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233 Cards in this Set

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How many chromosomes do 'HUMANS' have? How many pairs does this equal out to?
46 CHROMOSOMES

23 PAIRS
How many pairs of the '23 PAIRS' of chromosomes determines the 'SEX' of the offspring?
ONLY 1 PAIR
What chromosome pair combination determines a 'MALE'?
XY
What chromosome pair combination determines a 'FEMALE'?
XX
The 'EGG' carries what type(s) of 'SEX CHROMOSOME(S)'?
X ONLY
The 'SPERM' carries what type(s) of 'SEX CHROMOSOME(S)'?
X AND Y
Approximately how many 'GENES' are present on the human 'X CHROMOSOME'?

What do these genes control? (*2 Main things)
~100+

1. COLOR VISION
2. BLOOD CLOTTING
Which 'SEX CHROMOSOME' gets 'short-changed' and does NOT have very many genes?
Y CHROMOSOME
What does 'GONADAL DEVELOPMENT' depend on?
Y CHROMOSOME
What are the 'GONADS?
TISSUE THAT CAN GO IN EITHER DIRECTION DEPENDING ON THE 'SEX CHROMOSOME PAIR'

TESTES IN MALES
OVARIES IN FEMALES
There are 2 reasons why the presence of the 'Y CHROMOSOME' results in a male. What are the 2 reasons?
1. (SRY)SEX-DETERMINING REGION Y GENE
*ENCODES FOR (TDF) PROTEIN

2. (TDF) TESTIS DETERMINING FACTOR
*PROTEIN THAT INDUCES FORMATION OF TESTIS)
The development of 'SECONDARY SEX STRUCTURES' depends on the 'PRESENCE'/'ABSENCE' of what hormone?
TESTOSTERONE
TRUE or FALSE

Ovaries CAN secrete androgens.
FALSE

Ovaries canNOT secret androgens

Testes CAN secrete androgens
There are 2 'DUCTS' that cause the formation of 'SECONDARY SEX STRUCTURES'. What are the 2 ducts?
1. WOLLFIAN DUCTS = MALES

2. MULLERIAN DUCTS = FEMALES
Up until what point of embryonic development does the baby have both 'WOLLFIAN DUCTS/MULLERIAN DUCTS'?
UNTIL WEEK 7
What are 'WULFFIAN DUCTS'. What do they determine and how are they determined?
WOLLFIAN DUCTS = INTERNAL MALE STRUCTURE FORMATION

MALES

TESTOSTERONE
What are 'MULLERIAN DUCTS'. What do they determine and how are they determined?
MULLERIAN DUCTS = INTERNAL FEMALE STRUCTURES

FEMALES

LACK OF TESTOSTERONE
There are 2 more hormones that play a role in SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT besides 'TESTOSTERONE'. What are the 2 hormones?
1. MULLERIAN INHIBITING FACTOR

2. HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN
What hormone is secreted by the 'PLACENTA' and is also considered to be the 'STIMULUS' for early testicular secretion of 'TESTOSTERONE'?
HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN
'TESTOSTERONE' induces development of the 'WOLFFIAN DUCTS' into what?
1. MALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT
- EPIDIDYMIS
- DUCTUS DEFERENS
- EJACULATORY DUCT
- SEMINAL VESICLES
'MULLERIAN INHIBITING FACTOR' causes what to occur? Who does this happen to? Where is this secreted from?
REGRESSION OF MULLERIAN DUCTS

MALES

PLACENTA
If an 'EMBRYO' is not exposed to 'TESTOSTERONE' and 'MULLERIAN INHIBITING FACTOR', what occurs?
WOLFFIAN DUCTS REGRESS

FEMALE STRUCTURES GROW

MULLERIAN DUCTS DEVELOP INTO REPRODUCTIVE TRACT
- OVIDUCTS
- UTERUS
- VAGINA
The 'EXTERNAL REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES' in 'MALES' require what hormone to be present?
(DHT) - DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE
What happens if a baby is 'XY' but the 'TESTES' don't have 'RECEPTORS' or will NOT secrete 'TESTOSTERONE'?
THE BABY WILL PHYSICALLY BE FEMALE BUT BE A 'GENETIC MALE'.
At what point do the 'MALE'/'FEMALE' reproductive organs look the same?
UP TO 8 WEEKS
The 'DIFFERENTATION OF 'MALE'/'FEMALE BRAIN' depends on the absence/presence of what 'HORMONE' during a critical period.
TESTOSTERONE
What does the absence of 'TESTOSTERONE' during a critical period lead to the development of?
FEMALE BRAIN
What are the differences of the 'FEMALE/MALE BRAIN'? (*There are 3)
1. SIZE OF HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEI
2. CYCLIC RELEASE OF GONADOTROPIN
3. SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
What is 'PUBERTY'. About how long does it last?
SEXUAL MATURITY / REPRODUCTION BECOMES POSSIBLE

