• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/483

Click to flip

483 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The 'NERVOUS SYSTEM' is separated into 2 'MAJOR SYSTEMS'. What are they?
1. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
2. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
The 'CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM' contains what 2 major organs?
1. BRAIN
2. SPINAL CORD
The 'BRAIN' is separated into 2 different types of 'MATTER'.

What are the they?
1. GRAY MATTER
2. WHITE MATTER
'GRAY MATTER' in the 'CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM' is defined as what?
GRAY MATTER = NERVE CELL BODIES
'WHITE MATTER' in the 'CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM' is defined as what?
WHITE MATTER = MYELINATED AXONS
Where is the 'NERVE TRACT' located? In what 'MAJOR NERVOUS SYSTEM COMPONENT'?
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
The 'NERVE TRACT' which is located in the 'CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM'. Is defined as what?
GROUP OF NERVE FIBERS WITHIN THE 'CNS' THAT HAVE A COMMON ORIGIN/DESTINATION.

(ASCENDING/DESCENDING)
Where is the 'NERVE TRACT' located?
ONLY IN THE 'CNS'
The 'NUCLEUS' in regards to the 'CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM' is defined as what?
NUCLEUS = CLUSTER OF 'NERVE CELL BODIES'

*ONLY IN THE 'CNS'
What is the 'PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM' (PNS) defined as?

(*2 Things)
NERVOUS TISSUE OUTSIDE THE:

1. 'BRAIN'
2. 'SPINAL CORD'
How many pairs of 'CRANIAL NERVES' are there in the 'PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM'?
12 PAIRS
How many pairs of 'SPINAL NERVES' are there in the 'PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM'?
31 PAIRS
In the 'PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM', what is a 'NERVE' defined as?
GROUP OF NERVE FIBERS WITH COMMON ORIGIN/DESTINATION.

1. AFFERENT (SENSORY)
2. EFFERENT (MOTOR)
'PERIPHERAL SYSTEM NERVES' are separated into 2 types. What are they?
1. AFFERENT (SENSORY)
2. EFFERENT (MOTOR)
What is a 'GANGLION' defined as? Where is it located?
CLUSTER OF NERVE CELL BODIES

ONLY IN THE 'PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM'
What is the 'AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM' composed of?

What 2 divisions is it separated into?
COMPOSED OF SPECIFIC STRUCTURES IN THE 'CNS' and 'PNS'.

1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
2. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
What are the 2 'STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS' of the 'NERVOUS SYSTEM'?
1. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
2. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
What are the 2 'FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS' of the 'NERVOUS SYSTEM'?
1. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS)
2. SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (SKELETAL SYSTEM)
What are the 4 'PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS' of the 'NERVOUS SYSTEM'?
1. ORIENTATION
2. COORDINATION
3. ASSIMILATION
4. PROGRAMMING
What is 'CEREBRAL PALSY' and what are the 4 symptoms of it?
ABNORMAL PATHOLOGY OF THE BRAIN

1. PARALYSIS
2. LACK OF COORDINATION
3. MOTOR/SENSORY DYSFUNCTIONS
What is a 'COMA' defined as?
DEGREE OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS

RESULT MAY BE FROM A MANY NUMBER OF DIFFERENT CAUSES.
There are 5 steps taking during a 'NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION'. What are they?
1. MENTAL STATUS/SPEECH
2. CRANIAL NERVES
3. THE MOTOR SYSTEM
4. THE SENSORY SYSTEM
5. REFLEXES
Someone diagnosed with 'PARAPLEGIA' has what?
PERMANENT PARALYSIS OF 'BOTH' LEGS DUE TO INJURY OR DISEASE OF THE 'SPINAL CORD'
Someone diagnosed with 'QUADRIPLEGIA' has what?
PERMANENT PARALYSIS OF ARMS 'AND' LEGS DUE TO 'SPINAL CORD' INJURY OR DISEASE.
What is a 'NEURON' also known as in the 'NERVOUS SYSTEM' terminology?

(*There are 2 names)
1. NERVE CELL
2. NERVE FIBER
What is a 'NEURON' defined as in the 'NERVOUS SYSTEM'?
STRUCTURAL/FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF THE 'NERVOUS SYSTEM'
What is the main function of a 'NEURON'?
CONDUCT IMPULSES TOWARD/AWAY FROM THE 'CELL BODY'
What are the 3 components to a 'NEURON'?
1. CELL BODY
2. DENDRITES
3. AXONS
What is the 'CELL BODY' of a 'NEURON' defined as?

What does it contain? (5 things)
ENLARGED PORTION OF THE NEURON

CONTAINS:
1. NUCLEUS
2. NISSL BODIES (ROUGH ER)
3. NEUROFIBRILS (PROTEIN)
4. OTHER ORGANELLES
What are 'DENDRITES' defined as?

What is their main function?
CYTOPLASMIC EXTENSIONS

RECEIVE STIMULI AND CONDUCT 'IMPULSES' TO THE 'CELL BODY'

(*TOWARD NERVE BODY!)
What are 'AXONS' defined as?

What 2 types are there and where are each of these types generally located?
CYLINDRICAL PROCESSES THAT CONDUCT IMPULSES 'AWAY' FROM THE CELL BODY.

1. SHORT AXONS (CNS)
2. LONG AXONS (PNS)
Which type of 'AXONS' are usually 'MYELINATED'?

Why?
LONG AXONS

MYELIN SHEATH HELPS CONDUCT IMPULSES FASTER
What are 'SCHWANN CELLS', and in what system are they located?
ANOTHER NAME FOR 'MYELINATED 'LONG' AXONS'

ONLY IN THE 'PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM' (PNS)
What are 'OLIGODENDROCYTES', and in what system are they located?
ANOTHER NAME FOR 'MYELINATED 'LONG' AXONS'

ONLY IN THE 'CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM' (CNS)
What are 'NODES OF RANVIER'?
SEGMENTS IN THE 'MYELIN SHEATH'

(*LOCATED BETWEEN SCHWANN CELLS/OLIGODENDROCYTES)
Where do 'AXONS' terminate?
AT THE 'PRESYNAPTIC TERMINAL' OF THE 'NEURON'
Because there are many 'NEURONS' in the body, how are they classified?

(*3 THINGS)
1. DIRECTION OF 'IMPULSE CONDUCTION'
2. NUMBER OF 'CYTOPLASMIC PROCESSES'
3. AREA OF 'INNERVATION'
There are 3 types of 'NEURONS' defined by 'IMPULSE CONDUCTION'. What are they?
1. SENSORY (AFFERENT)
2. INTERNEURONS
3. MOTOR (EFFERENT)
What is the function of a 'SENSORY' neuron?

Is it 'AFFERENT' or 'EFFERENT'?
TRANSMIT NERVE IMPULSE 'TO' THE 'CNS' (BRAIN)
(e.g. PAIN RESPONSE)

'AFFERENT'

(*HINT - (A)FFERENT (A)RRIVES TO THE BRAIN)
What is the function of a 'MOTOR' neuron?

Is it 'AFFERENT' or 'EFFERENT'?
TRANSMIT NERVE IMPULSE 'AWAY' FROM THE 'CNS' (BRAIN).
(e.g. MUSCULAR RESPONSE)

'EFFERENT'

(*HINT - (E)FFERENT (E)XITS THE BRAIN)
What is the function of 'INTERNEURONS' and what are they also known as?

(*2 other names)
CONDUCT THE 'IMPULSES' BETWEEN BOTH SENSORY 'AND' MOTOR' NEURONS.

[*HINT - (INTER)states bridge the gap between states. (INTER)neurons bridge the gap between SENSORY/MOTOR neurons.]

ALSO KNOWN AS:
1. INTERNUNCIAL NEURONS
2. ASSOCIATION NEURONS
'NEURONS' that have only '1 AXON' and '2+ DENDRITES' are known as what kind of neurons?
'MULTI'POLAR
'NEURONS' that have only '1 AXON' and '1 DENDRITE' are known as what kind of neurons?
'BI'POLAR
'NEURONS' that have only '1 SINGLE PROCESS' (aka - DENDRITE/AXON connected together) are known as what kind of neurons?
'UNI'POLAR
There are 4 specific types of 'NEURON INNERVATION'. What are they?
1. SOMATIC (A)FFERENT (SKELETAL)
2. SOMATIC (E)FFERENT (SKELETAL)
3. VISCERAL (A)FFERENT (ORGANS)
4. VISCERAL (E)FFERENT (ORGANS)

[*Hint - (A)fferent (A)rrives to the brain (CNS) and (E)fferent (E)xits)the brain (CNS).]
What is the definition of a 'SOMATIC AFFERENT' neuron?

What is its functions?
NEURONS WITHIN SKIN, MUSCLES, JOINTS.

(SOMATIC SYSTEM = SKELETAL)

FUNCTION:
RECEIVE STIMULI -> CONVEY IMPULSE (TO) THE BRAIN (CNS).

[*Hint - (A)fferent (A)rrives to the brain (CNS) and (E)fferent (E)xits)the brain (CNS).]
What is the definition of a 'SOMATIC EFFERENT' neuron?

What is its functions?
NEURONS WITHIN SKIN, MUSCLES, JOINTS.

(SOMATIC SYSTEM = SKELETAL)

FUNCTION:
RECEIVE STIMULI -> CONVEY IMPULSE (FROM) THE BRAIN (CNS) -> SKELETAL MUSCLES

[*Hint - (A)fferent (A)rrives to the brain (CNS) and (E)fferent (E)xits)the brain (CNS).]
What is the definition of a 'VISCERAL AFFERENT' neuron?

What is its functions?
NEURONS LOCATED ON/IN 'INTERNAL ORGANS'

(VISCERAL SYSTEM = INTERNAL ORGANS)

FUNCTION:
RECEIVE STIMULI -> CONVEY IMPULSE (TO) THE BRAIN (CNS) 'FROM' INTERNAL MUSCLES

[*Hint - (A)fferent (A)rrives to the brain (CNS) and (E)fferent (E)xits)the brain (CNS).]
What is the definition of a 'VISCERAL EFFERENT' neuron?

What is its functions?
NEURONS LOCATED ON/IN 'INTERNAL ORGANS'

(VISCERAL SYSTEM = INTERNAL ORGANS)

FUNCTION:
RECEIVE STIMULI -> CONVEY IMPULSE (FROM) THE BRAIN (CNS) 'TO' INTERNAL MUSCLES

[*Hint - (A)fferent (A)rrives to the brain (CNS) and (E)fferent (E)xits)the brain (CNS).]
What is 'RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL' defined as?
WHEN A NEURON IS 'NOT' CONDUCTING AN 'IMPULSE'
What components of a 'NEURON' constitute the ability to create an 'IMPULSE'?
THE 'DIFFERENCE' IN THE ELECTRICAL CHARGE BETWEEN THE INSIDE/OUTSIDE OF THE 'CELL MEMBRANE'
When a 'NEURON' is 'UN-STIMULATED', how is there a difference in electrical charge inside and outside the cell membrane?
DUE TO THE 'IMBALANCE' OF CHARGED PARTICLES (IONS/PROTEINS) BETWEEN THE 'INTRACELLULAR' AND 'EXTRACELLULAR' FLUIDS.
What is the 'OVERALL' charge of 'NEURON' when it is at 'REST' or 'UN-STIMULATED'?

Why is it like this?
OVERALL NEGATIVE (-) CHARGE

BECAUSE OF 'LARGE' NEGATIVELY (-) CHARGED PROTEINS THAT ARE 'NOT' PERMEABLE TO THE CELL MEMBRANE
When the membrane of the 'NEURON' is said to be 'POLARIZED', what does this mean?
MORE (+) POSITIVE IONS 'OUTSIDE'

MORE (-) NEGATIVE IONS 'INSIDE'

*MEMBRANE IS AT 'REST' OR 'UN-STIMULATED' AND AT 'EQUILIBRIUM'
What are 'POSITIVE (+) IONS' also called?
CATIONS (+)
What are 'NEGATIVE (-) IONS' also called?
ANIONS (-)
There are 3 mechanisms that are responsible for the 'IMBALANCE' in particles (charge) across the 'NEURON CELL MEMBRANE'. What are they?
1. SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
2. PERMEABILITY OF K+ TO Na+
3. PROTEIN IMPERMEABILITY
Which 'IONS' are more favorable with cell permeability in the 'CELL MEMBRANE' of a 'NEURON'?
MORE PERMEABLE TO 'K+ IONS'

(*K+ IONS MOVE 'OUTWARD' AND FASTER THAN Na+ IONS MOVE 'INWARD')
Which 'IONS' are 'LESS' favorable with cell permeability in the 'CELL MEMBRANE' of a 'NEURON'?
LESS PERMEABLE TO 'Na+ IONS'

(*Na+ IONS MOVE 'INWARD' AND SLOWER THAN K+ IONS MOVE 'OUTWARD')
How does the 'SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP' function with respect to 'NEURONS'?

What type of 'TRANSPORT' is this? Why?
MOVES 'Na+' IONS TO 'OUTSIDE'
MOVES 'K+' IONS TO 'INSIDE'

'ACTIVE TRANSPORT'. REQUIRES ENERGY (ATP) TO FACILITATE TRANSPORT.
What is the 'NORMAL' charge inside of the 'NEURON' when it is at 'REST' or 'UN-STIMULATED'?
-65 to -85mV
The 'CELL MEMBRANE' is ______ permeable to 'K+ IONS' and _____ permeable to 'Na+ IONS'.

This makes it so that '____ IONS' move outward faster than the '____ IONS' move inward.
1. MORE PERMEABLE TO 'K+ IONS'
2. LESS PERMEABLE TO 'Na+ IONS'
3. 'K+ IONS' MOVE OUTWARD FASTER
4. 'Na+ IONS' MOVE INWARD SLOWER
What characteristic of the 'CELL MEMBRANE' holds a 'NEGATIVE (-) CHARGE' over a positive charge?
THE 'IMPERMEABILITY' OF THE CELL MEMBRANE TO LARGE NEGATIVELY (-) CHARGED 'PROTEINS' INSIDE THE 'NEURON'.

'FEWER' (-) CHARGED PARTICLES MOVE OUT

WHEREAS

'MORE' (+) CHARGED PARTICLES MOVE OUT
TRUE OR FALSE

'ALL' CELLS OF THE BODY HAVE ELECTRICAL POTENTIALS ACROSS THEIR CELL MEMBRANES?
TRUE

'ALL' CELLS HAVE ELECTRICAL POTENTIALS
Which 2 types of cells have the ability to 'ALTER/ADAPT' their 'RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL' in response to appropriate stimuli?

How does this work?
1. NERVE CELLS
2. MUSCLE CELLS

VARYING MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY TO DIFFERENT 'IONS'.
An 'ACTION POTENTIAL' can be separated into 3 points. What are they?
1. SPIKE
2. NERVE IMPULSE
3. DISCHARGE
TRUE OR FALSE

'ACTION POTENTIALS' ARE 'NOT' SIMILAR IN SIZE/DURATION.

THEY 'DIMINISH' AS THEY ARE CONDUCTED DOWN AN 'AXON'.
FALSE

THEY ARE 'SIMILAR' IN 'SIZE/DURATION'.

THEY DO 'NOT' DIMINISH AS THEY ARE CONDUCTED DOWN AN 'AXON'
What 2 characteristics of an 'ACTION POTENTIAL' constitute the 'CODE' as well as the 'DESTINATION' of the 'IMPULSE'?
1. FREQUENCY
2. PATTERN
TRUE OR FALSE

ACTION POTENTIALS 'ARE' SIMILAR IN 'ALL' ORGANISMS.
TRUE

'ACTION POTENTIALS' ARE SIMILAR IN ALL ORGANISMS.

(FROM A SQUID TO A COLLEGE STUDENT)
How can an 'ACTION POTENTIAL' be recorded?

(*Name of the instrument used)
VIA AN 'OSCILLOSCOPE' OR 'VOLTMETER'
How often does/can an 'ACTION POTENTIAL' occur?
VERY RAPIDLY

(Every 2 msec) or 1000/second
What happens to inside of the 'CELL MEMBRANE' during an 'ACTION POTENTIAL'?

What is the state of the 'MEMBRANE' referred to as?
BECOMES POSITIVE (+) INSIDE

STATE OF BEING 'DEPOLARIZED'
During an 'ACTION POTENTIAL' there are 5 characteristics (phases) that occur. What are they?
1. RISING PHASE
2. OVERSHOOT
3. FALLING PHASE
4. UNDERSHOOT/HYPERPOLARIZATION
5. RESTORATION OF RESTING POTENTIAL
What is the 'RISING PHASE' of an 'ACTION POTENTIAL'?

When does this phase occur?
RAPID 'DEPOLARIZATION' OF THE 'MEMBRANE' (Na+ IONS MOVE INTO CELL TO MAKE OVERALL CHARGE MORE (+) POSITIVE)

1st PHASE DURING 'ACTION POTENTIAL'
What is the 'OVERSHOOT' phase of an 'ACTION POTENTIAL'?

When does this phase occur?
INSIDE OF MEMBRANE BECOMES 'POSITIVE (+)' (+40mV)

2nd PHASE DURING 'ACTION POTENTIAL'
What is the 'FALLING PHASE' of an 'ACTION POTENTIAL'?

When does this phase occur?
MEMBRANE IS RAPIDLY 'REPOLARIZED' (K+ IONS MOVE OUT OF CELL TO MAKE OVER ALL CHARGE MORE (-) NEGATIVE)
What is the 'UNDERSHOOT' or 'HYPERPOLARIZATION' phase of an 'ACTION POTENTIAL'?
WHERE THE 'ACTION POTENTIAL' GOES DOWN TO A MORE (-) NEGATIVE CHARGE THAN ITS NORMAL RESTING POTENTIAL. (UNDERSHOOT)
What is an 'ACTION POTENTIAL' defined as? What causes this to occur?
'STIMULUS' APPLIED TO A NEURON'S MEMBRANE. CREATES A 'WAVE OF DEPOLARIZATION' ALONG THE FIBER.
When an 'ACTION POTENTIAL' is created, there are 10 standard steps that occur. What are they 10 steps?
1. STIMULATION OF MEMBRANE
2. SODIUM CHANNELS OPEN
3. SODIUM IONS MOVE 'INWARD'
4. THRESHOLD (-55mV) REACHED
5. DEPOLARIZATION OF MEMBRANE
6. REVERSE POLARIZATION
7. *STEP 6 ACTS AS STIMULUS TO ADJACENT REGIONS
8. POTASSIUM CHANNEL 'OPEN'
9. PUMPS TRANSPORT SODIUM BACK OUT OF 'NEURON' AND POTASSIUM 'INTO' 'NEURON'.
What are 3 factors that can be considered 'adequate stimulation' of a membrane to create an 'ACTION POTENTIAL'?
1. PHYSICAL
2. CHEMICAL
3. TEMPERATURE

(DIFFERENT NEURONS = DIFFERENT STIMULI)
When 'Na+ IONS' move inward, what happens to the cell membrane?
BECOMES 'LESS' NEGATIVE
What is the 'THRESHOLD LEVEL'?

What does 'ALL or NONE' mean with regards to this?
THRESHOLD LEVEL = -55mV

LEVEL THAT MUST BE CROSSED IN ORDER TO TRIGGER AN 'ACTION POTENTIAL'.

'ALL or NONE' = Unless a 'STIMULUS' makes cell membrane reach -55 mV, an 'ACTION POTENTIAL' will 'NOT' be created.
TRUE OR FALSE

The 'GREATER' the stimulus, the larger the 'ACTION POTENTIAL'.
FALSE

'ALL or NONE' MEANS THAT ONLY THRESHOLD LEVEL HAS TO BE REACHED FOR AN 'ACTION POTENTIAL' TO BE CREATED. (-55mV)
What happens when nerve/muscle fibers receive a 'SUB-THRESHOLD' stimulus?
NO RESPONSE / NO 'ACTION POTENTIAL'
What is the 'ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD' defined as?
INTERVAL DURING AN ACTIVE 'ACTION POTENTIAL' WHERE ANOTHER STIMULUS 'CANNOT' CREATE ANOTHER 'ACTION POTENTIAL' RESPONSE BECAUSE THE CHANNELS ARE ALREADY OPEN.

(*HINT - 'ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD' = 'ABSOLUTELY [NOT] GOING TO HAPPEN')
What is the 'RELATIVE REFRACTORY PERIOD' defined as?
INTERVAL WHERE NEURON WILL 'NOT' RESPOND TO A NORMAL STIMULUS.

A VERY 'STRONG' STIMULUS WILL PRODUCE A 'SECOND' 'ACTION POTENTIAL'.

(*HINT - '2nd ACTION POTENTIAL CREATION IS 'RELATIVE' TO STRENGTH OF STIMULUS')
Until the 'RE-POLARIZATION' is ____ completed, a 2nd 'ACTION POTENTIAL' cannot be produced.

What is this referred to as?
'1/3 COMPLETED'

'ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD'

(*HINT - 'ABSOLUTELY [NOT] GOING TO HAPPEN')
Which molecules act as 'CHAPERONES' for the 'Na+ IONS'?

Why is this important?
WATER (H2O)

THIS 'ION-WATER' COMPLEX ALLOWS 'Na+' TO MOVE THROUGH PORES AND EXCLUDE 'K+ IONS'.
TRUE OR FALSE

Na+ CHANNELS OPEN RELATIVELY 'SLOW'
FALSE

Na+ CHANNELS OPEN 'RAPIDLY
What are 3 characteristics about the 'Na + CHANNELS' in a 'NEURON CELL'?
1. OPEN VERY RAPIDLY/FIRST
2. STAY OPEN FOR ~1msec
3. CANNOT OPEN AGAIN UNTIL 'AFTER' 'ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD' IS OVER.
What is 'TTX' and what does it do?

Where is it found?
TETRODOTOXIN (TTX)
PHYSICALLY BLOCKS 'Na+' PORES

FOUND IN 'JAPANESE PUFFER FISH'
What does 'SAXITOXIN' do?

Where is it found?
BLOCKS 'Na+' PORES

FOUND IN CLAMS, MUSSELS AND OTHER SHELL FISH.
What is 'BATRACHOTOXIN' do?
CAUSES THE 'Na+ CHANNELS' TO OPEN AND STAY OPEN MUCH LONGER
What are the characteristics of 'K+ CHANNELS'?

(*THERE ARE 3 OF THEM)
1. DO NOT IMMEDIATELY OPEN UPON 'DEPOLARIZATION'
2. OPEN WHEN 'Na+ CHANNELS' CLOSE
3. MOVE OF K+ DURING 'RE-POLARIZATION' REFERRED TO AS 'DELAYER RECTIFIER'
What is the 'DELAYER RECTIFIER' defined as?
THE MOVEMENT OF 'K+ IONS' DURING THE 'RE-POLARIZATION' OF AN 'ACTION POTENTIAL'
Why does an 'ACTION POTENTIAL' most of the time only move in 'ONE-DIRECTION'?

What is this known as?
BECAUSE THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL BEHIND IT IS IN 'ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY' PHASE THUS NO IMPULSE CAN BE CREATED FROM ANY STIMULUS.

KNOWN AS 'ORTHODROMIC CONDUCTION'
What is 'ORTHODROMIC CONDUCTION'

Is this common/uncommon?
'ONE-WAY' CONDUCTION OF 'NERVE IMPULSES'

*MOST COMMON UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS
What is 'ANTIDROMIC CONDUCTION'?

Is this common/uncommon?
'TWO-WAY' (BACKWARD PROPAGATION) CONDUCTION OF 'NERVE IMPULSES'

*VERY UNCOMMON - UNDER 'EXPERIMENTAL' CONDITIONS
What is 'CONTINUOUS CONDUCTION'?

In what type of 'NEURON' does this occur in?
IMPULSE TRAVELS ALONG THE 'ENTIRE' SURFCE OF THE MEMBRANE SURFCAE

OCCURS IN 'UNMYELINATED NEURONS'
An 'UNMYELINATED NEURON' travels approximately how fast?

What type of 'CONDUCTION' do these types of 'NEURONS' use?
1m/sec

'CONTINUOUS CONDUCTION'
A 'MYELINATED NEURON' travels approximately how fast?

What type of 'CONDUCTION' do these types of 'NEURONS' use?
100m/sec

'SALTATORY CONDUCTION'
Why do 'MYELINATED NEURONS' travel faster than 'UNMYELINATED NEURONS'?

