Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/85

Click to flip

85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Wellness
Optimal health and vitality, encompassing physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, interpersonal and social, and environmental well-being.
Infectious Disease
A disease that is communicable from one person to another; caused by invading microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses.
Chronic Disease
A disease that develops and continues over a long period of time; usually caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyles factors.
Physical Fitness
A set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort.
Unintentional Injury
An injury that occurs without harm being intended.
Target Behavior
An isolated behavior selected as the object for a behavior change program.
Self-Efficacy
The belief in one's ability to take action and perform a specific behavior.
Locus of Control
The figurative "place" a person designates as the source of responsibility for the events in his or her life.
Physical Activity
Any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy.
Exercise
Planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness.
Health-Related Fitness
Physical capacities that contribute to health: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity.
Muscular Strength
The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
Metabolism
The sum of all the vital processes by which food energy and nutrients are made available to and used by the body.
Muscular Endurance
The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for a long period of time.
Flexibility
The range of motion in a joint or group of joints, flexibility is relatedto muscle length.
Body Composition
The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body.
Fat-Free Mass
The nonfat component of the human body, consisting of skeletal muscle, bone, and water.
Skill-Related Fitness
Physical capacities that contribute to performance in a sport or activity: speed, power, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time.
Physical Training
The performance of different types of activities that cause the body to adapt and improve its level of fitness.
Specificity
The training principle that the body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it.
Progressive Overload
The training principle that placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness.
Reversibility
The training principle that fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered.
Exercise Stress Test
Used to determine if any heart disease is present and to assess current fitness level.
Graded Exercise Test (GXT)
An exercise test that starts at an easy intensity and progresses to maxiumum capacity.
Overtraining
A condition caused by training too much or too intensely, characterized by lack of energy, decreased physical performance, fatigue, depression, aching muscles and joints, and susceptibility to injury.
Pulmonary circulation
The part of the circulatory system that moves blood between the heart and the lungs; controlled by the right side of the heart.
Systemic Circulation
The part of the circulatory system that moves blood between the heart and the rest of the body; controlled by the left side of the heart.
Atria
The two upper chambers of the heart in which blood collects before passing to the ventricles; also called auricles.
Venae Cavae
The large veins through which blood is returned to the right atrium of the heart.
Ventricles
The two lower chambers of the heart from which blood flows through arteries to the lungs and other parts of the body.
Aorta
The large artery that receives blood from the left ventricle and distributes it ot the body.
Systole
contraction of the heart
Diastole
Relaxation of the heart
Blood Pressure
The force exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels; created by the pumping action of the heart. Blood pressure increases during systole and decreases during diastole.
Veins
Vessels that carry blood to the heart.
Arteries
Vessles that carry blood away from the heart.
Capillaries
Very small blood vessels that distribute blood to all parts of the body.
Respiratory System
The lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles; supplies oxygen to the body and carries off carbon dioxide.
Alveoli
Tiny air sacs in the lungs through whose walls gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse in and out of blood.
Cardiac Output
The amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute; a function of heart rate and stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped during each beat).
Glucose
A simple sugar that circulates in the blood and can be used by cells to fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production.
Glycogen
A complex carbohydrate stored principally in the liver and skeletal muscles; the major fuel source during most forms of intense exercise. Glycogen is the storage form of glucose.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy source for cellular processes.
Immediate (explosive) Energy System
Energy system that supplies energy to muscle cells through the breakdown of cellular stores of ATP and creatine phosphate (CP).
Nonoxidative (anaerobic) Energy System
Energy system that supplies energy to muscle cells through the breakdown of muscle stores of glucose and glycogen; also called the anaerobic system or the lactic acid system because chemical reasctions take place without oxygen and produce lactic acid.
Anaerobic
Occurring in the absence of oxygen.
Lactic Acid
A metabolic acid resulting from the metabolism of glucose and glycogen; an important source of fuel for many tissues of the body, its accumulation may produce fatigue.
Aerobic
Dependent on the presence of oxygen.
Lipoproteins
substances in blood, classified according to size, density, and chemical composition, that transport fats.
Endorphins
Substances resembling morphine that are secreted by the brain and that decrease pain, suppress fatigue, and produce euphoria.
Neurotransmitters
Brain chemicals that transmitnerve impulses.
Heart Rate Reserve
The difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate; used in one method for calculating target heart rate range.
Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
A system of monitoring exercise intensity based on assigning a number to the subjective perception of target intensity.
Synovial Fluid
Fluid produced within many joints that provides lubrication and nutrients for the joints.
Muscular Strength
The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
Muscular Endurance
The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted (sustain a level of muscular force) or to contract repeatedly.
Muscle Fiber
A single muscle cell, usually classified according to strength, speed of contraction, and energy source.
Myofibrils
Protein structures that make up muscle fibers.
Hypertrophy
An increase in the size of a muscle fiber, usually stimulated by muscular overload.
Atrophy
A decrease in the size of muscle cells.
Power
The ability to exert force rapidly.
Motor Unit
A motor nerve (one that initiates movement) connected to one or more muscle fibers.
Tendon
A tough band of fibrous tissue that connects a muscle to a bone or other body part and transmits the force exerted by the muscle.
Ligament
A tough band of tissue that connects the ends of bones to other bones or supports organs in place.
Testosterone
The principle male hormone.
Static (isometric) Exercise
Exercise involving a muscle contraction without a change in the length of the muscle.
Dynamic (isotonic) Exercise
Exercise involving a muscle contraction witha change in the length of the muscle.
Concentric Muscle Contraction
An isotonic contraction in which the muscle gets shorter as it contracts.
Eccentric Muscle Contraction
An isotonic contraction in which the muscle lengthens as it contracts; also called a pliometric contraction.
Isokinetic
The application of force at a constant speed against an equal force.
Flexibility
The range of motion in a joint or group of joints.
Joint Capsules
Semielastic stuctures, composed primarily of connective tissue, that surround major joints.
Soft tissues
Tissues of the human body that include skin, fat, linings of internal organs and blood vessels, connective tissues, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.
Collagen
White fibers that provide structure and support in connective tissue.
Elastin
Yellow fibers that make connective tissue flexible.
Titin
A filament in muscle that helps align proteins that cause muscle contraction; titin has elastic properties and also plays a role in flexibility.
Stretch Receptors
Senseorgans in skeletal muscles that initiate a nerve signal to the spinal cord in response to a stretch; a contraction follows.
Vertobrae
Bony segments composing the spinal column that provide structural support for the body and protect the spinal cord.
Intervertebral Disk
An elastic disk located between adjoining vertebrae consisting of a gel- and water-filled nucleus surrounded by fibrous rings; it serves as a shock absorber for the spinal column.
Nerve Root
Base of one of the 31 pairs of spinal nerves that branch off the spinal cord through spaces between vertebrae.
Adipose Tissue
Connective tissue in which fat is stored.
Amenorrhea
Absent or infrequent menstruation, sometimes related to low levels of body fat and excessive quantity or intensity of exercise.
Female Athlete Triad
A condition consisting of three interrelated disorders: abnormal eating patters followed by lack of menstrual periods and decreased bone density.
Body Mass Index
A measure of relative body weight correlating highly with more direct measures of body fat, calculated by dividing total body weight (in kilograms) by the square of body height (in meters).