USUALLY LASTS 3-5 YEARS
The age of 'MENARCHE' (First Menstruation Period) is occuring slower/faster from previous times?
FASTER

1840 - 17 YEARS OLD
1950 - 13 YEARS OLD

*LAST 50 YEARS FROM 14.2 - 12.8 YEARS OLD
The lowering of the age at 'MENARCHE' (First Menstruation Period) may be caused by what? (*MOST IMPORTANT CAUSE)
NUTRITIONAL FACTORS
There are 7 things that happen during 'MALE PUBERTY'. What are they?
1. SPERM/TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION
2. ENLARGEMENT OF PENIS/SCROTUM/PROSTATE GLANDS/SEMINAL VESICLES
3. INCREASED BODY HAIR GROWTH
4. VOCAL FOLD THICKENING
5. SKIN THICKENING
6. INCREASED MUSCULAR GROWTH
7. THICKENING/STRENGTHENING OF BONES
The following are signs of what?

1. SPERM/TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION
2. ENLARGEMENT OF PENIS/SCROTUM/PROSTATE GLANDS/SEMINAL VESICLES
3. INCREASED BODY HAIR GROWTH
4. VOCAL FOLD THICKENING
5. SKIN THICKENING
6. INCREASED MUSCULAR GROWTH
7. THICKENING/STRENGTHENING OF BONES
MALE PUBERTY
'TESTOSTERONE' has seveal non-reproductive actions. There are 3 of them. What are they?
1. BONE GROWTH STIMULATION
(GROWTH SPURT)
2. EPIPHYSEAL PLATE CLOSURE
(GROWTH PLATES)
3. SEBACEOUS GLAND OIL SECRETION
(MAY CAUSE ACNE)
There are 6 things that happen during 'FEMALE PUBERTY'. What are they?
1. OVA/ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE PRODUCTION
2. OVARIAN/MENSTRUATION CYCLE BEINGS
3. VAGINAL/UTERUS/UTERINE TUBES/OVARY ENLARGEMENT
4. BREAST DEVELOPMENT
5. INCREASED ADIPOSE TISSUE IN THIGHS/BUTTOCKS/BREASTS
6. INCREASED VASCULARIZATION OF SKIN
What is the approximate age of puberty for 'MALES'?
9-14 BOYS
What is the approximate age of puberty for 'FEMALES'?
8-13 FEMALES
The following are signs of what?

1. OVA/ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE PRODUCTION
2. OVARIAN/MENSTRUATION CYCLE BEINGS
3. VAGINAL/UTERUS/UTERINE TUBES/OVARY ENLARGEMENT
4. BREAST DEVELOPMENT
5. INCREASED ADIPOSE TISSUE IN THIGHS/BUTTOCKS/BREASTS
6. INCREASED VASCULARIZATION OF SKIN
FEMALE PUBERTY
What is 'PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY'?

What are the causes for this to occur?
EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS W/OUT GAMETOGENESIS

CAUSES:
- FEMALES = ABNORMAL EXPOSURE TO ESTROGEN

- MALES = ABNORMAL EXPOSURE TO ANDROGENS
'PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY' is often caused by what?
TUMORS OF THE GONADS OR ADRENAL GLANDS
What is 'DELAYED PUBERTY' in 'FEMALES' considered to be?
LATE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBERTY CHARACTERISTICS

- 'MENARCHE' has failed to occur by age of 17 (FEMALES)
What is 'DELAYED PUBERTY' in 'MALES' considered to be?
LATE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBERTY CHARACTERISTICS

- 'TESTES' failed to develop by age 20 (MALES)
What is the temperature in the 'SCROTUM' compared to body temperature? Why?
SEVERAL DEGREES LOWER

SPERMATOGENESIS IS TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE
TRUE or FALSE

'SPERMATOGENSIS' canNOT occur at normal body temperature
TRUE

Must occur at a LOWER temperature
The 'TESTES' are divided into what?
TESTICULAR LOBULES
How many compartments do 'TESTICULAR LOBULES' have?
~250 COMPARTMENTS
'TESTICULAR LOBULES' contain 2 things. What are the 2 things and do they produce?
1. SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES = SPERM PRODUCTION

2. LEYDIG CELLS = TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION
'SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES' also contain what type of cells that help 'NURTURE' sperm cells?
SERTOLI CELLS
Where are 'LEYDIG CELLS' located? What do they do?
LOCATED OUTSIDE OF THE 'SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES'

LEYDIG CELLS = TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION
What are some of the characteristics of the 'EPIDIDYMIS'? (* There are 3)
1. SMALL COILED TUBE
2. MEASURES ABOUT 20 FEET
3. SITE OF SPERM MATURATION
Where is the 'EPIDIDYMIS' located?
TOP AND SIDE OF 'TESTES'
A 'SPERM'S' capacity to fertilize is enhanced by what?
EXPOSURE TO FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT SECRETIONS
What is 'CAPACITATION'?
ENHANCEMENT OF SPERM FERTILIZING ABILITY ('MALE'/'FEMALE' REPRODUCTIVE TRACT)
The 'DUCTUS EPIDIDYIS' also secretes a specific protein to help sperm. What is the protein and how does it help the sperm?
1. SPERM FORWARD-MOBILITY PROTEIN

