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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Otitis Media?
Inflammation or infection of the middle ear.
What causes acute Otitis Media?
H. Flu or S. Pneumonia
What causes chronic otitis media?
gram negative bacteria, allergy, or several viruses. Often preceded by a URI.
What are symptoms of Otitis Media?
Sense of fullness in the ear, diminished hearing, pain, fever.
What is the treatment for Otitis Media?
Antibiotics, analgesics, local heat, nasal decongestnats, needle aspiration of secretions.
What are nursing implications for Otitis Media?
Watch for early warning signs of O.M. Use vaporizers and decongestants as prophylaxis againt O.M. Hearing loss may be a result of chronic O.M.
What is tonsilitis?
An infection of inflammation of a tonsil.
What causes tonsilitis?
Streptococcus infection.
What are the signs and symptoms of tonsilitis?
Severe sore throat, fever, headache, malaise, difficulty swallowing, earache, and enlarged tender lymph nodes in the neck.
What is the treatment for tonsilitis?
Systemic antibiotics, analgesics, and warm irrigations of the throat. Soft foods and ample fluids.
What are the nursing implications of tonsilitis?
Give plenty of fluids and soft foods.
What is croup?
An acute viral infection of the upper and lower respiratory tract that occurs primarily in infants and young children 3 months to 3 years of age after an upper respiratory tract infection.
What are the signs and symptoms of croup?
Hoarseness, irritability, fever, a distinctive harsh, brassy cough, persistent stridor during inspiration, and dyspnea and tachypnea, resulting from obstruciton of the larynx.
What causes croup?
Parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial viruses.
What are the nursing implications for croup?
Ease breathing by providing humidity and to monitor continuously for signs fo respiratory distress and impending airway obstruciton. Encourage rest, treat fever, teach parents.
What is the treatment for croup?
Bed rest, adequate fluid intake, alleviation of airway obstruction to ensure adequate respiratory exchange. Use vaporizers, humidifiers. Medications rarely used.
What is epitlottitis?
An inflammation of the epiglottis. May be acute in children.
What causes epiglottitis?
H. Flu type B.
What are the signs and symptoms of epiglottitis?
Fever, sore throat, stridor, croupy cough and an erythematous, swollen epiglottis. Patient may become cyanotic and require an emergency tracheostomy to maintain respiration.
What is the treatment for epiglottitis?
Antibiotics, rest, oxygen, and supportive care. May require an emergency tracheostomy to maintain respiration.
What are the nursing implications for epiglottitis?
Treat fever, give fluids, maintain airway.
What is asthma?
A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells, including mast cells andeosinophils play a part.
What causes asthma?
An allergic hypersensitivity to a foreign substance such as airborne pollen, mold, house dust, certain foods, animal hair and skin, feathers, insects, smoke, various chemicals or drugs.
What is the treatment for asthma?
Treatment is based on severity. Medications are classified as relievers and controllers. Drugs are used to relieve bronchospasm.
What are the nursing implications for asthma?
Relieve symptoms of respiratory distress by Initiating IV infusion and oxygen therapy, correcting acidosis, and administering brochodilators and corticosteroids. Promote comfort, rest. Teach about causes and meds.
What is cystic fibrosis?
An inherited autosomal-recessive disorder of exocrine glands, causing those glands to produce abnormally thick secretions of mucus, elevation of sweat electrolytes, increased organic & enzymatic constituents of saliva, & overactivity of the autonomic nervous system. Affects pancreas and respiratory system and sweat glands.
What causes cystic fibrosis?
It is inherited.
What are the signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
Meconium ileus(obstruction of the small bowel by viscid stool),chronic cough, frequent, foul-smelling stools; and persistent upper respiratory infections. Diagnosed by the sweat test.
What is the treatment for cystic fibrosis?
No cure. Prevent respiratory infections. Bronchodilators are used to help liquefy the mucus. Physical therapy and breathing exercises help to dislodge secretions.
What are the nursing implications of cystic fibrosis?
Instruct the family in health promotion and care of child. Teach about pancreatic enzymes, equipment, food selection, prevention of infection, and techniques of expectorating sputum. Emotional support and community resources.
What is patent ductus arteriosis? PDA
An abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth.
What causes Patent Ductus Arteriosis (PDA)?
Seen primarily in premature infants.
What are the signs and symptoms of Patent Ductus Arteriosis?