(*2 MAIN FACTORS)
1. 'MYELIN SHEATH' CREATES INSULATION TO THE 'AXON'

2. 'NODES OF RANVIER' ALLOW ACTION POTENTIALS TO 'LEAP' WHERE 'MYELIN SHEATH' COVERS AXON.
What are the characteristics/benefits of 'SALTATORY CONDUCTION'?
1. INCREASE VELOCITY OF IMPULSE CONDUCTION

2. CONSERVES ENERGY
(BECAUSE Na+ AND K+ PUMPS ONLY HAVE TO RE-ESTABLISH CONCENTRATION DIFFERENCES AT
'NODES OF RANVIER'.
What is 'MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS'?
2nd MOST COMMON 'CNS DISEASE'

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE WHERE BODY ATTACKS THE 'MYELIN SHEATH' (OLIGODENDROGLIA) IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM WHICH CAUSES NERVE CONDUCTION INTERRUPTED.
What are the 10 symptoms of 'MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS'?
1. DISTURBANCES IN SPEECH
2. DISTURBANCES IN VISION
3. NUMBNESS
4. FATIGUE
5. DEPRESSION
6. LOSS OF COORDINATION
7. UNCONTROLLABLE TREMORS
8. LOSS OF BLADDER CONTROL
9. MEMORY PROBLEMS
10. PARALYSIS
What are some of the possible treatments for 'MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS'?
1. ACTH (ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE) TREATMENT
2. EXERCISE
3. PHYSICAL THERAPY
What is 'TAY-SACHS DISEASE'?
INHERITED DISEASE IN WHICH THE 'MYELIN SHEATHS' ARE DESTROYED.

EXCESSIVE LIPID ACCUMULATION OCCURS IN THE MEMBRANE LAYERS.
How does 'LOCAL ANESTHESIA' work?

What are 2 examples of drugs of this type?
BLOCK THE INITIATION OF 'ACTION POTENTIALS' IN NEURONS.

PHYSICALLY BLOCK SODIUM CHANNELS

LIDOCAINE AND COCAINE ARE ARE EXAMPLES OF DRUGS THAT ARE LOCAL ANESTHETICS.
What is the 'SYNAPSE' defined as?
JUNCTION BETWEEN '2 NEURONS'
WHERE THE ELECTRICAL IMPULSE OF ONE NEURON INITIATES A SERIES OF EVENTS
What are the 3 parts of a 'SYNAPSE'?
1. AXONS TERMINALS
2. SYNAPTIC CLEFT
3. POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE
What are 'AXON TERMINALS' defined as?
SMALL ROUNDED/OVAL KNOBS, BOUTONS, END FEET OR 'PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS'.

SITE WHERE 'SYNAPTIC VESICLES' CONTAINING 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS' ARE LOCATED.
What are the 3 main 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS'?

What do they do?
1. ACETYL CHOLINE (ACh)
2. NOREPINEPHRINE (NorEPI)
3. EPINEPHRINE (EPI)

*STIMULATE MUSCLES
What is the 'SYNAPTIC CLEFT' defined as?
MICROSCOPIC SPACE BETWEEN THE '2 NEURONS'
What is the 'POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE' defined as?
CELL MEMBRANE THAT CONTAINS 'SPECIFIC RECEPTORS' FOR THE 'NEUROTRANSMITTER'
There are 5 events that take place each time a 'SYNAPSE' is made. What are they?
1. IMPULSE TO AXON TERMINAL (PRESYNAPTIC NEURON)

2. Ca+ CAUSES RELEASE OF NEUROTRANSMITTER INTO SYNAPTIC CLEFT

3. NEUROTRANSMITTER DIFFUSES ACROSS SYNAPTIC CLEFT/DETECTED BY RECEPTORS ON POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON

4. POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE = STIMULATED/INHIBITED DEPENDING ON NEUROTRANSMITTER

5. NEUROTRANSMITTER IS DIFFUSED OUT OF CLEFT OR METABOLIZED
What are the 2 enzymes that metabolize the excess 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' left in the synaptic cleft?
1.CHOLINESTERASE (ACh)
2. MONOAMINE OXIDASE (NorEPI)
What 'ENZYME' metabolizes excess 'ACETYLCHOLINE' in the 'SYNAPTIC CLEFT'?
CHOLINESTERASE
What 'ENZYME' metabolizes excess 'NOREPINEPHRINE' in the 'SYNAPTIC CLEFT'?
MONOAMINE OXIDASE
What are the 3 characteristics of a 'SYNAPSE'?
1. SYNAPTIC DELAY
2. SYNAPTIC FATIGUE (DEPLETION OF THE NEUROTRANSMITTER)
3. ONE-WAY CONDUCTION
Drugs may influence/alter 'SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION' in what 4 different ways?
1. 'SYNTHESIS' OF NEUROTRANSMITTER
2. 'RELEASE' OF THE NEUROTRANSMITTER
3. 'BINDING' OF THE NEUROTRANSMITTER WITH THE RECEPTOR
4. 'DESTRUCTION' OF THE NEUROTRANSMITTER
How does 'NERVE GAS' function?
ACTS AS AN 'ANTI-CHOLINESTERASE'

*MUSCLES STAY CLINCHED AND ACETYL CHOLINE (ACh) IS NOT BROKEN DOWN.
What 3 disease affect 'SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION'?
1. PARKINSON'S DISEASE
2. MYASTHENIA GRAVIS
3. BOTULISM
What is 'PARKINSON'S DISEASE' defined as?
LACK OF THE NEUROTRANSMITTER 'DOPAMINE'
What is 'MYASTHENIA GRAVIS' defined as?
BLOCKS 'ACETYLCHOLINE' (ACh) NEUROTRANSMITTER RECEPTORS.
What is 'BOTULISM' defined as?
'INHIBITION' OF 'ACETYL CHOLINE' (ACh) RELEASE
There are 2 types of transmissions in 'NEURONS'. What are they?
1. EXCITATORY
2. INHIBITORY
What is 'SYNAPTIC INTEGRATION' defined as?
ABILITY FOR A SINGLE 'NEURON' TO BY STIMULATED BY:

1. EXCITATORY TRANSMISSIONS
2. INHIBITORY TRANSMISSIONS

FROM 'DIFFERENT' 'PRESYNAPTIC NEURONS'
What to 'EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS' do?
CAUSE THE 'POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON' TO BECOME 'ACTIVE'.
What to 'INHIBITORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS' do?
CAUSE THE 'POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON' TO BECOME 'INHIBITORY'.
What is 'SYNAPTIC EXCITATION'?

What is it also referred as when this occurs?
'EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS' INCREASE THE POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE'S PERMEABILITY TO SODIUM (Na+) IONS

KNOWN AS 'EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL' (EPSP)
What is 'EPSP'?

What is the 'MEMBRANE' said to be in this state?
'EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL'

'EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS' INCREASE MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY TO Na+ IONS.

MEMBRANE IS SAID TO BE 'HYPOPOLARIZED'
During an 'EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL' (EPSP), the membrane is said to be what?
HYPOPOLARIZED
What are the 2 different ways in order to get 'EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL' (EPSP) to reach an 'ACTION POTENTIAL'?

(*HINT - SUMMATIONS)
1. SPATIAL SUMMATION
2. TEMPORAL SUMMATION
What is 'SPATIAL SUMMATION'?
'SEVERAL' PRESYNAPTIC NEURONS SIMULTANEOUSLY RELEASE NEUROTRANSMITTERS TO A SINGLE POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON.

(*HINT - (S)PATIAL AND (S)EVERAL)
What is 'TEMPORAL SUMMATION'?
'EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL' (EPSP) result of the 'RAPID' discharge from the 'SAME' presynaptic terminal.
What is 'SYNAPTIC INHIBITION'?

What is it also referred as when this occurs?
'INHIBITORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS' INCREASE THE POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE'S PERMEABILITY TO CHLORIDE (Cl-) AND POTASSIUM (K+) IONS.

KNOWN AS 'INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL' (IPSP)
What is 'IPSP'?

What is the 'MEMBRANE' said to be in this state?
'INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL'

'INHIBITORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS' INCREASE MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY TO (CHLORINE) Cl- AND (POTASSIUM) K+ IONS.

MEMBRANE IS SAID TO BE 'HYPERPOLARIZED'
During an 'INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL' (IPSP), the membrane is said to be what?
'HYPERPOLARIZED'
'STRYCHNINE' and 'TETANUS' are considered to be what?

How do they function and what 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' do they effect?
TOXINS

BLOCK 'INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS' (IPSPs) BY ANTAGONIZING 'GLYCINE' TRANSMISSION.

CAUSE CONVULSIONS/HYPERACTIVITY IN 'MUSCLES'
What is 'GRAND POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL' (GPSP) defined as?
THE 'SUM' TOTAL OF BOTH 'EXCITATORY' AND 'INHIBITORY' POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS THAT ARE BEING STIMULATED.
There are 6 basic types of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' groups. What are they?
1. ACETYLCHOLINE
2. AMINO ACIDS
3. AMINES
4. POLYPEPTIDES
5. PURINES
6. GASES
What are the 4 main 'AMINO ACID' 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS'?
1. GLUTAMATE
2. GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)
3. GLYCINE
4. ASPARTATE
What type of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'GLUTAMATE'?

What is its function? (Inhibitory/Excitatory)
'AMINO ACID'

'EXCITATORY'
What type of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'GABA' (gamma-aminobutyric acid)?

What is its function? (Inhibitory/Excitatory)
'AMINO ACID'

'INHIBITORY'
What type of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'GLYCINE'?

What is its function? (Inhibitory/Excitatory)
'AMINO ACID'

'MAINLY INHIBITORY'
What type of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'ASPARTATE'?

What is its function? (Inhibitory/Excitatory)
'AMINO ACID'

'EXCITATORY'
What are the 5 main 'AMINE' 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS'?

Why are they grouped into this?
1. NOREPINEPHRINE
2. EPINEPHRINE
3. DOPAMINE
4. SEROTONIN
5. HISTAMINE

*All made from the 'SAME' 'AMINO ACID'
What 3 'AMINE' 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS' are made from the same single 'AMINO
ACID'?

Which 'AMINO ACID' causes this?
1. NOREPINEPHRINE
2. EPINEPHRINE
3. DOPAMINE

AMINO ACID = 'TYROSINE'
What type of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'NOREPINEPHRINE'?
'AMINE'
What type of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'EPINEPHRINE'?
'AMINE'
What type of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'DOPAMINE'?
'AMINE'
What type of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'SEROTONIN'?
'AMINE'
What type of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'HISTAMINE'?
'AMINE'
What 2 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS' are in the 'POLYPEPTIDE' group?

What is their function?
1. SUBSTANCE P
2. ENDORPHINS/ENKEPHALINS

FUNCTION: TRANSMISSION/INHIBITION OF PAIN
What are the 2 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS' in the 'PURINE' group?
1. ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE (AMP)
2. ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP)
Which 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is in the 'GAS' group?

What is it's 'HALF-LIFE'?
'NITRIC OXIDE'

HALF-LIFE = 2-30 SECONDS
TRUE OR FALSE

EVERY TIME YOU STEP 'NEURONS' ARE BEING INHIBITED/STIMULATED?
TRUE

'NEURONS' ARE BEING 'INHIBITED/STIMULATED' ON OPPOSITE ENDS EACH TIME YOU STEP.
The 'MOTOR' area is located on what part of the 'BRAIN'?
FRONT
The 'SENSORY' area is located on what part of the 'BRAIN'?
BACK
What is the 'LARGEST' and 'MOST PROMINENT' part of the brain?

How much 'MASS' does it make up of the brain?
'CEREBRUM'

'80% OF THE TOTAL BRAIN MASS'
'GROOVES' or 'VALLEYS' located on the surface of the 'BRAIN' are also called what two things?
'FISSURES' or 'SULCI'
The 'BRAIN' is separated into 3 'FISSURES/SULCI'. What are they?

What is their purpose?
1. LONGITUDINAL FISSURE
2. CENTRAL FISSURE
3. LATERAL FISSURE

PURPOSE = HELP DIVIDE 'BRAIN' INTO LOBES
'CONVOLUTIONS' or 'FOLDS' on the surface of the 'BRAIN' are also called what?

What is the plural form of this called?
GYRUS = SINGULAR
GYRI = PLURAL
What are the 2 'CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES' connected to each other by?

What is this made up of?

Why is this important?
'CORPUS CALLOSUM'

MADE UP OF '300 MILLION' NEURAL AXONS.

ALLOWS COMMUNICATION/COOPERATION WITH RIGHT AND LEFT HEMISPHERES.
The 'RIGHT HEMISPHERE' is known to be connected with what type of characteristics?

(*There are 2 of them)
1. CREATIVE PERCEPTION
2. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
The 'LEFT HEMISPHERE' is known to be connected with what type of characteristics?

(*There are 3 of them)
1. LOGIC
2. ANALYTICAL ABILITY
3. LANGUAGE
What are the names of the 4 'LOBES' of the 'CEREBRUM'?
1. FRONTAL LOBE
2. PARIETAL LOBE
3. TEMPORAL LOBE
4. OCCIPITAL LOBE
What are the 3 functions of the 'FRONTAL LOBE'?

What part of the 'BRAIN' is it located on?
1. MOTOR AREA
2. ELABORATE THOUGHT
3. SPEAKING ABILITY

LOCATED ON 'CEREBRUM'
What are the 3 functions of the 'PARIETAL LOBE'?

What part of the 'BRAIN' is it located on?
1. SENSORY AREA
2. BODY FEELINGS/TOUCH/PRESSURE/HEAT/COLD/PAIN
3. BODY POSITIONS

LOCATED ON 'CEREBRUM'
Which 'LOBE' of the 'CEREBRUM' is connected with 'SOMESTHETIC' and 'PROPRIOCEPTION' sensations?
'PARIETAL LOBE'

SOMESTHETIC = SENSES IN SKIN/BODY

PROPRIOCEPTION = POSITION PERCEPTION
What is the sole function of the 'TEMPORAL LOBE'?

What part of the 'BRAIN' is it located on?
HEARING

LOCATED ON 'CEREBRUM'
What is the sole function of the 'OCCIPITAL LOBE'?

What part of the 'BRAIN' is it located on?
VISUAL INPUT

LOCATED ON 'CEREBRUM'
What is the 'CEREBRAL CORTEX'?

Where is it located?
GRAY MATTER (6 LAYERS OF NEURONS)

LOCATED ON THE 'OUTER PORTION' OF THE 'CEREBRUM' (3/16")
What are the 6 'various' 'FUNCTIONS' of the 'CEREBRUM'?
1. ALL 'CONSCIOUS' FUNCTIONS
2. INTERPRETATIONS OF SENSATIONS
3. UNDERSTANDING OF LANGUAGE
4. INTELLIGENCE
5. MEMORY
6. EMOTIONAL FEELINGS
The 'THALAMUS' is located 'right' next to what other part of the 'BRAIN'?
HYPOTHALAMUS
The 'THALAMUS' has 4 main functions. What are they?
1. CRUDE SENSATION OF PAIN, TEMPERATURE, TOUCH
2. PLEASANT/UNPLEASANT FEELINGS
3. COMPLEX REFLEX MOVEMENT PRODUCTION
4. IS A 'RELAY CENTER'
(RECEIVES 'ALL' SENSORY INPUT EXCEPT FOR 'SMELL'.
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is considered to be the 'RELAY CENTER'?
'THALAMUS'

*RELAY CENTER = RECEIVES 'ALL' SENSORY INPUT (EXCEPT FOR SMELL) AND RELAYS TO 'SENSORY CORTEX'
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is connected with the 'RECOGNITION OF CRUDE SENSATIONS OF PAIN, TEMPERATURE AND TOUCH'?
THALAMUS
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is connected with 'PLEASANT/UNPLEASANT FEELINGS'?
THALAMUS
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is connected with 'COMPLEX REFLEX MOVEMENT PRODUCTION'?
THALAMUS
What are the 4 functions of the 'HYPOTHALAMUS'?
1. CONTROLS THE 'PITUITARY'
2. WATER BALANCE
3. APPETITE AND FOOD INTAKE
4. BODY TEMPERATURE
5. INDIRECT/DIRECT INPUTS TO 'AUTONOMIC' NERVOUS SYSTEM
Which part of the 'BRAIN' does 'NOT' have a well developed 'BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER'?
HYPOTHALAMUS
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is connected with 'CONTROLLING THE PITUITARY'?
HYPOTHALAMUS
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is connected with 'WATER BALANCE'?
HYPOTHALAMUS

VIA 'ADH' (ANTI DIURETIC HORMONE)
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is connected with 'APPETITE/FOOD INTAKE'?
HYPOTHALAMUS
What 'RECEPTORS' measure sugar levels? In which part of the 'BRAIN' are they located?
RECEPTORS = GLUCOSTATS (RECEPTORS FOR GLUCOSE)

LOCATED IN 'HYPOTHALAMUS'

*APPETITE/FOOD INTAKE
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is connected with 'BODY TEMPERATURE'?
'HYPOTHALAMUS'
Which part of the 'BRAIN' has 'DIRECT/INDIRECT INPUTS TO THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM'?
'HYPOTHALAMUS'
The 'CEREBELLUM' (*NOT CEREBRUM!) has 3 main functions. What are they?
1. CONTROL MUSCLE ACTION
2. POSTURAL REFLEXES
3. EQUILIBRIUM
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is responsible for 'CONTROLLING MUSCLE ACTION'?
'CEREBELLUM'

PLANS AND EXECUTES VOLUNTARY MUSCLE MOVEMENTS
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is responsible for 'POSTURAL REFLEXES'?
'CEREBELLUM'
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is responsible for 'EQUILIBRIUM'?
'CEREBELLUM'
What are the 6 basic functions of the 'MEDULLA OBLONGATA'?
1. CONTROLS HEART RATE
2. CONTROLS BLOOD PRESSURE
3. CONTROLS RESPIRATIONS
4. REFLEXES OF 'VOMITING'
5. COUGHING
6. HICCUPING
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is responsible for 'CONTROLLING HEART RATE'?
'MEDULLA OBLONGATA'
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is responsible for 'BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL'?
'MEDULLA OBLONGATA'
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is responsible for 'RESPIRATION CONTROL'?
'MEDULLA OBLONGATA'
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is responsible for 'REFLEXES IN VOMITING'?
'MEDULLA OBLONGATA'
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is responsible for 'COUGHING'?
'MEDULLA OBLONGATA'
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is responsible for 'HICCUPING'?
'MEDULLA OBLONGATA'
What is the 'FUNCTION' of the 'PONS'?
CENTER FOR 'CRANIAL NERVES'

5th, 6th, 7th and 8th 'CRANIAL NERVES'
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is the 'CENTER FOR THE 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th CRANIAL NERVES'?
'PONS'
What two parts of the 'BRAIN' are responsible/center for half of the 'CRANIAL NERVES'?

(*6 of the 12 CRANIAL NERVES)
1. PONS
2. MIDBRAIN
What is the 'FUNCTION' of the 'MIDBRAIN'?
CENTER FOR 'CRANIAL NERVES'

3rd and 4th
Which part of the 'BRAIN' is the 'CENTER FOR THE 3rd and 4th CRANIAL NERVES'?
'MIDBRAIN'
The 'BRAIN STEM' can be separated into what 3 parts?
1. MEDULLA
2. PONS
3. MIDBRAIN
What is the 'RETICULAR FORMATION'?
WIDESPREAD NETWORK OF 'INTERCONNECTED' NEURONS

THESE 'NEURONS' RUN THROUGH THE 'ENTIRE BRAIN STEM' AND INTO THE 'THALAMUS'
The 'RETICULAR ACTIVATING CENTER' has 3 main functions. What are they?
1. OVERALL DEGREE OF ALERTNESS
2. WAKEFULNESS
3. SLEEP
Which part of the 'BRAIN STEM' is responsible for the 'OVERALL DEGREE OF ALERTNESS'?
'RETICULAR ACTIVATING CENTER'
Which part of the 'BRAIN STEM' is responsible for 'WAKEFULNESS'?
'RETICULAR ACTIVATING CENTER'
Which part of the 'BRAIN STEM' is responsible for 'SLEEP'?
'RETICULAR ACTIVATING CENTER'
'GENERAL ANESTHETICS' suppress 'NEURONS' in what part of the 'BRAIN'?

What is this area called?
'BRAIN STEM'

'RETICULAR ACTIVATING CENTER'
TRUE OR FALSE

'DAMAGE' OF NEURONS IN THE 'RETICULAR ACTIVATING CENTER' MAY LEAD TO A COMA.
TRUE

DAMAGE TO NEURONS IN THE 'RAC' (RETICULAR ACTIVATING CENTER) MAY LEAD TO A COMA
All of the 'CRANIAL NERVES' supply the 'HEAD' and 'NECK' except for one. What is the name of that 'CRANIAL NERVE'?

What does it supply?
'VAGUS NERVE'

SUPPLIES ORGANS IN THE 'THORACIC/ABDOMINAL CAVITIES'
Which 'NERVE' is considered to be the 'MAJOR NERVE' of the 'PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEM'?

What percentage of 'PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES' does this nerve supply?
'VAGUS NERVE'

SUPPLIES 80% OF ALL PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES
How many pairs of 'SPINAL NERVES' are there?
31 PAIRS OF 'SPINAL NERVES'
'SPINAL NERVES' can be separated into 5 groups of nerves. What are the 5 groups?

(*In order from TOP to BOTTOM of the SPINAL CORD)
1. CERVICAL (NECK)
2. THORACIC (CHEST)
3. LUMBAR (ABDOMINAL)
4. SACRAL (PELVIC)
5. COCCYGEAL (TAILBONE)
How many 'CERVICAL SPINAL NERVES' are there?

What does it supply?
8 CERVICAL NERVES

'NECK'
How many 'THORACIC SPINAL NERVES' are there?

What does it supply?
12 THORACIC NERVES

'CHEST'
How many 'LUMBAR SPINAL NERVES' are there?

What does it supply?
5 LUMBAR NERVES

'ABDOMINAL'
How many 'SACRAL SPINAL NERVES' are there?

What does it supply?
5 SACRAL NERVES

PELVIS
How many 'COCCYGEAL SPINAL NERVES' are there?

What does it supply?
ONLY '1' COCCYGEAL NERVE

TAILBONE
Towards the 'lower' vertebral canal. There is a 'THICK BUNDLE OF ELONGATED NERVE ROOTS'. What is this called?
'CAUDA EQUINA'

aka - 'HORSE'S TAIL'

(*Called this because of its appearance)
There are up to ________ 'SYNAPSES' in a 'GANGLION' in a 'SPINAL NERVE'.
3,000 SYNAPSES PER 'SPINAL NERVE' GANGLION
What are the numbers and names of all of the 'CRANIAL NERVES'?

(*THERE ARE 12 OF THEM)
1. OLFACTORY
2. OPTIC
3. OCULOMOTOR
4. TROCHLEAR
5. TRIGEMINAL
6. ABDUCENS
7. FACIAL
8. VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR
9. GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
10. VAGUS
11. ACCESSORY
12. HYPOGLOSSAL

(*MNEMONIC - (OL)ympic (OP)ium (OC)cupies (TRO)ubled (TRI)athletes (A)fter (F)inishing (VE)rmont (G)ambling (VA)cations (S)till (H)igh)
Which 'CRANIAL NERVES' are 'SENSORY, MOTOR or BOTH'?
1. OLFACTORY - SENSORY
2. OPTIC - SENSORY
3. OCULOMOTOR - MOTOR
4. TROCHLEAR - MOTOR
5. TRIGEMINAL - BOTH
6. ABDUCENS - MOTOR
7. FACIAL - BOTH
8. VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR - SENSORY
9. GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL - BOTH
10. VAGUS - BOTH
11. ACCESSORY - MOTOR
12. HYPOGLOSSAL - MOTOR

(*MNEMONIC - (S)mall (S)hips (M)ake (M)oney, (B)ut (M)y (B)rother (S)ays (B)ig (B)oats (M)ake (M)ore)

M=MOTOR | B=BOTH | S=SENSORY
What is the function of the 'OLFACTORY' nerve?
SMELL - MUCOSA IN NOSE

(SENSORY)
What is the function of the 'OPTIC' nerve?
SIGHT

(SENSORY)
What is the function of the 'OCULOMOTOR' nerve?
MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL

(FOCUSING/CHANGE IN PUPIL SIZE)

(MOTOR)
What is the function of the 'TROCHLEAR' nerve?
MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL

(MOTOR)
What are the 2 functions of the 'TRIGEMINAL' nerve?
1. SENSATIONS FROM FACE,TEETH AND TONGUE (SENSORY)

2. MOVEMENT OF JAW, CHEWING MUSCLES (MOTOR)

(BOTH)
What is the function of the 'ABDUCENS' nerve?
'MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL'

(MOTOR)
What are the 2 functions of the 'FACIAL' nerve?
1. TASTE BUDS AT THE FRONT OF THE TONGUE (SENSORY)

2. MOVEMENT OF FACIAL MUSCLES, SECRETION OF SALIVA/TEARS (MOTOR)

(BOTH)
What is the function of the 'VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR' nerve?
HEARING, BALANCE AND POSTURE

(SENSORY)
What are the 2 functions of the 'GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL' nerve?
1. TASTE BUDS AT THE BACK OF THE TONGUE (SENSORY)

2. SWALLOWING AND SECRETION OF SALIVA (MOTOR)

(BOTH)
What are the 2 functions of the 'VAGUS' nerve?
1. VISCERAL SENSATIONS (SENSORY)

2. VISCERAL MUSCLE MOVEMENT (MOTOR)

(BOTH)
What is the function of the 'ACCESSORY' nerve?
SWALLOWING, HEAD AND NECK MOVEMENTS

(MOTOR)
What is the function of the 'HYPOGLOSSAL' nerve?
SPEECH AND SWALLOWING

(MOTOR)
What 3 'CRANIAL NERVES' are involved with 'EYE MOVEMENT'?
(NERVES 3,4,6)

III. OCULOMOTOR
IV. TROCHLEAR
VI. ABDUCENS

(*MNEMONIC - 3,4 AND 6 MAKE MY EYES DO 'TRICKS')
What letter is formed at the 'CENTER' of the 'SPINAL CORD'?

What forms this?
THE LETTER 'H'

'GRAY MATTER' FORMS THIS
What is located in the 'CENTRAL CANAL' in the 'SPINAL CORD'?
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF)
What is located in the 'GRAY MATTER' in the 'SPINAL CORD'?
NEURON CELL BODIES
In a 'SPINAL CORD' cross section, what is located next to the 'GRAY MATTER'?
WHITE MATTER
What is 'WHITE MATTER' composed of in a 'SPINAL CORD'?
MYELINATED AXONS
There are columns or 'FUNICULI' located in the 'SPINAL CORD' in a cross section. What are they?
1. POSTERIOR (TOP)
2. LATERAL (SIDES)
3. ANTERIOR (BOTTOM)
What divides the 'SPINAL CORD' cross section into the 3 sections/funiculi?
THE 'GRAY MATTER' THAT FORMS THE LETTER 'H'
Where are 'NERVE TRACTS' located in the 'SPINAL CORD'?
IN THE 3 'FUNICULI'
'NERVE TRACTS' can go one of two ways. What are the 2 options?

What do each of them mean?
1. ASCENDING - BOTTOM OF SPINAL CORD TO BRAIN

2. DESCENDING - FROM BRAIN TO SPINAL CORD
In every 'NERVE TRACT' name, there are 3 things that are defined. What are they?
1. FUNICULUS IN WHICH TRACT IS LOCATED
2. LOCATION OF CELL (ORIGIN)
3. LEVEL OF 'DESTINATION'
What are the 2 main 'ASCENDING' nerve tracts?
1. LATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC
2. ANTERIOR SPINOTHALAMIC

(*HINT - SPINE to THALAMUS = ASCENDING TRACT)
What are the 2 main 'DESCENDING' nerve tracts?
1. LATERAL CORTICOSPINAL
2. ANTERIOR CORTICOSPINAL

(*HINT - CEREBRUM to SPINE = DESCENDING TRACT)
What 'NERVE TRACT' conducts the following:

'SENSORY IMPULSES' for 'CRUDE TOUCH' and 'PRESSURE'?

Is it 'ASCENDING/DESCENDING'?
ANTERIOR SPINOTHALAMIC

(ASCENDING TRACT)
What 'NERVE TRACT' does the following:

'CONDUCTS PAIN' and 'TEMPERATURE IMPULSES'?

Is it 'ASCENDING/DESCENDING'?
LATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC

(ASCENDING TRACT)
What 'NERVE TRACT' does the following:

'Conducts motor impulses from the cerebrum to the spinal nerves and [OUTWARD] through 'ANTERIOR HORNS' for coordinated movements.

Is it 'ASCENDING/DESCENDING'?
ANTERIOR CORTICOSPINAL

(DESCENDING TRACT)
What 'NERVE TRACT' does the following:

'Conducts motor impulses from the cerebrum to the spinal nerves through 'ANTERIOR HORNS' for coordinated movements.

Is it 'ASCENDING/DESCENDING'?
LATERAL CORTICOSPINAL

(DESCENDING)
What is the 'SIMPLEST TYPE OF 'SENSORY-TO-MOTOR' NERVE PATHWAY'?
'REFLEX ARC'
What is the 'REFLEX ARC'
THE SIMPLEST 'SENSORY-TO-NERVE' PATHWAY
How does the 'REFLEX ARC' work?

(*THERE ARE 3 STEPS)
1. RECEPTOR DETECTS STIMULUS
2. 'SENSORY NEURON' SENDS NERVE IMPULSE TO 'CNS'
3. 'MOTOR NEURON' CONDUCTS IMPULSE TO 'EFFECTOR ORGAN'
What is a 'RECEPTOR' defined as?
PORTION OF 'DENDRITE' OR SPECIALIZED RECEPTOR CELL IN A 'SENSORY ORGAN'
What is the 'FUNCTION' of a 'RECEPTOR'?
SENSITIVE TO SPECIFIC TYPES OF 'STIMULUS'
What is a 'SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURON' defined as?

(*3 PARTS)
1. DENDRITE
2. CELL BODY
3. AXON
What is the function of a 'SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURON'?
TRANSMITS IMPULSE FROM RECEPTOR TO THE (CNS)

(*HINT - (A)FFERENT NEURONS (A)RRIVE TO 'BRAIN' (CNS))
What is an 'INTERNEURON' defined as?

(*3 PARTS/STAGES)
1. DENDRITE
2. CELL BODY
3. AXON OF NEURON (IN BRAIN OR SPINAL CORD)
What are the functions of an 'INTERNEURON'?

(*There are 2 of them)
1. SERVE AS 'PROCESSING CENTER'
2. CONDUCT IMPULSE FROM 'SENSORY NEURON' TO 'MOTOR NEURON'
What is a 'MOTOR (EFFECTOR) NEURON' defined as?

(*3 PARTS)
1. DENDRITE
2. CELL BODY
3. AXON
What is the function of a 'MOTOR (EFFECTOR) NEURON'?
TRANSMITS IMPULSE FROM CNS OUT TO AN 'EFFECTOR ORGAN'

(*HINT - (E)FFERENT NEURONS (E)XIT THE 'BRAIN' AND MOVE TO (E)FFECTOR ORGANS))
What is a 'EFFECTOR' defined as?
MUSCLE/GLAND OUTSIDE THE 'NERVOUS SYSTEM'
What are the functions of 'EFFECTORS'?

(*THERE ARE 2 OF THEM)
1. RESPOND TO STIMULATION BY 'MOTOR NEURON'

2. PRODUCE A 'REFLEX' OR 'PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE'
Most 'BLOOD CAPILLARIES' in the body contain what?

What is the exception to this?
'PORE PASSAGES' FOR 'LIPID SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES'

'BRAIN CAPILLARIES = EXCEPTION'
What do 'BRAIN CAPILLARIES' contain that other capillaries in the body do not?

Why is this important?
'TIGHT JUNCTIONS'

CONTROL WHAT SUBSTANCES MAY OR MAY NOT ENTER THE 'BRAIN BLOOD CAPILLARIES'
What is an 'ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM' (EEG)?
GRAPHIC RECORD OF NEURON ACTIVITY IN THE 'BRAIN'
What are the 4 kinds of 'ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAMS' (EEGs)?
1. ALPHA WAVES
2. BETA WAVES
3. THETA WAVES
4. DELTA WAVES
Which 'BRAIN WAVES' are approximately '8-12 waves/sec'?
ALPHA WAVES
Which 'BRAIN WAVES' are approximately '13-25 waves/sec'?
BETA WAVES
Which 'BRAIN WAVES' are approximately '5-8 waves/sec'?
THETA WAVES
Which 'BRAIN WAVES' are approximately '1-5 waves/sec'?
DELTA WAVES
Where are 'ALPHA WAVES' recorded from?

(*2 LOBES)
1. PARIETAL LOBE
2. OCCIPITAL LOBE
What 3 things will 'INCREASE' the incidence of 'ALPHA WAVES'?
1. INCREASED BLOOD SUGAR
2. INCREASED CORTICOIDS
3. ELEVATED BODY TEMPERATURE
Which 'BRAIN WAVES' are recorded when a person is 'AWAKE' and 'RELAXED WITH EYES CLOSED'?
ALPHA WAVES
Where are 'BETA WAVES' recorded from? Which lobes?
FRONTAL LOBES
Which waves are the 'MOST RAPID' of all 'BRAIN WAVES'?
BETA WAVES
Which waves are produced when a person is 'VISUALLY ORIENTATING' and/or 'THINKING'?
BETA WAVES
Where are 'THETA WAVES' recorded from?

(*3 lobes)
1. TEMPORAL LOBES
2. OCCIPITAL LOBES
Where are 'THETA WAVES' seen more commonly?
NEWBORN INFANTS
These type of 'BRAIN WAVES' can be observed in 'ADULTS UNDER SEVERE EMOTIONAL STRESS'.
THETA WAVES
Where are 'DELTA WAVES' generally recorded from?
NEAR THE 'CEREBRUM'
These type of 'BRAIN WAVES' can be observed in 'INFANTS' and 'SLEEPING ADULTS'.
DELTA WAVES
The presence of these 'BRAIN WAVES' in an 'ADULT' who is 'AWAKE' may indicate 'ABNORMAL BRAIN FUNCTION'.
DELTA WAVES
There are 7 problems that an 'ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM' can diagnose neurologically. What are they?
1. TRAUMA
2. MENTAL DEPRESSION
3. HEMATOMAS
4. VARIOUS DISEASES
5. TUMORS
6. EPILEPSY
7. INFECTION
What is 'BRAIN DEATH' defined as?
THE 'CESSATION' OF BRAIN WAVES.
What are the 5 criteria for determining 'BRAIN DEATH'?
1. UNRESPONSIVENESS (COMA)
2. ABSENCE OF UNASSISTED RESPIRATION FOR 3 MINUTES
3. ABSENCE OF CNS REFLEXES
4. FIXED DILATED PUPILS
5. FLAG 'EEG' FOR AT LEAST 10 MINUTES
What are the characteristics of 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID'?

(*THERE ARE 4 OF THEM)
1. SLIGHTLY 'ALKALINE' (BASIC)
2. MORE SODIUM, CHLORINE AND MAGNESIUM IONS
3. LESS BLOOD PLASMA, CALCIUM, POTASSIUM AND GLUCOSE
4. ALSO CONTAINS 'SOME' PROTEINS, UREA AND LEUKOCYTES
What molecules does 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' contain 'MORE' of?
'MORE':

SODIUM IONS(Na+)
CHLORIDE IONS (Cl-)
MAGNESIUM IONS (Mg2+)
What molecules does 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' contain 'LESS' of?
'LESS':

CALCIUM IONS (Ca2+)
POTASSIUM IONS (K+)
GLUCOSE
TRUE OR FALSE

'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' IS ONLY PRODUCED SPORADICALLY.
FALSE

'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' (CSF) IS PRODUCED 'CONTINUOUSLY'
What is 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' formed from?
PLASMA
How is 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' continuously produced?
THROUGH 'ACTIVE TRANSPORT' AND 'ULTRAFILTRATION' FROM MATERIALS ALREADY IN BLOOD VIA SPECIALIZED CAPILLARIES
What are 'CHOROID PLEXUSES'?

What is their function?

Where are they located?
CHOROID PLEXUSES = SPECIALIZED BLOOD CAPILLARIES

INVOLVED IN THE 'PRODUCTION' OF 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' (CSF)

LOCATED ON THE 'ROOFS' OF THE 'VENTRICLES OF THE BRAIN'
What is the 'NORMAL' fluid pressure of 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' (CSF)?
10mm Hg
Additional 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' is produced by what kind of cells?

Where are there cells located?
'EPENDYMAL CELLS'

LOCATED ON 'VENTRICLES' AND 'CENTRAL CANAL' OF 'SPINAL CORD' (CROSS SECTION)
What is the 'PATHWAY OF FLOW' for the production of 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' (CSF)?

(*There are 7 steps)
1. LATERAL VENTRICLES
2. INTERVENTRICULAR FORAMEN (of Monro)
3. THIRD VENTRICLE
4. CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT (of Sylvius)
5. FOURTH VENTRICLE
6. SUBARACHNOID SPACE
7. REABSORPTION AT THE 'ARACHNOID VILLI'

[*MNEMONIC - (L)ittle (I)ndians (of Monro) (T)hink (C)owboys (of Sylvius) (F)ear (S)piders & (R)ats (at the Arachnoid Villi)]
'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' (CSF) has 3 main functions. What are they?
1. CUSHIONS BRAIN WITHIN 'SOLID VAULT'

2. ALLOWS FOR EXCHANGE OF 'NUTRIENTS' AND 'WASTES' WITHIN THE NERVOUS TISSUE

3. BUOYS THE BRAIN
How much does the 'BRAIN' weigh when not suspended in 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' (CSF)?

How much does it weight when it is in (CSF)?
1500 grams = NOT IN (CSF)

50 gram = SUSPENDED IN (CSF)
What is 'HYDROCEPHALUS' defined as?
ABNORMAL 'ACCUMULATION' OF 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' (CSF) IN:

'VENTRICLES' AND 'SUBARACHNOID' OR 'SUBDURAL SPACE'
What are some of the 'CAUSES' of 'HYDROCEPHALUS'?

(*There are 2 of them)
1. EXCESSIVE PRODUCTION OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF)

2. BLOCKED FLOW OF (CSF)
What does 'HYDROCEPHALUS' eventually cause?
CAUSES 'CRANIAL BONES' TO THIN AND THE 'CEREBRAL CORTEX' TO 'ATROPHY'.
What is the definition of a 'LUMBAR PUNCTURE'?
THE 'WITHDRAWAL' OF 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' FROM THE 'SUBARACHNOID SPACE' IN THE REGION OF THE 'LUMBAR VERTEBRAE'.
What are the 2 reasons for a 'STROKE'?

Why would a 'LUMBAR PUNCTURE' by important to perform in this case?
1. CLOT
2. BLOOD VESSEL RUPTURING CAUSING BRAIN TO HEMORRHAGE

A 'LUMBAR PUNCTURE' WILL SHOW IF 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' CONTAINS 'BLOOD' FROM A HEMORRHAGE. A 'CLOT' WILL NOT SHOW ANY.

DEPENDING ON 'CLOT' OR 'HEMORRHAGE' DIFFERENT MEDICATION IS GIVEN.
TRUE OR FALSE

'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' WILL SHOW IF THERE IS AN 'INFECTION' IN THE 'BRAIN/SPINAL CORD'.
TRUE

'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' WILL SHOW 'BACTERIA'
When can 'HYDROCEPHALUS' occur?
FROM 'INFANCY' TO 'CHILDHOOD'

*MOST CASES DEVELOP GRADUALLY OVER TIME
What is 'ACUTE HYDROCEPHALUS' defined as?
RAPID DEVELOPMENT OF 'HYDROCEPHALUS' FROM A SUSTAINED HEAD INJURY
When does 'IDIOPATHIC' or 'NORMAL-PRESSURE' 'HYDROCEPHALUS' (NPH) occur?
WHEN 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' (CSF) INCREASES, BUT 'PRESSURE' MAY OR MAY NOT INCREASE.
What are the 2 types of 'HYDROCEPHALUS'?
1. NON-COMMUNICATING
2. COMMUNICATING
What is the 'MECHANISM' involved in 'NON-COMMUNICATING' 'HYDROCEPHALUS'?
OBSTRUCTION OF 'CEREBROSPINAL FLUID' (CSF) FLOW BETWEEN VENTRICLES
What is the 'CAUSE' of 'NON-COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS'?

(*THERE ARE 3 OF THEM)
1. CONGENITAL ABNORMALITY
2. AQUEDUCT STENOSIS
3. COMPRESSION BY TUMOR
What are the 2 'MECHANISMS' involved in 'COMMUNICATING' 'HYDROCEPHALUS'?
1. IMPAIRED ABSORPTION OF (CSF)
2. INCREASED (CSF) SECRETION
What are the causes for the 2 'MECHANISMS' involved in 'COMMUNICATING HYDROCEPHALUS'?

(*There are 3 for 1st 'mechanism' and 1 for the 2nd 'mechanism)
IMPAIRED ABSORPTION OF (CSF):
1. INFECTION W/ ADHESIONS
2. HIGH VENOUS PRESSURE IN 'SAGITTAL SINUS'
3. HEAD INJURY

INCREASED (CSF) SECRETION:
1. SECRETING TUMOR (CHOROID PLEXUS)
What are some of the 'SYMPTOMS' of 'ACUTE HYDROCEPHALUS'?

(*THERE ARE 4 OF THEM)
1. HEADACHE
2. VOMITING
3. ALTERED VITAL SIGNS
4. DEEP COMA IF NOT TREATED QUICKLY
What is the 'MOST COMMON CAUSE' of 'HYDROCEPHALUS'?
OBSTRUCTION
What are some of the 'SYMPTOMS' of 'CONGENITAL HYDROCEPHALUS'?

(*THERE ARE 6 OF THEM)
1. CRANIAL CIRCUMFERENCE IS ENLARGED
2. EYES TURNED DOWNWARD
3. THIN SCALP W/ PROMINENT VEINS
4. POSSIBLE BLINDNESS
5. POSSIBLE PARALYSIS
6. POSSIBLE MENTAL RETARDATION
What are the 2 ways that 'HYDROCEPHALUS' is diagnosed early?
1. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCAN (CT)
2. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
What is 'NON-REM' sleep also referred to as?

(*3 TERMS)
1. SLOW SLEEP
2. S-STATE
3. QUIET SLEEP
What is the known as the 'DEEPEST' state of 'NON-REM' sleep?
DELTA
TRUE OR FALSE

'NON-REM' SLEEP STAGE HAS VERY 'SMALL' WAVES.
FALSE

'NON-REM' SLEEP STATE HAS VERY 'LARGE WAVES' (Less than 4 cycles per second)
What are some of the 'CHARACTERISTICS' of 'NON-REM' sleep?

(*THERE ARE 7 OF THEM)
1. LARGE WAVES
2. FEW EYE MOVEMENTS
3. OCCASIONAL CHANGES IN BODY POSITION
4. RESPIRATION IS SLOW/DEEP/REGULAR
5. DECREASED H.R., B.P., CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW, BRAIN TEMPERATURE
6. INCREASED TENDENCY FOR 'SEIZURE DISORDERS'
7. 4-5% WHO AWAKE DURING 'NON-REM' SLEEP REPORT DREAMS
What sleep stage is responsible for 'FEW EYE MOVEMENTS'?
NON-REM SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'OCCASIONAL CHANGES IN BODY POSITION - EVERY 20-30 MINUTES'?
NON-REM SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'INCREASED TENDENCY FOR SEIZURE DISORDERS'?
NON-REM SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'DECREASED H.R., B.P., CEREBRAL BLOOD BLOW AND BRAIN TEMPERATURE'?
NON-REM SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for '4-5% OF INDIVIDUALS REPORTING DREAMS'?
NON-REM SLEEP STAGE
'REM' Sleep stage is also referred to as what 3 terms?
1. ACTIVE SLEEP
2. FAST SLEEP
3. D-SLEEP
What type of 'ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM' is recorded with 'REM' SLEEP?

(*3 THINGS)
LOW VOLTAGE
HIGH FREQUENCY
RANDOM
What sleep state is responsible for there being 'DIFFICULTY IN AWAKENING THE INDIVIDUAL'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'PARALYZED MUSCLES (EXCEPT FOR MASTICATION MUSCLES)'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for '80-90% OF INDIVIDUALS REPORTING DREAMS UPON BEING AWOKEN'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'BEING SUPPRESSED BY A NUMBER OF DRUGS, ALCOHOL AND BARBITUATES'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'INCREASED HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'INCREASED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTIONS, ANGINA, ELEVATED S-T SEGMENT' (aka - Heart Attacks)?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'INCREASED NUMBER OF 'PVD's AND OTHER HEART ARRHYTHMIAS'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'INCREASED RELEASE OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'INCREASED GASTRIC ACID SECRETION IN PATIENTS WITH PEPTIC ULCERS'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'INCREASED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'INCREASED BRAIN TEMPERATURE'?
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What sleep state is responsible for 'INCREASED NUMBER OF ERECTIONS'?

(*THIS IS USED IN TESTING IMPOTENCE)
'REM' SLEEP STAGE
What does the 'AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM' do as far a 'innervation'?
INNERVATES 'ORGANS' WHOSE FUNCTIONS ARE 'NOT' USUALLY UNDER:

'VOLUNTARY CONTROL'
What 3 'EFFECTOR TYPES' respond to 'autonomic regulation'?
1. CARDIAC MUSCLE
2. SMOOTH MUSCLE
3. VISCERAL ORGANS/GLANDS
(aka - INTERNAL ORGANS/GLANDS)
The 'AUTONOMIC SYSTEM' is also sometimes called what?
'VISCERAL MOTOR SYSTEM'

BECAUSE IT PROVIDES MOTOR CONTROL OF THE VISCERA
What are the 2 divisions of the 'AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM'?
1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
2. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
'IMPULSES' from the 2 'AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM' divisions do what to 'activator organs'?

(*2 THINGS)

What is this another example of?
1. ACTIVATE 'EFFECTOR ORGANS'
2. INHIBIT 'EFFECTOR ORGANS'

'HOMEOSTASIS'
The 'SYMPATHETIC DIVISION' is also known as what kind of 'response'?

Why?
'FIGHT OR FLIGHT' RESPONSE

PREPARES THE BODY FOR 'INTENSE' PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN 'EMERGENCIES' THROUGH 'ADRENERGIC' EFFECTS.
Through what type of 'stimulation' does the 'SYMPATHETIC DIVISION' operate on?
'ADRENERGIC'

'FIGHT OR FLIGHT'
During 'SYMPATHETIC RESPONSE'. There are 6 main things that happen, what are they?
1. HEART RATE INCREASES
2. BLOOD GLUCOSE RISES
3. BLOOD DIVERTED TO 'SKELETAL MUSCLES' (AWAY FROM VISCERAL)
4. PUPILS DILATE
5. BRONCHIOLES DILATE
6. ADRENAL MEDULLA RELEASES EPINEPHRINE/NOREPINEPHRINE INTO BLOOD
The 'ACTIVITY' of the 'EFFECTOR ORGANS' is regulated by the degree of input from what?
BOTH THE 'AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM' DIVISIONS:

- SYMPATHETIC
- PARASYMPATHETIC
The 'PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION' response is also known as what?
'REST AND DIGEST'
How can an 'EFFECTOR ORGAN' be stimulated to do opposite responses?
POSTGANGLIONIC FIBERS OF THE TWO DIVISIONS RELEASE 'DIFFERENT' NEUROTRANSMITTERS.