2. CAUSES A MOVEMENT PATTERN OF SPERM
What do the 'VAS DEFERENS' (Ductus Deferens) do?
TUBES THAT CARRY SPERM FROM 'EPIDIDYMIS' to EJACULATORY DUCT NEAR BLADDER.
Towards the end of the 'VAS DEFERENS' there is an expanded region. What is this 'EXPANDED REGION' called. What is its purpose?
1. AMPULLA = EXPANDED REGION

2. RESERVOIR FOR SPERM
What is a 'VASECTOMY'?
SEGMENTS BETWEEN THE 'VAS DEFERENS' (2 PLACES) ARE REMOVED AND TIED OFF.

*INCISION MADE IN SCROTUM
What is the purpose of the 'EJACULATORY DUCTS'?
CARRY SPERM FROM 'VAS DEFERENS' TO 'URETHRA'
What is the 'URETHRA' function in males?

What 2 fluids does it carry?
TUBE FROM URINARY BLADDER -> PENIS (External Opening)

1. URINE
2. SPERM
'MALES' have 3 'SEX ACCESSORY ORGANS'. What are they?
1. SEMINAL VESICLES
2. PROSTATE GLAND
3. BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS
What does the 'SECRETION' of the 'MALE' 'SEX ACCESSORY ORGANS' do?
SEMINAL PLASMA MIXES WITH SPERM = 'SEMEN' / 'SEMINAL FLUID'
What is the purpose of the 'SEMINAL VESICLES'? (* Only 1)
1. SECRETE VISCOUS LIQUID PORTION OF SEMEN (SEMINAL PLASMA)
More than half of the 'TOTAL SEMEN VOLUME' is made of this. Where is is created?
MADE OF 'SEMINAL PLASMA'

MADE IN 'SEMINAL VESICLES'
'SEMINAL PLASMA' fluid also contains what? This is to give sperm 'ENERGY' for their journey.
FRUCTOSE (SUGAR)
'SEMINAL PLASMA' fluid also contains this which helps 'STIMULATE' contraction of 'MALE'/'FEMALE' reproductive tracts.

Also helps 'SPERM TRANSPORT'.
PROSTAGLANDINS
Where is the 'PROSTATE' located? How is it shaped?
1. LOCATED - BELOW BLADDER
2. SHAPED - LIKE A DOGUHNUT
What are the functions of the 'PROSTATE GLAND'? What passes through it and what happpens?
'URETHRA' passe through a small hole in center.

'PROSTATE GLAND' secretes 'ALKALINE FLUID'.
- Helps protect sperm from acidic environment of 'MALE' URETHRA/ 'FEMALE' VAGINA.
13 - 33% of the 'SEMINAL PLASMA' is made up of this.

(*HELPS PROTECT FROM ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT)
ALKALINE FLUID
What is the process of 'SPERM' travel?
(*6 Steps)
1. SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES
2. EPIDIDYMIS
3. VAS DEFERENS
4. EJACULATORY DUCT
5. URETHRA
6. PENIS

(*MNEMONIC - SEVE(N) UP
What is the purpose of the 'BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS'?
SECRETE ALKALINE FLUID

*ACTS AS LUBRICANT
'MALE' fertility depends on what 2 things?
1. QUALITY
2. QUANTITY
What is the approximate 'SPERM' count for measuring fertility?
AT LEAST 20 MILLION SPERM/ML
New 'SPERM' are continously produced by the 'TESTES'. How many are made each 'DAY'?
ABOUT 200 MILLION/DAY
What is the 'AVERAGE' amount of 'SPERM' that is deposited in 2.75ml of 'SEMEN'?
180 MILLION SPERM
What is the 'SPERM' to 'OVUM' production ratio
1 OVUM: 1 BILLION SPERM
After 'EJACULATION', 'SPERM' live for approximately how long?
48-72 HOURS
What is the approximate 'SEMEN' volume of 'ONE EJACULATION'?
2-6 ML
What is the 'APPROXIMATE SPERM' count per/ejaculation?
40 MILLION - 250 MILLION / EJACULATION
How many 'SPERM' survive to enter EACH 'FALLOPIAN TUBE'?
100 - 100,000 SPERM
How many 'SPERM' make it to the general area of the 'waiting egg'?
FEW HUNDRED
How many 'SPERM' can 'FERTILIZE' an egg?
ONLY 1 SPERM
After an 'EGG' is 'FERTILIZED', what is it reffered to as?
ZYGOTE
What happens to the 'DEAD SPERM'?
PHAGOCYTIZED BY LEUKOCYTES
How much contribution does each 'SEX' usually have on 'INFERTILITY'?
50% (EVEN)
More than __% of 'INFERTILITY' case can be diagnosed and successfully treated.
80%
What is a 'SPERMATOZOON'?
SPERM
What are the 4 parts of a 'SPERMATOZOON' (SPERM) and what does each part contain?
1. HEAD - NUCLEUS +23 CHROMO
2. ACROSOME - ENZYME-FILLED
3. TAIL - MOVEMENT
4 MIDPIECE - LOTS OF MITOCHONDRIA
What is 'UTERUS' shaped like and where is it located?
1. SHAPED = PEAR
2. LOCATED = PELVIC CAVITY ABOVE URINARY BLADDER FRONT OF RECTUM
The size/shape of the 'UTERUS' depends on what?
IF THE WOMAN HAS GIVEN BIRTH (LARGER IN MULTIPAROUS WOMEN)

*More than one birth at a time. (i.e., twins)
What are the 2 main regions of the 'UTERUS'?
1. CORPUS
2. UTERINE ISTHMUS or CERVIX (NECK)
There are 2 main components in the 'UTERINE WALL'. What are they?
1. ENDOMETRIUM
2. MYOMETRIUM
Which of the 2 components of the 'UTERINE WALL' is shed during 'MENSTRUATION'?
ENDOMETRIUM
What are the characteristics 'MYOMETRIUM'?
SMOOTH MUSCLE

CONTRACTION OF THE UTERINE WALL. THIS RESULTS IN 'EXPULSION' of the FETUS IN BIRTH.
'FALLOPIAN TUBES' are also called 2 other things. What are they?
1. OVIDUCTS
2. UTERINE TUBES
Where are the 'FALLOPIAN TUBES' attached?
TO UTERUS AT ITS LATERAL SUPERIOR ANGLES
The 'DISTAL ENDS' of the 'FALLOPIAN TUBES' expand into what?
FUNNEL-LIKE STRUCTURES
What do the 'FALLOPIAN TUBES' serve as for the 'OVARIES'?

What are their diameters?
DUCTS

~DIAMETER = SIZE OF A DRINKING STRAW
Where does 'FERTILIZATION' usually occur?
FALLOPIAN TUBES

(UNION OF SPERM AND OVUM)
'OVARIES' are about the size of what? Where are they located?
LARGE ALMONDS

EITHER SIDE OF THE UTERUS
TRUE or FALSE

'OVARIES' are among the most vascular organs of the body.
TRUE

'OVARIES' are VERY vascular
Female Germ Cells or 'OOCYTES' are enclosed inside the ovary in tissue sacs called what?
'OVARIAN FOLLICLES'
The 'OVARY' of a newborn girl contains about how many 'FOLLICLES'?
500,000 FOLLICLES
Will a 'FEMALE' increase the amount of 'FOLLICLES' she has after birth?
NO

NO NEW FOLLICLES ARE MADE AFTER BIRTH
TRUE or FALSE

'FOLLICLES' begin to 'DEGENERATE' after birth.
TRUE

FOLLICLES DO DEGENERATE
How many 'FOLLICLES' does each ovary contain at 'PUBERTY'?
~83,000 FOLLICLES
How many 'FOLLICLES' does each ovary contain at 'AGE 35'?
~30,000 FOLLICLES
How many 'FOLLICLES' does each ovary contain at 'AGE 50'?
~1,000 FOLLICLES
On average, how many 'FOLLICLES' are released through 'OVULATION'?
400 FOLLICLES
There are 2 main functions of the 'OVARIES'. What are they?
1. OVULATION - PRODCUTION OF MATURE EGG

2. SECRETION - PRODUCTION OF FEMALE HORMONES
How many 'OVARIAN FOLLICLES' will 'MATURE' during a cycle?
ONLY ONE (MOST OF THE TIME)
When 'ESTROGEN' is present, what happens to the female germ cell 'OOCYTE'?
BEGINS TO MATURE
What hormone must be present in order for a 'FEMALE' germ cell 'OOCYTE' to 'MATURE'?
ESTROGEN
A 'FOLLICLE' that is exposed to 'ESTROGEN' goes through a series of complex steps to mature. There are 4 basic steps, what are they?
1. PRIMARY FOLLICLE
2. SECONDARY FOLLICLE
3. TERTIARY FOLLICLE
4. EGG RELEASED INTO OVIDUCT
What is the 'LARGE MATURE FOLLICLE' that develops during the cycle called?
GRAFFIAN FOLLICLE
There are 2 main 'HORMONES' thare are released from the 'OVARIES'. What are they?
1. ESTROGENS
2. PROGESTERONE
'ESTROGENS' encompass several different hormones. What are the 3 different hormones?
1. ESTRADIOL
2. ESTRIOL
3. ESTRONE
What is the 'MAIN' 'ESTROGEN' that is secreted from the 'OVARIES'?
ESTRADIOL
'ESTROGEN' is produced in 'FEMALES' from 3 different places. What are the 3 places?
1. FOLLICLE
2. CORPUS LUTEUM
3. PLACENTA
What are the effects of 'ESTROGEN' in the 'FEMALE' system development?
STIMULATES DEVELOPMENT OF 'SECONDARY SEX STRUCTURES'
'ESTROGEN' also has an effect on one of the 'UTERINE WALLS'. Which 'UTERINE WALL' does it affect and what happens?
MYOMETRIUM

STIMULATES MYOMETRIAL CONTRACTIONS

(*MNEMONIC - ME)
'ESTROGEN' has the ability to 'INHIBIT' what other hormone?
FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE)
'PROGESTERONE' is produced in 'FEMALES' from 2 different places. What are the 2 places?
1. CORPUS LUTEUM
2. PLACENTA
'PROGESTERONE' also has an effect on one of the 'UTERINE WALLS'. Which 'UTERINE WALL' does it affect and what happens?
MYOMETRIUM

'INHIBITS' MYOMETRIUM CONTRACTIONS

(*MNEMONIC - PRO-INHIBITION)
What does 'PROGESTERONE' inhibit?
MYOMETRIUM

'INHIBITS' MYOMETRIUM CONTRACTIONS

(*MNEMONIC - PRO-INHIBITION)
What are the effects of 'ESTROGEN' in the 'FEMALE' system development?
STIMULATES DEVELOPMENT OF 'SECONDARY SEX STRUCTURES'
The 'CESSATION' of 'menses' or 'MENARCHE' (mensturation) is also called what two things?
1. MENOPAUSE
2. CLIMACTERIC
From 'PUBERTY' to 'MENOPAUSE' in 'FEMALES'. There are 8 things than occur, what are they?
1. BREAST CHANGE
2. MENSTRUATION CHANGE
3. RHYTHMIC OVARY CHANGES
4. MYOMETRIUM CHANGES
5. VAGINAL CHANGE
6. HORMONE SECRETION CHANGES
7. BODY TEMPERATURE CHANGES
8. MOOD CHANGES
What would the following by sings of:

1. BREAST CHANGE
2. MENSTRUATION CHANGE
3. RHYTHMIC OVARY CHANGES
4. MYOMETRIUM CHANGES
5. VAGINAL CHANGE
6. HORMONE SECRETION CHANGES
7. BODY TEMPERATURE CHANGES
8. MOOD CHANGES
Changes from 'PUBERTY' to 'MENOPAUSE' in 'FEMALES'
What is the 'AVERAGE HUMAN MENSTRUAL CYCLE' length?
29.5 DAYS
What things can change the 'REGULARITY' of a 'WOMAN'S MENSTRUAL CYCLE'? (*There are 4 of them)
1. SOCIAL INTERACTIONS
2. DAY LENGTH
3. ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES
4. SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
TRUE or FALSE:

Younger women tend to have SHORTER cycles than do older women
FALSE

Younger Women = LONGER CYCLES

Older Women = SHORTER CYCLES
What would eventually happen to a group of girls on different 'MENSTRUATION' cycles if they were put together in the same living environment?
EVENTUALLY THEY WOULD MENSTRUATE AT ABOUT THE SAME TIME
The 'OVARIAN CYCLE' is spread over 29.5 days. During these time, there are 5 main events. What are the 5 days that these events take place?
1. DAY 1
2. DAY 7
3. DAY 14
4. DAY 23
5. DAY 27

(7-14-23-27)
If 'ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE' levels are 'HIGH' what is 'INHIBITED'?
FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE)
What happens on 'DAY 1' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?

What hormones are present and in what levels?
MENSTURATION STARTS

ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE = LOW
FSH = HIGH
On 'DAY 1' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE', 'FSH' levels are high. What does this do?
STIMULATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOLLICLE (EGG INSIDE FOLLICLE)
How many 'FOLLICLES' are 'STIMULATED' during 'MENSTURATION'?
6-7 IN EACH OVARY
What happens on 'DAY 2' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?

What hormones are present and in what levels?
ONE FOLLICLE CONTINUES, OTHERS DEGENERATE

ESTROGEN 'INCREASES' AS FOLLICLE GROWS INTO 'GRAFFIAN FOLLICLE'
What happens on 'DAY 14' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?

What hormones are present and in what levels?
OVULATION

LH SURGE = 16 HOURS BEFORE OVULATION

LH = HIGH

Expulsion of egg from 'MATURE FOLLICLE'
TRUE or FALSE

'OVARIES' usually alternate expulsion of the 'EGG/FOLLICLE'.
TRUE

'OVARIES' DO ALTERNATE
What will happen if there is NO 'LH SURGE'?
OVULATION WILL 'NOT' OCCUR
There are 3 indications that 'OVULATION' has occured on 'DAY 14' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'. What are they?
1. BASAL BODY TEMP RISE
2. SLIGHT PAIN OVER OVARY
3. VAGINAL SECRETORY PATTERNS
What point in the 'OVARIAN CYCLE' is considered to be the most 'highly fertile period'?
DAY 14 - OVULATION
'SPERM' can live approximately how many days?
3-6 DAYS
An 'EGG' can be fertilized for about how long?
12-24 HOURS
The 'FERTILE PERIOD' is about how many days near the middle of the cycle?
5-6 DAYS
'LH' stimulates the transformation of 'FOLLICLE CELLS' into what?
'CORPUS LUTEUM'

(YELLOW BODY)
Cells of the 'CORPUS LUTEUM' secrete 2 hormones. What are they?
1. ESTROGENS
2. PROGESTERONE
What happens on 'DAY 23' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE' if pregnancy 'DOES' occur?
CORPUS PERSISTS = INCREASED ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE AND FSH INHIBITED

NO MORE PERIODS UNTIL AFTER DELIVERY OF BABY
What hormone is only present in a pregnant woman, which indicates a 'SUCCESSFUL' fertilization?
(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN
What does (HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN do?
MAINTAINS 'CORPUS LUTEUM' DURING PREGNANCY

MAINTAINS LEVELS OF ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE
(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN is detectable in the blood/urine as early as how many days 'AFTER' fertilization?
8-10 DAYS
Where does (HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN come from?
IMPLANTATION SITE OF EGG
(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN is similar to what other 2 common hormones?
1. GH (GROWTH HORMONE)
2. PROLACTIN
(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN has what type of effects on the body with regards to sugar?

Why is this helpful during pregnancy?
ANTI-INSULIN EFFECTS

DECREASES MATERNAL GLUCOSE UTILIZATION. GLUCOSE IS DIVERTED TO FETUS
What happens on 'DAY 23' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE' if pregnancy does 'NOT' occur?
CORPUS LUTEUM BEINGS TO DEGENERATE

ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE LEVELS = DROP
What maintains the 'CORPUS LUTEUM'?
(HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN
What happens on 'DAY 27' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?

What hormones are present and in what levels?
ESTROGEN = LOW
PROGESTERONE = LOW

ISCHEMIA (LACK OF BLOOD FLOW) TO 'ENDOMETRIUM'

'ENDOMETRIUM' IS SLUFFED OFF
What happens a few days after 'DAY 27' of the 'OVARIAN CYCLE'?
NEXY CYCLE BEGINS AFTER 'ENDOMETRIUM' IS SLUFFED OFF AND ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE LEVELS ARE LOW.

FSH INCREASES
What is 'DAY 1-5' considered to be called during the 'MENSTRUAL CYCLE'?
MENSTRUAL PHASE
During the 'MENSTRUAL PHASE' most women lose approximately how much blood?
1 - 1.25 oz of BLOOD

(33 - 83ml)
What is 'DAY 6-14' considered to be called during the 'MENSTRUAL CYCLE'? (*3 things)
POSTMENSTRUAL, PREOVULATORY, LUTEAL PHASE

- PROLIFERATION OF ENDOMETRIAL CELLS

- STIMULATED BY ESTROGENS FROM FOLLICLE
What is 'DAY 27-28' considered to be called during the 'MENSTRUAL CYCLE'?
ISCHEMIC PHASE
The 'SECRETORY PHASE' is almost 'always' how many days?
14 DAYS
The 'LENGTH OF CYCLES' vary. How many days is it for most women?
26-35 DAY CYCLES
Out of all of the 9 different phases during 'MENSTRUATION', what is the most constant?
POSTOVULATORY (14 DAYS)
'CYCLE LENGTH' can be affected by 3 different factors. What are the factors?
1. GENETIC
2. NUTRITIONAL FACTORS
3. EXTREME EXERCISE
'IMPLANTATION' usually takes place about how long after fertilization?
6-7 DAYS
There are typically 'TWO' implantation sites. What are the 2 sites?
1. INTRAUTERINE
2. EXTRAUTERINE
Out of the '2' 'IMPLANTATION SITES', which ones it considered to be 'RARE' and found in 'ECTOPIC PREGNANCIES'?
EXTRAUTERINE
What is a 'INTRAUTERINE' implantation site defined as?

What 3 places can it be implanted at?
1) UPPER POSTERIOR WALL OF UTERUS
2) CERVICAL IMPLANTATION
3) INTERNAL OS
What is a 'EXTRA UTERINE' implantation site defined as?

What 3 places can it be implanted at?
RARE / ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

1) TUBAL
2) ABDOMINAL
3) OVARIAN
What % of 'FERTILE ZYGOTES' result in 'MISCARRIAGE'?
30%
How long does it take for a 'ZYGOTE' to grow to 'HUMAN' for normal birth weight?
38 WEEKS (9.5 MONTHS)
What is the average birth weight of a newborn baby?
7-7.5 POUNDS
What is the 'DEVELOPING ORGANISM' referred to as 2 weeks after contraception?
PRE-EMBRYO
How long is the baby referred to as an 'EMBRYO'?
WEEKS 3-8 OF DEVELOPMENT
After week at, the 'EMBRYO' is reffered to as what?
FETUS
After how many weeks is a 'developing organism' referred to as a 'FETUS'?
8 WEEKS+
During 'PREGNANCY' and 'LACTATION' there are some extra nutritional requirements. What are they? (*There are 5 of them)
1. EXTRA PROTEIN
2. EXTRA IRON
3. EXTRA CALCIUM
4. EXTRA FOLIC ACID
5. EXTRA VITAMIN B
On average, how much weight should a mother 'gain'?
25 POUNDS
The '25 POUNDS' that a mother gains can be separated into 5 things. What are the 5 things?
1) 12 lbs = FAT
2) 2 lbs = PLACENTA
3) 2 lbs = AMNIOTIC FLUID
4) 1 lb = BLOOD VOLUME
5) 8 lbs = BABY
What is the literal meaning of 'PROGESTERONE'?
FOR-GESTATION
What are the levels of 'ESTROGEN'/'PROGESTERONE' like during pregnancy?
HIGH
When does (HCG) HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN reach it's peak?
IN THE 2nd MONTH
What happens to the 'PITUITARY GLAND' during 'PREGNANCY'?
INCREASES IN SIZE / ACTIVITY
What happens to 'BLOOD VOLUME' and 'CARDIAC OUTPUT' during 'PREGNANCY'?
INCREASES
What happens to usualy 'CALORIC REQUIREMENTS'?
INCREASE
What are the 4 main causes for the '30%' of 'ZYGOTES' miscarried before/right after implantation?
1. GENETIC/CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE
2. IMMUNE RESPONSES
3. DRUG/POLLUNTANT EXPOSURE
4. IMPROPER HORMONAL PRIMING OF UTERUS
After a pregnancy is established, what factors account for '42%' of miscarriages? (*There is only 1)
CHROMOSOMAL/GENETIC ERRORS
What percentage of 'ESTABLISHED PREGNANCIES' are terminated by 'miscarriage'?

When does this occur?
20%

DURING THE 1st TRIMESTER
What is 'PARTURITION' defined as?
ACT OF GIVING BIRTH
There are 3 factors that 'INCREASE' the contractibility of the 'UTERUS'. What are they?
1. ESTROGEN LEVEL INCREASE
2. OXYTOCIN SECRETION
3. PROSTAGLANDIN FORMATION
*In Uterus

(*MNEMONIC = POE)
'LABOR' can be divded into 3 stages. What are the 3 stages?
1. CERIVCAL DILATION
2. DELIVERY OF BABY
3. DELIVERY OF PLACENTA
The delivery of the 'PLACENTA' is also referred to as what?
AFTERBIRTH
About how much does the 'CERVICAL DILATE' during labor?
UP TO 10cm
'MENOPAUSE' is defined as what type of 'sexual cycles'?
IRREGULAR
At around what age does 'MENOPAUSE' occur?
~52 YEARS OF AGE
Puberty in 'WOMEN' is starting _______ and menopause is devloping _______.
1. EARLIER = PUBERTY
2. LATER = MENOPAUSE
Compared to women in America, women who have twins, smoke or are in developing countires enter menopause at a(n) ________ age.
EARLIER
During 'MENOPAUSE' what hormones are present and in what levels?

Why does this occur?
FOLLICLE DOES NOT DEVELOP

1. LH/FSH = HIGH
2. ESTROGEN/PROGESTERONE = LOW
What are some of the signs of 'MENOPAUSE'? (*There are 12)
1. HOT FLASHES
2. IRRITABILITY
3. FATIGUE
4. INSOMNIA
5. CRYING EPISODES
6. DEPRESSION
7. DECREASE IN LIBIDO
8. DRY MOUTH
9. VAGINAL ITCHING
10. VAGINAL DRYNESS
11. HEART PALPITATION
12. BACKACHES
Someone with the following would be going through what:

1. HOT FLASHES
2. IRRITABILITY
3. FATIGUE
4. INSOMNIA
5. CRYING EPISODES
6. DEPRESSION
7. DECREASE IN LIBIDO
8. DRY MOUTH
9. VAGINAL ITCHING
10. VAGINAL DRYNESS
11. HEART PALPITATION
12. BACKACHES
MENOPAUSE
What are some of the treatment options for 'MENOPAUSE'?
ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY (ERT)
What is 'PREMARIN'?
MIXTURE OF 6 ESTROGENS DERIVED FROM PREGNANT HORSE URINE

(PREGNANT MARE URINE) = PREMARIN
If (ERT) ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY is taken during the first years of 'MENOPAUSE' and continues for 7 years after. What will it help to eliminate?
OSTEOPOROSIS (Weak bones)
What are some of the 'BENEFITS' of (ERT)? (*There are 5 of them)
1. RELIEVES HOT FLASHES
2. INSOMNIA
3. VAGINAL DRYNESS
4. MOOD SWINGS
5. HEART DISEASE
What are some of the 'RISKS' of (ERT)? (*There are 4 of them)
1. BREAST CANCER
2. WEIGHT GAIN
3. GALL BLADDER DISEASE
4. ENDOMETRIAL CANCER
What effects does 'ESTROGEN' have on the 'UTERINE WALL DEVELOPMENT'?
STIMULATES IT TO GROW
What happens to 'UTERINE LINING' in the presence 'PROGESTERONE'? (*2 things)
1. BECOMES MORE GLANDULAR
2. BECOMES MORE VASCULAR
What happens to 'BLOOD VESSELS' in the 'UTERINE LINING' as the concentrations of 'ESTROGEN'/'PROGESTERONE' 'DECLINE'?
BLOOD VESSELS CONSTRICT IN UTERINE LINING
What is 'BIRTH CONTROL' defined as?
VOLUNTARY REGULATION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE PROCESS
There are 7 forms of 'BIRTH CONTROL/CONTRACEPTION'? What are they?
1. COITUS INTERRUPTUS
2. RHYTHM
3. MECHANICAL BARRIERS
4. CHEMICAL BARRIERS
5. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
6. SURGICAL METHODS
7. IUD
What is 'COITUS INTERRUPTUS'?
WITHDRAWING THE PENIS FROM THE VAGINA BEFORE EJACULATION
What is 'RHYTHM' in regards to 'BIRTH CONTROL'?
ABSTINENCE OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING THE TIME THE EGG IS AVAILABLE FOR FERTILIZATION (FEW DAYS BEFORE/AFTER OVULATION)
What are 2 examples of 'MECHANICAL BIRTH CONTROL'?
1. CONDOM - Sheath placed over erect penis prior to intercourse. Prevents sperm entry to vagina.

2. DIAGPHRAGM - Rubber dome placed over cervix. Prevents sperm entry to 'UTERUS'
What are 'CHEMICAL BARRIERS' with regards to 'BIRTH CONTROL'?

What are some examples?
USED TO KILL/IMMOBILIZE SPERM

CREAMS, FOAMS, JELLIES PLACED INSIDE VAGINA PRIOR TO INTERCOURSE
What are 'ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES'? What are they usually made of?
REFFERED TO AS THE 'PILL'

Contain 'ESTROGEN-LIKE' and 'PROGESTERONE-LIKE' substances that alter 'ENDORCRINE' regulation of ovaries and 'PREVENT' ovulation.
What are the 2 'SURGICAL METHODS' of 'BIRTH CONTROL'?
1. VASECTOMY
2. TUBAL LIGATION
What is a 'TUBAL LIGATION'?
FEMAL SURGICAL BIRTH CONTROL

TIE OFF BOTH UTERINE TUBES, PREVENTS TRANSPORT OF SPERM OR EGG THROUGH TUBES.
What is 'IUD' birth control?
IRRITATES UTERINE WALL SO ZYGOTE CANNOT IMPLANT

DOES 'NOT' PREVENT FERTILIZATION
TRUE or FALSE

The 'IUD' contraceptive DOES prevent fertilization of the sperm and egg.
FALSE

It does NOT prevent fertilization of the sperm and egg.

It 'IRRITATES' the uterine wall so zygote cannot implant.
What is the method of 'BIRTH CONTROL' that has a 100% effective rate?
ABSTINENCE
Early development of 'SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS' is known as:
PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY
'TESTOSTERONE' is produce in the:
LEYDIG CELLS
The 'approximate' lifespan of 'SPERM' is:
24-48 HOURS
During the onset of 'MENSTRUATION':

1. ESTROGEN LEVELS ARE LOW
2. PROGESTERONE LEVELS = LOW
3. LH LEVELS ARE HIGH
4. ALL OF THE ABOVE
4. ALL OF THE ABOVE
'OLVUATION' is caused by:
AN LH SURGE
'OVULATION' usually occurs on:
DAY 14 OF THE CYCLE
Where does 'FERTILIZATION' usually occur?
IN THE FALLOPIAN TUBES
How many 'eggs' does a female posses at 'BIRTH'?
1 MILLION`
Which of the following are involved in parturition (BIRTH)?

1. ESTROGEN, OXYTOCIN, PROSTAGLANDINS
2. ESTROGEN, OXYTOCIN, FSH
3. ESTROGEN, LH, PROGESTERONE
4. ESTROGEN, LH, BIRTHIN
1. ESTROGEN, OXYTOCIN, PROSTAGLANDINS
Where are the 'SPERM' stored for maturation before they are released from the 'TESTES'?
EPIDIDYMIS