Cardiomegaly (enlargement of the heart), especially of the l. atrium & l. ventricle, dilated ascending aorta, bounding pulses resulting from increased systolic pressure, tachycardia, a typical machinery-like murmur that is heard during all of systole & most of diastole. Diagnosed by radiography.
What is the treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosis (PDA)?
Surgery when the child is older. Untreated - it can cause congestive heart failure.
What is ventricular septal defect (VSD)?
The most common congenital cardiac anomaly, characterized by one or more abnormal openings in the septum separating the ventricles. The openings, (from 1-2mm to several cm) permit oxygenated blood to flow from the left to the right ventricle and to recirculate throught the pulmonary artery and lungs.
What are the manifestations of ventricular septal defect (VSD)?
Small defects may close spontaneously, and children with such defects are usually asymptomatic. Large defects may lead to bacterial endocarditis, lower respiratory tract infections, pulmonary vascular obstructive disease, aortic regurgitation, or congestive heart failure.
What are the signs and symptoms of ventricular septal defect (VSD)?
Rapid breathing, poor weight gain, restlessness, irritability. Diagnosis is established by electrocardiography, cardiac catherterization, & angiography.
What is the treatment for ventricular septal defect (VSD)?
Surgical repair of the defect, preferably in early childhood.
What is atrial septal defect (ASD)?
A congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by an abnormal opening between the atria. The severity depends on the size and location of the opening.
What are the signs and symptoms of atrial septal defect (ASD)?
Characteristic harsh, scratchy systolic murmur & a fixed splitting of the second heart sound which does not vary with respiration. Also r. atrial & r. ventricular enlargement.
What is the treatment for atrial septal defect (ASD)?
Surgical closure is done later in childhood, unless the defect is severe.
What causes CHF?
Myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.
What are the manifestations of CHF?
Failure of the ventricles to eject blood efficiently results in volume overload, ventricular dilation, and elevated intracardiac pressure. Increase pressure in the l. side of the heart causes pulmonary congestion. Increased pressure in the r. side of the heart causes systemic venous congestion & peripheral edema.
What is bacterial endocarditis?
An acute or subacute bacterial infection of the endocardium or the heart valves or both.
What are the signs and symptoms of bacterial endocarditis?
Heart murmur, prolonged fever, bacteremia, splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen), and embolic phenomena (embolisms).
What causes bacterial endocarditis?
Staphylococci, or streptococcus viridans in heart valves damaged by rheumatic fever.
What is the treatment of bacterial endocarditis?
Antibiotics, such as penicillin, cephalosporin, or gentamicin given IV is essential to prevent destruction of the valves and cardiac failure.
What is rheumatic fever?
A systemic inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to an inadequately treated infection of the upper respiratory tract. Usually occurs in school age children and may affect the brain, heart, joints, skin or subcutaneous tissues.
What are the signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever?
Onset occurs after 1-5 symptom free weeks after sore throat or scarlet fever. Fever, joint pain, nose bleeds, abdominal pain, and vomiting.
What is the treatment of rheumatic fever?
Bed rest and severe restriction of normal activity. Penicillin is often administered, even if throat cultures are negative & steroids or salicylates may be used depending on the severity of any associated carditis & arthritis.
What are the nursing implications of rheumatic fever?
Be alert to signs of toxicity associated w/ salicylate, steroid, & antibiotic therapies. Monitor pt. fluid status with regard to cardiac function, help minimize joint pain by properly positioning the patient, emotional support.
What is Kawasaki disease? Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (MLNS)
An acute febrile illness, primarily of young children.
What are the signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease? Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome
Inflamed mucous membranes of the mouth, strawberry tongue, cervical lymphadenopathy, polymorphous rash on trunk, edema, erythema, desquamation of the skin on the extremities. Also arthralgia, diarrhea, otitis, pneumonia, photophobia, meningitis, & elctrocardiographic changes.
What is the treatment for Kawasaki Disease (Mucocutaneous Lymph node syndrome)?
IV gammaglobulin, aspirin in large doses, and supportive care.
What is the cause of Kawasaki Disease? (Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome)
Unknown. No clear-cut environmental, seasonal, or geographic factors have been discovered & person-to-person transmission is unproved.
What is sickle cell disease?
A severe chronic incurable hemoglobinopathic anemic condition that occurs in people homozygous for hemoglobin S.
What causes sickle cell disease?
Congenital (From birth)
What is the treatment for sickle cell disease?
Therapy consists of immediate transfusion of packed red cells in the acute anemic crisis & alleviation of severe abdominal & joint pain with analgesics or narcotics as needed. Short term oxygen therapy, hydration by oral or IV means, electrolyte replacement to counteract metabolic acidosis resulting from hypoxia, & antibiotics to treat any existing infection.
What are the nursing implications of sickle cell disease?
Initiate procedures that reduce sickling. Prevent tissue deoxygenation & resulting hypoxia by maintaining bed rest to minimize energy expenditure & oxygen use. Hydration & electrolyte balance are essiential. Record I&O. Management of pain, apply warmth, emotional support.
What is hemophilia?
A heredity blood disorder usually expressed in males that is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait.
What causes hemophilia?
A deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A) or a deficiency of plasma thromboplastin component (hemophilia B).
What are the signs and symptoms of hemophilia?
Greater than usual loss of blood during dental procedures, epistaxis, hematoma, hemorhtrosis. Severe nonsurgical internal hemorrhage & hematuria are less common.
What are the nursing implications of hemophilia?
Prevent bleeding, make the environment safe. Teach measures for controlling bleeding & limiting local joint damage & ways that the patient can be physically active without danger of injury.
What is idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura? ITP
A deficiency of platelets that results in bleeding into the skin and other organs.
What causes ideopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?
May follow a viral infection or be transmitted to the fetus of an infected mother.
What is the treatment for ideopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?
Hemophoresis (blood transfusion?), corticosteroids, therapeutic plasmapheresis(removal of plasma from previously withdrawn blood by centrifugation & reinfusion), and splenectomy (removal of the spleen).
What is systematic lupus erythematosus? (LE)
A chronic inflammatory disease affecting many systems of the body. A collagen disease.
What causes systemic lupus erythematosis? LE
Unknown. May be viral infection or dysfunction of the immune system.
What are the nursing implications of systemic lupus erythamatosis? LE
Explain use of all medications especially steroids. Emotional and psychological support.
What is HIV?
A retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndroms (AIDS).
What causes HIV?
Transmitted through contact with an infected individual's blood, semen, breast milk, cervical secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, or synovial fluid.
What are the signs and symptoms of HIV?
Chills, fever, night sweats, dry productive cough, dyspnea, lethargy, confusion, stiff neck, seizures, headache, malaise, fatigue, oral lesions, skin rashes, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, weight loss, edema, lymphadenopathy.
What is osteomyelitis?
Local or generalized infection of bone and bone marrow.
What causes osteomyelitis?
Bacteria introduced by trauma or surgery, by direct extension from a nearby infection, or via the bloodstream.
What is the treatment for osteomyelitis?
Bed rest & parenteral antibiotics for several weeks. Surgery may be necessary to remove necrotic bone & tissue, obliterate cavities, remove infected prosthetic appliances, & apply prostheses to stabilize affected parts.
What are the nursing implications of osteomyelitis?
Drainage is disposed of using usual precautions. Absolute rest of the affected part may be necessary, with careful positioning using pillows & sandbags for good alignment. Treat pain, be extremely gentle in moving & manipulating the infected part.
What are the signs and symptoms of Osteomyelitis?
Persistent, severe, and increasing bone pain, tenderness, guarding on movement, regional muscle spasm, and fever.
What are the complications of Osteomyelitis?
Loss of limb.
What is Legg - Perthes?
Osteochondrosis of the head of the femur in children.
What causes Legg - Perthes?
A disturbance in circulation.
What is scoliosis?
Lateral curvature of the spine.
What is the treatment for scoliosis?
Exercises, bracing, tens unit, surgery.
What are the complications of scoliosis?
Reduced respiratory function, nerve damage. Note - abdominal organs change position when the problem is corrected.
What are nursing diagnoses for scoliosis?
Risk for injury, impaired skin integrity, body image disturbance, knowledge deficit.
What is Hip Dysplagia?
The head of the femur is not properly seated in the socket.
What are the signs and symptoms of hip dysplagia?
One leg shorter, increased fat folds, limited abduction, limp or waddle in older children.
What is the treatment for hip dysplagia?
Double diapers, plavix brace, surgery.
What is juvenile arthritis?
An inflammatory condition of the joints, characterized by pain, swelling, heat, redness, and limitation of movement.