parenting
A style of parenting in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child’s life; it is associated with children’s social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control. The parent’s lives are more important than the child’s life. The children have poor self-control, immature, low self-esteem and can get in trouble in adolescent years.
Bandura's theory: Indulgent parenting
A style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. Indulgent parenting is associated with children’s social incompetence, especially a lack of self- control. They let their child do whatever they want. Children never learn to control their own behavior and always expect to get their ways. They are domineering, egocentric and have difficulties in peer relations.
Describe cultural influences on parenting styles
Asian American parents often continue aspects of Asian childrearing practices that have sometimes been described of authoritarian. The parents exert a considerable control over their children’s life. However, it is different from domineering control and comes from a place of concern.
Latino childrearing focuses more on positive than punitive. They encourage the development of self and identity. Several generations live together and in these circumstances emphasize respect and obedience of the children.
African American parents are more likely than white parents to use physical punishment.
Uses of physical punishment have been linked with high levels of aggression in white families, but not in African American families.
What are the developmental results of child abuse?
They have poor emotion regulation, attachment problems, problems in peer relations, difficulty in adapting to school and other psychological problems.
Maltreated infants have excessive negative affect, such as irritability and crying and rarely smiling.
If young children are maltreated, they often show insecure attachment patterns in their social relationships later in life.
Maltreated children tend to be overly aggressive with peers or avoid interacting with peers.
Identify trends in family structure occurring in our society
In general, having both parents employed full-time outside the home has not shown to have negative effects on the children. However, in some circumstances, when a mother works outside the home, such as when the infant Is less than 1 year old, negative effects can occur. There are few differences with children growing up with heterosexual parents and those growing up from gay and lesbian parents. African American and Latino children are more likely than White American children to live in single-parent families and larger families, and have extended family connections. Lower SES parents creates a more authoritative environment at home than high SES parents.
Explain the effects of divorce on children
Children in divorced families are more likely than children in non-divorced families to have academic problems, to show externalized problems (acting out), and internalized problems (anxiety and depression), to be less socially responsible, to have less competent intimate relationships, to drop out of school, to become sexually active at an early age, to take drugs, to have low self-esteem and be less securely attached as young adults. The child’s personality, temperament, gender and custody situation play a role in how the child will adjust to the change. Those who are socially mature and responsible cope better.
Explain why good peer relations are necessary for adequate social development?
One of the most important functions is to provide a source of information and comparison about the world outside the family. Special concerns focus on children who are rejected by peers and are victimized and feel lonely. They are at risk for depression and developing a number of problems including delinquency and dropping out of school
Evaluate the claim: “Violence on TV causes aggression in children
When children observe behavior like pushing and kicking and choking on television, they are more likely to go to school and act out these behaviors, as compared to children who watched cartoons. There are links to watching violence as a child and acting aggressively later in life.
Define the gender theories: psychoanalytic
Psychoanalytic theory of gender- a theory deriving from Freud’s view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite sex parent, by age 5 or 6 renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings, and subsequently indentifies with the same-sex parent, unconsciously adapting the same-sex parents characteristics
Define the gender theories: Social cognitive
Social cognitive theory of gender- a theory that emphasizes that children’s gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender appropriate and gender inappropriate behavior
Define the Gender theories: Cognitve
Cognitive theory of gender-children’s gender development occurs through observing and imitating what other people say and do, and through being rewarded and punished for gender appropriate and gender in appropriate behavior
Define the gender theories: Gender Schema
Gender schema-the theory that gender typing emerges as children develop gender schemas of their culture’s gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior.