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30 Cards in this Set

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What is the percentage range for Neutrophils and are they for?
55-70%; Fight infection
What is the percentage range for Lymphocytes and are they for?
20-40%; Fight infection
What is the percentage range for Monocytes and are they for?
2-8%; Fight infection
What is the percentage range for Eosinophils and are they for?
1-4%; Allergic reaction, parasitic infection
What is the percentage range for Basophils and what are the for?
0.5-1%; Allergic reaction
What is a macule?
A flat discoloration of the skin, less than 1 cm in diameter, and nonpalpable.
What are some examples of macules?
Freckle, measles, flat mole, scarlet fever, petechia
What is a papule?
Elevated/solid lesion, less than 1 cm in diameter
What are some examples of papules?
milia, wart, ringworm, mole lichen planus
How does a preschool child exhibit loss of control?
Tantrums, clinging, and withdrawal
How is chicken pox spread?
*Direct contact,
*Droplet,
*Airborne,
*Contaminated objects
What are the signs and symptoms seen with chickenpox?
*Slight fever,
*Malaise,
*Anorexia for the first 24 hours,
*Very itchy rash
*Irritability from itching,
*Lymphadenopathy
What is the treatment for chickenpox?
*Antiviral agent such as Acyclovir (Zovirax),
*Varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) after exposure in high risk children,
*Antihistamines to relieve itching,
*Skin care to prevent secondary bacterial infections.
What are the complications of chickenpox?
*Secondary bacterial infections
*Encephalitis
*Varicella Pneumonia
*Reye's Syndrome
What are the nursing interventions for chickenpox?
*Strict contact isolation in hospital (gown, gloves & mask),
*Instruct isolation of children at home until vesicles have dried,
*Keep the pt cool,
*Administer topical lotions,
*Keep the patient's fingernails short and clean,
*Benedryl or Atarax for itching
*Avoid use of aspirin
How do you prevent chickenpox?
Primary immunization, and VZIG (Varicella Zoster Immune Globulin)
When is the chickenpox vaccine recommended?
The varicella vaccine should be given after the first birthday if the patient has not had chickenpox. Children 13 and over need 2 doses at least 4 weeks apart.
What is the incubation period for chickenpox?
10-21 days
When is chickenpox contagious?
1 day before eruption of lesions until all lesions are crusted over, usually 5-7 days.
What is the primary source of varicella zoster virus?
Primary secretions of respiratory tract of the infected person.
What is the agent of Diptheria?
Corynebacterium diptheriae bacteria
What is the source of Diptheria?
Droplets from mucous membranes of the nose, nasopharynx, skin and other lesions of infected person
How is Diptheria transmitted?
Direct contact with infected person, carrier or contaminated articles, or from droplets
What is the incubation period for Diptheria?
2-7 days, possibly longer
When is diptheria contagious?
Variable...until virulent bacteria is no longer present. Usually 2 weeks, but as long as 4 weeks.
What are the signs and symptoms of Diptheria?
Nasal symptoms resemble the common cold, may have frank epistaxis.

Tonsillar/pharyngeal symptoms include malaise, anorexia, sore throat, low-grade fever, smooth, adherent white/gray membrane, lymphadentis, in severe cases septic shock, toxemia, and death within 6-10 days
Laryngeal signs are fever, hoarseness, cough, potential airway obstruction, apprehensiveness, retractions, cyanosis, dyspneic
What is the treatment for Diptheria?
Antitoxin usually via IV, antibiotics (PCN or erythromcyin), complete bed rest. Treatment of infected carriers and contacts!
What are the complications of Diptheria?
Myocarditis & Neuritis
What are the nursing interventions for Diptheria?
Droplet isolation in the hospital, administer antibiotics, maintain complete bed rest, observe for respiratory obstruction, and administer oxygen if ordered.
How do you prevent Diptheria?
DTaP or Td (IM) immunizations
2 mos, 4 mos, 6 mos, 12-15 mos, 4-6 yrs, & q 10 yr (Td)