SYMPATHETIC = NOREPINEPHRINE
PARASYMPATHETIC = ACETYLCHOLINE
What 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is used for 'SYMPATHETIC' responses?
NOREPINEPHRINE
What 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is used for 'PARASYMPATHETIC' responses?
ACETYLCHOLINE
In the 'SYMPATHETIC DIVISION' is the 'PREGANGLIONIC FIBER' long/short compared to the other division?
'SYMPATHETIC DIVISION'

'SHORT' PREGANGLIONIC FIBER

'LONG' POSTGANGLIONIC FIBER

[*HINT = (S)YMPATHETIC = (S)HORT. (PRE) ALWAYS COMES BEFORE (POST).]
In the 'PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION' is the 'PREGANGLIONIC FIBER' long/short compared to the other division?
'PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION'

'LONG' PREGANGLIONIC FIBER

'SHORT' PREGANGLIONIC FIBER

[*HINT = (PARA)SYMPATHETIC IS A (LONGER) WORD THAN THE OTHER DIVISION. (PRE) ALWAYS COMES BEFORE (POST).]
The 'PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION' relies on what type of 'responses'?
CHOLINERGIC RESPONSES
TRUE OR FALSE

IN 'PARASYMPATHETIC' AND 'SYMPATHETIC' RESPONSES BOTH THE 'PREGANGLIONIC' AND 'POSTGANGLIONIC' FIBERS ARE MYELINATED.
FALSE

PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS = ALWAYS MYELINATED

POSTGANGLIONIC FIBERS = UNMYELINATED

THIS IS FOR 'BOTH' 'AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM' DIVISIONS
What 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is always used for 'MOTOR NEURONS' and 'SKELETAL MUSCLES'?
ACETYLCHOLINE
The 'SOMATIC SYSTEM' is under what type of control?
VOLUNTARY CONTROL

(*ALWAYS USES 'ACETYLCHOLINE' FOR 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS)
What type of division would be responsible for a response of 'INCREASED HEART RATE'?
SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (ADRENERGIC)

'FIGHT OR FLIGHT'
What type of division would be responsible for a response of 'DECREASED DIGESTION'?
SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (ADRENERGIC)

'FIGHT OR FLIGHT'
What type of division would be responsible for a response of 'DECREASED HEART RATE'?
PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION (CHOLINERGIC)

'REST AND DIGEST'
What type of division would be responsible for a response of 'INCREASED DIGESTION'?
PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION (CHOLINERGIC)

'REST AND DIGEST'
What are the 3 major 'DIFFERENCES' between the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' and 'SYMPATHETIC' divisions?
1. ANATOMICAL ORIGIN IS DIFFERENT
2. ANTAGONISTIC TO EACH OTHER
3. NEUROTRANSMITTERS ARE DIFFERENT
The 'THORACIC' and 'LUMBAR' regions encompass what 'autonomic nervous system' division?
SYMPATHETIC
The 'CRANIAL' and 'SACRAL' regions encompass what 'autonomic nervous system' division?
PARASYMPATHETIC
What 'NERVE ORIGINS' are involved in 'SYMPATHETIC' responses?

(6 NERVES IN 2 LOCATIONS)
T1 to T12 (THORACIC)

L1 to L3 (LUMBAR)
80% of 'ALL' 'PARASYMPATHETIC' fibers (impulses) are connected to what 'NERVE'?
VAGUS NERVE
What 'NERVE ORIGINS' are involved in 'PARASYMPATHETIC' responses?

(9 NERVES IN 2 LOCATIONS)
FOUR CRANIAL NERVES (3,7,9,10)
SACRAL REGION (5 NERVES TOTAL)
What 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is 'ALWAYS' used in 'PARASYMPATHETIC' responses?
ACETYLCHOLINE
TRUE OR FALSE

'NOREPINEPHRINE' is 'ALWAYS' used to elicit a 'SYMPATHETIC' response.
1. SWEAT GLANDS
2. SMOOTH MUSCLES IN BLOOD VESSELS THAT 'GO TO 'SKELETAL MUSCLES'
3. THE ADRENAL MEDULLA

*ACETYLCHOLINE IS USED INSTEAD
What are the 3 'EXCEPTIONS' of 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' use in 'SYMPATHETIC' responses where norepinephrine is 'NOT' used.

What 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' is used instead?
1. SWEAT GLANDS
2. SMOOTH MUSCLES IN BLOOD VESSELS THAT 'GO TO 'SKELETAL MUSCLES'
3. THE ADRENAL MEDULLA

*ACETYLCHOLINE IS USED INSTEAD
What are the 4 'SIMILARITIES' between the 2 'AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DIVISIONS'?
1. PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS = MYELINATED
2. POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS = UNMYELINATED
3. EFFERENT OUTFLOW DIVIDED INTO PRE- POST-GANGLIONIC NEURONS
4. PRE-GANGLIONIC NEUROTRANSMITTER = ACETYLCHOLINE
What is 'PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA'?

What does this cause to occur?
A TUMOR OF THE ADRENAL MEDULLA

'HYPERSECRETION' (EXCESS) OF NOREPINEPHRINE/EPINEPHRINE.

*THIS CAUSES BLOOD PRESSURE TO INCREASE
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on 'HEART MUSCLE'?

(*2 THINGS)


What receptor is involved in this?
1. INCREASED HEART RATE
2. INCREASED FORCE

(BETA-1 RECEPTOR)
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on 'BRONCHI-LUNG' (Smooth Muscles)?

(*ONLY 1)


What receptor is involved in this?
INHIBITED - BRONCHI-DILATION

(BETA-2 RECEPTOR)

(*HINT - BETA-2 = YOU HAVE '2' LUNGS)
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on 'BLOOD VESSELS' (MOST BODY ARTERIOLES)?

What receptor is involved in this?
VASOCONSTRICTION

(ALPHA-1 RECEPTOR)
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on 'BLOOD VESSELS' (SKELETAL MUSCLE ARTERIOLES)

(*2 THINGS)

What receptor is involved in this?
1. VASONCONSTRICTION (ALPHA-1 RECEPTOR)
2. VASODILATION (BETA-2 RECEPTOR)
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on the 'PUPIL' (EYE)?

What receptor is involved in this?
INHIBITED - PUPIL DILATION

(ALPHA-1 RECEPTOR)
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on 'DIGESTIVE' (SMOOTH MUSCLES)?

What receptor is involved in this?
INHIBITED

(BETA-2 RECEPTOR)
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on 'DIGESTIVE' (SECRETION)?

What receptor is involved in this?
INHIBITED

(ALPHA-1 RECEPTOR)
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on 'DIGESTIVE' (SPHINCTERS)?

What receptor is involved in this?
CONTRACTION

(ALPHA-1 RECEPTOR)
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on 'SWEAT GLANDS'?
COPIOUS SWEATING
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on 'PILOERECTOR MUSCLES'

What receptor is involved in this?
STIMULATED

(ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS)
What is the 'SYMPATHETIC' response on the 'LIVER'?
GLYCOGENOLYSIS
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'HEART MUSCLE'?

(*2 THINGS)
1. SLOWER RATE
2. DECREASED FORCE
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'BRONCHI-LUNGS' (SMOOTH MUSCLES)?
STIMULATED -> CONSTRICTED
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'BLOOD VESSELS' (ATERIOLES)

(BOTH SKELETAL/OTHER BODY ARTERIOLES)
NONE

NO EFFECT
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'PUPIL' (EYE)?
STIMULATED -> CONSTRICTED
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'DIGESTIVE' (SMOOTH MUSCLES)?
STIMULATED -> PERISTALSIS

(PERISTALSIS = MOVEMENT OF FOOD DOWN ESOPHAGUS)
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'DIGESTIVE' (SECRETION)?
STIMLUATED
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'DIGESTIVE' (SPHINCTERS)?
RELAXED
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'SWEAT GLANDS'?
NONE

NO EFFECT
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'PILOERECTOR MUSCLES'?
NONE

NO EFFECT
What is the 'PARASYMPATHETIC' response on 'LIVER'?
NONE

NO EFFECT
What are the two type of 'CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS'?
1. NICOTINIC
2. MUSCARINIC
What are 'NICOTINIC RECEPTORS' defined as?

What group of 'RECEPTORS' are they included in?
RECEPTORS LOCATED AT THE GANGLIA IN 'BOTH' SYMPATHETIC/PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISIONS.

INCLUDED IN THE 'CHOLINERGIC' RECEPTOR GROUP.
What are 'MUSCARNIC RECEPTORS' defined as?

What group of 'RECEPTORS' are they included in?

What 'AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM' division are these receptors found in?
RECEPTORS LOCATED ON 'ALL' EFFECTOR ORGANS THAT ARE INNERVATED BY 'POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS' OF THE PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION.

INCLUDED IN THE 'CHOLINERGIC' RECEPTOR GROUP.

*ONLY FOUND IN 'PARASYMPATHETIC' DIVISION
What 'NEUROTRANSMITTER' do 'CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS' utilize?
ACETYLCHOLINE
What 2 'AUTONOMIC NEURONS' are 'ALWAYS' 'CHOLINERGIC'?
1. SYMPATHETIC 'PREGANGLIONIC' NEURONS
2. PARASYMPATHETIC 'POSTGANGLIONIC' NEURONS
What 2 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS' stimulate 'NICOTINIC RECEPTORS'?
1. NICOTINE (from tobacco plants)
2. ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh)
Why are 'NICOTINIC RECEPTORS' not utilized for medicinal purposes often?
BECAUSE THEY STIMULATE 'BOTH' SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISIONS.
What 2 'NEUROTRANSMITTERS' stimulate 'MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS'?
1. MUSCARINIE (from poisonous mushrooms)
2. ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh)
What is one of the 'MAJOR' drugs used as a 'ANTI-MUSCARINIC AGENT' or 'MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST'?
ATROPINE
What is 'ATROPINE'?
AN 'ANTI-MUSCARINIC AGENT'
What are 'ANTI-MUSCARINIC AGENTS' or 'MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS' used for in medicine?

(*THERE ARE 5 USES)
1. TREAT 'PARKINSON'S DISEASE'
2. DILATE PUPILS
3. CONTROL MOTION SICKNESS
4. TREAT PEPTIC ULCERS
5. DECREASE SALIVARY/BRONCHIAL SECRETIONS
What are 4 examples of 'MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR STIMULANTS'?

In general, what do these do?
1. ACETYLCHOLINE
2. CARBACHOL
3. METHACHOLINE
4. BETHANECHOL

*INCREASED PARASYMPATHETIC RESPONSE
What are 'MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR STIMULANTS' used for in medicine?

(*THERE ARE 5 USES)
1. STIMULATE INTESTINES
2. STIMULATE URINARY BLADDER
3. DILATE PERIPHERAL BLOOD VESSELS
4. TREAT 'MYASTHENIA GRAVIS'
What are the 2 types of 'ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS'?
1. ALPHA RECEPTORS
2. BETA RECEPTORS
'ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS' are regulated by what 2 hormones/neurotransmitters?
CATACHOLAMINES (aka - EPINEPHRINE/NOREPINEPHRINE)
In 'ALPHA-1' 'ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS', what neurotransmitters stimulates at a 'HIGHER' degree?
NOREPINEPHRINE = STRONGER

EPINEPHRINE = WEAKER
In 'BETA-1' 'ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS', what neurotransmitters stimulates at a 'HIGHER' degree?
FUNCTION THE SAME

NOREPINEPHRINE = EPINEPHRINE
In 'BETA-2' 'ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS', what neurotransmitters stimulates at a 'HIGHER' degree?
EPINEPHRINE = STRONGER

NOREPINEPHRINE = WEAKER
Where is the 'TISSUE LOCATION' for 'ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS'?
SMOOTH MUSCLES
What is the 'EFFECT' of 'ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS' on 'SMOOTH MUSCLES'?

(*THERE ARE 5 OF THEM)
STIMULATION

1. VASOCONSTRICTION
2. UTERINE CONTRACTION
3. DILATION OF PUPIL
4. INTESTINAL SPHINCTER CONTRACTION
5. PILOMOTOR CONTRACTION
What is the 'EFFECT' of 'BETA-1 RECEPTORS' on 'CARDIAC MUSCLE'?

(*THERE ARE 5 OF THEM)
STIMLUATION:

1. INCREASE HEART RATE
2. INCREASED FORCE OF CONTRACTION
Where is the 'TISSUE LOCATION' for 'BETA-1 RECEPTORS'?
CARDIAC MUSCLE
What is the 'EFFECT' of 'BETA-2 RECEPTORS' on 'SMOOTH MUSCLES'?

(*THERE ARE 4 OF THEM)
INHIBITION:

1. VASODILATION
2. UTERING RELAXATION
3. INTESTINAL RELAXATION
4. BRONCHODILATION

(*SIMILAR TO PARASYMPATHETIC RESPONSE)
What is 'ISOPROTERENOL'?

What does it do?
SYNTHETIC 'CATECHOLAMINE'

STIMULATES MAINLY 'BETA-2' RECEPTORS STRONGER THAN 'ALPHA-1' RECEPTORS.

(*WORKS JUST LIKE 'EPINEPHRINE')
'ALL' 'ADRENERGIC' receptors act via what 'PROTEINS'?
G-PROTEINS
What do 'G-PROTEINS' affect?
ALL 'ADRENERGIC' RECEPTORS
What is the function of 'ALPHA RECEPTOR STIMULATORS'?

What medicinal function are they used in?
VASOCONSTRICTION

USED IN 'DECONGESTANTS'
What is the function of 'ALPHA RECEPTOR 'BLOCKERS'?
USED TO 'LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE'
What are the functions of 'BETA RECEPTOR 'STIMULATORS'?

(*THERE ARE 2)
1. STIMULATE THE HEART
2. CAUSE BRONCHODILATION
What is the function of 'BETA BLOCKERS'?
USED TO 'SLOW' THE HEART
What are the 5 types of 'SENSORY RECEPTORS'?
1. MECHANORECEPTORS
2. THERMORECEPTORS
3. NOCICEPTORS
4. ELECTROMAGNETIC/PHOTORECEPTORS
5. CHEMORECEPTORS
What is the function of 'MECHANORECEPTORS'?

What are some examples of these receptors?
(*THERE ARE 5)
DETECT MECHANICAL DEFORMATION OF RECEPTOR/CELLS ADJACENT TO RECEPTOR

EXAMPLES:
1. TOUCH
2. DEEP PRESSURE
3. HEARING
4. EQUILIBRIUM
5. ARTERIAL PRESSURE
What is the function of 'THERMORECEPTORS'?
DETECT CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE
(SOME DETECT COLD, OTHERS WARMTH)

MAY BE STIMULATED BY CHANGES IN 'METABOLIC RATE'
Which 'SENSORY RECEPTORS' may be stimulated by a 'CHANGE IN METABOLIC RATE'?
THERMORECEPTORS
What is the function of 'NOCICEPTORS'?
'PAIN RECEPTORS' THAT DETECT DAMAGE IN TISSUES.

*BOTH PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
What is the function of 'ELECTROMAGNETIC/PHOTORECEPTORS'?
DETECT 'LIGHT' ON THE RETINA OF THE EYE
What are the functions of 'CHEMORECEPTORS'?
1. DETECT TASTE IN THE MOUTH (SWEET, SALT, SOUR AND BITTER)

2. DETECT SMELL IN THE NOSE

3. DETECT OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD
What happen to 'SENSORY RECEPTORS' after a period of time of exposure to a stimuli?
THEY ADAPT

EITHER 'FULLY' OR 'PARTIALLY'
What are the 2 terms applied to types of 'SENSORY RECEPTORS' that react to prolonged stimuli exposure?
1. TONIC
2. PHASIC
Which 'SENSORY RECEPTORS' do 'NOT' adapt at all or adapt 'SLOWLY'?

What is an example of this?
TONIC RECEPTORS

EXAMPLE = 'MUSCLE STRETCH RECEPTORS'
Which 'SENSORY RECEPTORS' adapt 'RAPIDLY' to a stimulus. In other words, they no longer respond to a maintained stimulus?

What is an example of this?
PHASIC RECEPTORS

EXAMPLE = (TOUCH RECEPTORS) eg., 'WATCH, RINGS, CLOTHING'
Which 'SENSORY RECEPTORS' is involved with a slight 'DEPOLARIZATION' when the stimulus is removed?
PHASIC RECEPTORS
What are 'TONIC RECEPTORS' defined as?
DO NOT ADAPT AT ALL 'OR' ADAPT SLOWLY.
What are 'PHASIC RECEPTORS' defined as?
ADAPT RAPIDLY

DO NOT RESPOND ANY LONGER TO THE MAINTAINED 'STIMULUS'.

(TOUCH RECEPTORS)
TRUE OR FALSE

SOME PEOPLE ARE 'UNUSUALLY' SENSITIVE OR INSENSITIVE TO PAIN.
FALSE

THERE 'IS' A UNIFORMITY OF PAIN THRESHOLD IN ALL PEOPLE.

(*HOWEVER, SOME PEOPLE MAY REACT DIFFERENTLY TO PAIN)
What is 'PAIN' defined as?
PROTECTIVE MEASURE THAT BRINGS TO THE 'CONSCIOUS' AN AWARENESS THAT:

- TISSUE DAMAGE 'IS' OCCURRING
- TISSUE DAMAGE IS 'ABOUT' TO OCCUR
What are the 3 different types of 'PAIN' that are recognized?
1. CUTANEOUS
2. DEEP PAIN
3. VISCERAL PAIN
What is 'CUTANEOUS PAIN' defined as?

(*There are 4 things)
CUTANEOUS PAIN:

1. LOCALIZED ON THE BODY SURFACE
2. PRICKING, SHARP, BURNING (THIS USUALLY OCCURS FIRST AND SHORT DURATION)
3. CAN BE LOCALIZED OR DIFFUSE
4. REFERRED TO AS 'FAST PAIN' (30 m/s)
What 'PAIN' detection is referred to as 'FAST PAIN'?
CUTANEOUS
What is 'DEEP PAIN' defined as?

(*3 THINGS)
PAIN FROM 'MUSCLES', 'TENDONS', AND 'JOINTS'.
What is 'VISCERAL PAIN' defined as?

What are the characteristics of this type of pain?
PAIN FROM 'VISCERAL ORGANS'

1. DEEP PAIN/VISCERAL PAIN = POORLY LOCALIZED
2. DULL, ACHING, NAUSEOUS, THROBBING (OCCUR 2nd BUT PERSIST LONGER)
3. CONDUCTED BY UNMYELINATED NEURONS (SLOW) (1-12 m/s)
When 'CELLS' are 'DAMAGED', they release 3 chemicals that 'STIMULATE' pain neurons. What are the 3 chemicals?
1. PROSTAGLANDINS
2. BRADYKININ
3. SUBSTANCE P
4. GLUTAMATE
What are 'PROSTAGLANDINS'?
'DAMAGED CELL CHEMICAL THAT STIMULATES 'PAIN NEURONS'

SPECIAL GROUP OF 'FATTY ACID DERIVATIVES' CLEAVED FROM LIPID BILAYERS OF PLASMA MEMBRANES
What is the 'CHEMICAL' that is activated by enzymes that are released from damaged cells?
BRADYKININ
What is 'SUBSTANCE P'?
A 'PAIN NEUROTRANSMITTER'
What is 'GLUTAMATE'?
A 'PAIN NEUROTRANSMITTER'
The body has 'NATURALLY OCCURRING OPIATE-LIKE CHEMICALS' that is releases. What are the 2?
1. ENDORPHINS
2. ENKEPHALINS
The Central Nervous System (CNS) contains a 'NEURONAL SYSTEM' that can suppress pain.

In what situations would the body naturally use this system? (*2 OF THEM)

What are the chemicals the body utilizes to accomplish this?
1. EXERCISE
2. STRESS

CHEMICALS:
1. ENDORPHINS
2. ENKEPHALINS
How do 'ENDORPHINS' and 'ENKEPHALINS' function?
BLOCK THE RELEASE OF 'SUBSTANCE P' THUS BLOCKING THE TRANSMISSION OF THE PAIN SIGNAL.

(*MORPHINE/HEROINE ACT THE SAME WAY)
There are 2 locations where 'ENDORPHINS' and 'ENKEPHALINS' can block pain. What are the 2 locations?
1. PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY MATTER (SURROUNDS THE CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT)

2. RETICULAR FORMATION
What is 'CHRONIC PAIN' defined as?
PAIN THAT OCCURS IN THE 'ABSENCE' OF TISSUE INJURY
What is the cause of 'CHRONIC PAIN'?
DAMAGE WITHIN 'PAIN PATHWAYS' IN THE PERIPHERAL NERVES OR (CNS)

(*HYPERSENSITIVITY)
What is 'ABNORMAL CHRONIC PAIN' also referred to as?
NEUROPAHTIC PAIN
What drugs diminish pain by 'INHIBITING' the production and release of 'PROSTAGLANDINS'?

(*THERE ARE 3 OF THEM)
1. ASPIRIN
2. ACETAMINOPHEN (TYLENOL)
3. IBUPROFEN (ADVIL)
Which drugs act 'DIRECTLY' on pain centers in the 'BRAIN'?

(*THERE ARE 4 EXAMPLES)
OPIATE DRUGS

1. CODEINE
2. MORPHINE
3. HEROINE
4. ENDORPHINS/ENKEPHALINS
What is 'REFERRED PAIN' defined as?
PAIN THAT DOES 'NOT' REFER TO THE ORGAN THAT IT IS COMING FROM.
What is a 'CHARACTERISTIC' of 'REFERRED PAIN'?
NOT ALWAYS FELT OVER THE TOP OF THE ORGAN WHERE THE PAIN IS FELT.
What are some of the 'REASONS/CAUSES' for 'REFERRED PAIN'?
1. EMBRYONIC ORIGIN OF THE ORGAN
2. CROSS-OVER OF '1st ORDER NEURONS' W/ '2nd ORDER NEURONS' IN THE SPINAL CORD
The 'MOST COMMON' reason for 'REFERRED PAIN' is felt in a different location is due to what?
DUE TO A 'CROSS OVER' OF 2nd ORDER NEURONS TO 1st ORDER NEURONS.
What is 'EPILEPSY' defined as?
CHRONIC DISORDER FROM SUDDEN, UNCONTROLLED DISCHARGE OF ACTIVITY BY 'NEURONS' IN THE BRAIN.

(AKA - SEIZURE)
When does 'EPILEPSY' occur?
STARTS IN CHILDHOOD 'OR' ADOLESCENCE.

*MANY PEOPLE OUTGROW IT AND NO LONGER NEED MEDICATION
'EPILEPSY' can result from 8 different causes. What are they?
1. HYPERGLYCEMIA
2. FEBRILE DISORDERS
3. HEAD INJURY
4. DRUGS
5. BIRTH TRAUMA
6. STOKE
7. BRAIN TUMORS
8. METABOLIC DISORDERS
What are the 3 drugs that are commonly used to treat 'EPILEPSY'?
1. PHENYTOIN
2. PHENOBARBITAL
3. VALPORATE
Approximately what percentage of the population over the age of 65 if affected by 'ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE'?
11% OF THE POPULATION
What are the 'SYMPTOMS' of 'ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE'?

(*THERE ARE 7 OF THEM)
1. TROUBLE REMEMBERING RECENT EVENTS
2. LOSS OF MEMORIES OF THE PAST
3. CONFUSION
4. FORGETFULNESS
5. HALLUCINATION
6. PARANOIA
7. VIOLENT MOOD CHANGES
What are some of the 'NEUROLOGICAL' effects of 'ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE'?

(*THERE ARE 3 OF THEM)
1. GREAT LOSS OF NEURONS IN SPECIFIC REGIONS OF THE 'HIPPOCAMPUS' AND 'CEREBRAL CORTEX'

2. PLAQUES OF 'ABNORMAL PROTEINS' DEPOSITED OUTSIDE NEURONS

3. TANGLED PROTEIN FILAMENTS WITH NEURONS
A DISEASE THAT PROGRESSIVELY DESTROYS THE MYELIN SHEATH IN THE CNS IS KNOWN AS:

1. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
2. TAY-SACHS DISEASE
3. CEREBRAL PALSY
4. PARAPLEGIA
1. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)
A DISEASE IN WHICH THERE IS A LACK OF DOPAMINE IS:

1. BOTULISM
2. CEREBRAL PALSY
3. MYASTHENIA GRAVIS
4. PARKINSON'S DISEASE
4. PARKINSON'S DISEASE
THE PORTION OF THE BRAIN RESPONSIBLE FOR APPETITE IS:

1. THE THALAMUS
2. THE HYPOTHALMUS
3. THE MEDULLA
4. THE PONS
2. THE HYPOTHALAMUS
THE CRANIAL NERVE RESPONSIBLE FOR VISCERAL MUSCLE MOVEMENT IS:

1. V
2. III
3. IX
4. X
4. X
ABNORMAL ACCUMULATION OF CSF IF KNOWN AS:

1. HYDROCEPHALUS
2. SUBARACHNOIDITIS
3. CEREBRAL PALSY
4. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
1. HYDROCEPHALUS
THE DIVISION OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM WITH AN UNMYELINATED POSTGANGLIONIC NEURON IS:

1. PARASYMPATHETIC
2. SYMPATHETIC
3. SOMATIC
4. 1 AND 2
4. 1 AND 2
STIMULATION OF BETA-1 RECEPTORS CAUSES WHICH RESULT?

1. INCREASED HEART RATE
2. DECREASED HEART RATE
3. SMOOTH MUSCLE RELAXATION
4. SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTION
1. INCREASED HEART RATE
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS 'NOT' A MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR STIMULANT?

1. ACETYLCHOLINE
2. METHACHOLINE
3. ATROPINE
4. BETHANECHOL
3. ATROPINE
BRAIN WAVES THAT OCCUR BETWEEN ONE AND FIVE WAVE/SECOND ARE:

1. ALPHA
2. BETA
3. THETA
4. DELTA
4. DELTA