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The endocrine system consists of endocrine ______ that secrete _______ into the blood. They are then transported to _____ ____.
1. GLANDS
2. HORMONES
3. TARGET CELLS
What changes do hormones generally have on target cells?
METABOLIC ACTIVITY CHANGES
Comparatively speaking, what are the differences between the action of HORMONES and the action of NERVE IMPULSES?
1. HORMONES = SLOW W/ PROLONGED EFFECTS
2. NERVE IMPULSES = FAST W/ SHORT DURATION
What is endocrinology the study of?
ENDOCRINE GLANDS

HORMONES THE GLANDS SECRETE

EFFECTS THAT THEY HAVE ON THEIR TARGET CELLS/TARGET TISSUES
There are 9 different endocrine glands in the body. What are they?

(* [A/P-P], T, PT, P, AC, AM, Ov, Te)
1. ANTERIOR PITUITARY
2. POSTERIOR PITUITARY
3. THYROID
4. PARATHYROID
5. PANCREAS
6. ADRENAL CORTEX
7. ADRENAL MEDULLA
8. OVARIES
9. TESTES
The 'ANTERIOR PITUITARY' produces/secretes '8 hormones'. What are the hormones?

(*FLAT PEGM)
1. FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE)
2. LH (LUTEINIZING HORMONE)
3. ACTH (ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE)
4. TSH (THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE)
5. PRL (PROLACTIN or Luteotropin)
6. *Endorphins (DON'T NEED TO KNOW FOR CLASS)
7. GH (GROWTH HORMONE or HGH)
8. MSH (MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE)
The 'ANTERIOR PITUITARY' produces/secretes 8 hormones. What is the GENERAL NAME given to these 8 hormones?
TROPIC HORMONES
What are the primary effects of the hormones secreted from the 'ANTERIOR PITUITARY' gland?

(*There are 2)
1. STIMULATE GROWTH / DEVELOPMENT OF 'TARGET ORGANS'.

2. STIMULATE SECRETION OF OTHER 'HORMONES'
The 'POSTERIOR PITUITARY' secretes '2 hormones'. What are the hormones?
1. OXYTOCIN
2. ADH (ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE)
The hormones secreted from the 'POSTERIOR PITUITARY' gland are:

1. Oxytocin
2. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone)

What are the primary effects of each of these hormones on the body?
1. ADH = WATER RETENTION


2. OXYTOCIN = STIMULATES UTERINE CONTRACTIONS / MAMMARY SECRETION
The 'THYROID' gland produces/secretes 2 hormones. What are the hormones?
1. (T4) - THYROXINE
2. CALCITONIN
The hormones secreted from the 'THYROID' gland are:

1. T4 - Thyorxine
2. Calcitonin

What are the primary effects of each of these hormones on the body?
1. T4 - Thyroxine = INCREASES METABOLISM

2. CALCITONIN = LOWERS PLASMA CALCIUM
The 'PARATHYROID' gland produces/secretes 1 hormone. What is the hormone?
1. PARATHYROID HORMONE
What is the primary effect of the hormone secreted from the 'PARATHYROID' gland?

(*There is only 1)
1. INCREASES PLASMA CALCIUM
The 'PANCREAS' gland produces/secretes 2 hormones. What are the hormones?
1. INSULIN
2. GLUCAGON
he hormones secreted from the 'PANCREAS' gland are:

1. INSULIN
2. GLUCAGON

What are the primary effects of each of these hormones on the body? (*2 of them)
1. INSULIN = LOWERS BLOOD GLUCOSE

2. GLUCAGON = RASIES BLOOD GLUCOSE
The 'ADRENAL CORTEX' secretes '2 hormones'. What are the hormones?
1. GLUCOCORTICOIDS
2. MINDERALCORTICOIDS
The hormones secreted from the 'ADRENAL CORTEX' gland are:

1. Glucocorticoids
2. Mineralcorticoids

What are the primary effects of each of these hormones on the body? (*2 of them)
1. GLUCOCORTICOIDS = METABOLISM REGULATION

2. MINERALCORTICOIDS = PROMOTE SODIUM RETENTION
The 'ADRENAL MEDULLA' secretes '1 hormone'. What is the hormone?
1. EPINEPHRINE
The hormone secreted from the 'ADRENAL MEDULLA' gland is:

1. Epinephrine

What is the primary effect of this hormone on the body? (*Only 1)
1. ADRENERGIC STIMLUATION
The 'OVARIES' secrete '2 hormones'. What are the hormones?
1. ESTROGENS
2. PROGESTERONE
The hormones secreted from the 'OVARIES' gland are:

1. Estrogens
2. Progesterone

What are the primary effects of these hormone on the body? (*2 of them)
1. ESTROGEN = MAINTAIN FEMALE GENITAL TRACT AND PROMOTE SEX CHARACTERISTICS

2. PROGESTERONE = PREPARE ENDOMETRIUM FOR IMPLANTATION
The 'TESTES' secrete '1 hormone'. What is the hormone?
1. TESTOSTERONE
The hormone secreted from the 'TESTES' gland is:

1. Testosterone

What are the primary effects of this hormone on the body? (*2 of them)
1. PROMOTE MALE SEX CHARACTERISTICS

2. PRODUCTION OF SPERMATOZOA
The transport of hormones (most steroids) in blood are carried by WHAT?
CARRIER PROTEINS
Why are hormones (most steroids) that are carried through the blood UNABLE to pass through capillary walls?
THEY ARE ATTACHED TO CARRIER PROTEINS
True or False:

Hormones are usually present in very HIGH concentrations?
FALSE:

HORMONES ARE PRESENT IN 'LOW' CONCENTRATIONS.
How do HORMONES influence their target cells?
CHEMICALLY BINDING TO:

1) INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS
2) GLYCOPROTEIN MOLECULES (RECEPTORS)
Hormones can only bind to specific cells. Why?
ONLY TARGET CELLS FOR A CERTAIN HORMONE HAVE 'RECEPTORS' THAT BIND AND RECOGNIZE THAT HORMONE.
On average, how many RECEPTORS for a certain hormone does a TARGET CELL have?
2,000 - 10,000 RECEPTORS
What happens when a HORMONE is present in excess?
NUMBER OF 'TARGET CELL' RECEPTORS MAY DECREASE
What is 'DOWN-REGULATION'?
HORMONE IN EXCESS = TARGET CELL 'RECEPTOR' DECREASE
What is 'UP-REGULATION'?
HORMONE IN DEFICIT = TARGET CELL 'RECEPTOR' INCREASE
What happens when a HORMONE is deficient?
NUMBER OF 'TARGET CELLS' RECEPTORS MAY INCREASE
What are the effects of 'UP-REGULATION'?
TARGET TISSUE = 'MORE' SENSITIVE TO A HORMONE
All 'STEROID HORMONES' are also what type of molecule?
LIPIDS
What are all 'STEROID HORMONES' are derived from?
CHOLESTEROL
What are the benefits/reasons for why 'STEROID HORMONES' are also LIPIDS?
LIPID SOLUBLE CAN CROSS PLASMA MEMBRANE QUICKLY.

ALLOW RAPID ENTRANCE TO CELLS
What are some examples of 'STEROID HORMONES'? (*There are 5 of them)
1. ESTROGENS
2. PROGESTERONE
3. TESTOSTERONE
4. ALDOSTERONE
5. CORTISOL
What are 'BIOGENIC AMINES'?
A FORM OF 'STEROIDS'
How are 'BIOGENIC AMINES' made?
SYNTHESIZING AMINO ACIDS
What are some examples of 'BIOGENIC AMINE' hormones? (*There are 4 of them)
1. T3/T4
2. EPINEPHRINE
3. HISTAMINE
4. SEROTONIN
How many 'iodines' are there in T4? T3?
1. T4 = 4 Iodines
2. T3 = 3 Iodines
Where are 'PEPTIDE/PROTEIN' hormones synthesized?
ROUGH E.R.
'PEPTIDE/PROTEIN' hormones consist of approximately how many chains of 'AMINO ACIDS'?
3-200 AMINO ACIDS
What are some examples of 'PEPTIDE/PROTEIN' hormones? (*There are 6 of them)
1. OXYTOCIN
2. ADH
3. PARATHYROID HORMONE
4. CALCITONIN
5. CCK
6. GASTRIN
What are the three sub-units of G-proteins?
1. Alpha
2. Beta
3. Gamma
What are the functions of G-proteins? (*There are 3 of them)
1. MOLECULAR 'SWITCHES' between Inactive GDP/Active GTP

2. STIMULATE cAMP

3. SHUTTLE BETWEEN RECEPTORS/DIFFICULT MEMBRANE POTENTIALS
In 'NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY' the brain sends out commands in two different ways. What are the 2 ways?
1. ELECTRICAL - Nervous System
2. CHEMICAL - Endocrine System
There are 5 general characteristics of 'HORMONES'. What are they?
1. PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATORS
2. EFFECTIVE IN SMALL QTY.
3. SYNTHESIZED BY LIVING CELLS
4. *SECRETED/CARRIED BY BLOOD
5. INITIATE SPECIFIC ACTIONS

*Some exceptions to this (i.e., NOREPHINEPHRINE)
True or False:

'HORMONES' secreted/carried by blood CAN affect target organs that are distant from site of synthesis.
TRUE

THEY 'CAN' AFFECT DISTANT TARGET ORGANS FROM SITE OF SYNTHESIS.
One of the general characteristics of 'HORMONES' is 'INITIATE SPECIFIC ACTIONS'. There are 4 ways it can do this. What are they?
1. AFFECT MEMBRANE TRANSPORT (i.e., INSULIN)
2. AFFECT RNA SYNTHESIS
3. AFFECT PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
4. ACT AS COENZYMES
What is an example of an 'EXCEPTION' of a hormone that is NOT secreted/carried by blood?
NOREPINEPHRINE

(Both Hormone/Neuro-transmitter)
What regulates the secretion of endocrine glands?
BRAIN
What regulates the CNS to modify brain functions with regards to 'ENDOCRINE' functions?
HORMONES
What is 'NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY' defined as?
STUDY OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM/ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
What is considered to be the 'MASTER GLAND' of the body?
ANTERIOR PITUITARY
The 'ANTERIOR PITUITARY' has the microscopic structure of what?
ENDOCRINE GLAND

(ANT - END)
The 'POSTERIOR PITUITARY' has the structure of what?
NERVE TISSUE

(POST - NERVE)
Where are the 2 hormones that are released from the 'POSTERIOR PITUITARY' made?
HYPOTHALAMUS
The 2 hormones released from the 'POSTERIOR PITUITARY' are made from what 'cells'?
NEUROSECRETORY CELLS IN HYPOTHALAMUS
How are the 2 hormones made in the 'HYPOTHALAMUS' transported to the 'POSTERIOR PITUITARY'?
AXONS OF NEUROSECRETORY CELLS
The 'ANTERIOR PITUITARY' is regulated by substances that are made by what part of the brain?
HYPOTHALAMUS
The 'ANTERIOR PITUITARY' is regulated by the releasing of 2 types of hormones from the 'HYPOTHALAMUS' that affect the release of other ANTERIOR PITUITARY hormones. What are the 2 TYPES of hormones and what do they do?
1. RELEASING HORMONES (STIMULATE)
2. INHIBITORY HORMONES (INHIBIT)
There are 3 hormones that are made in the 'HYPOTHALAMUS' to regulate the 'ANTERIOR PITUITARY' by STIMULATING it. What are the 3 hormones?
1. CRH
2. TRH
3. GnRH or LHRH
There is 1 hormone that is made in the 'HYPOTHALAMUS' to regulate the 'ANTERIOR PITUITARY' by INHIBITING it. What is the hormone?
1. GIH or Somatostatin
What does CRH do?
STIMULATE 'ACTH' SECRETION
What does TRH do?
STIMULATE 'TSH' SECRETION AND some 'PROLACTIN'

'Thyrotropin'
What does GnRH or (LHRH) do?
STIMULATES 'FSH'/'LH' SECRETION.

'Gonads'
TRUE OR FALSE:

It is possible to separate LH/FSH releasing activities?
FALSE:

LH/FSH releasing activities are not possible to separate YET.
What does GIH or (Somatostatin) do?
INHIBIT 'GROWTH HORMONE (HGH)' SECRETION
Cortisol (released from adrenal cortex) may inhibit the release of ____ in the higher brain centers?
CRH
GROWTH HORMONE is also known as what?
SOMATOTROPIN
How does 'GROWTH HORMONE' work? (*There are 2 reasons)
1. STIMULATES UPTAKE OF AMINO ACIDS INTO CELLS
2. STIMULATES GROWTH OF LONG BONES AND SOFT TISSUES
What causes long bones to stop growing?
EPIPHYSEAL CARTILAGE VIA PUBERTY (SEX HORMONE PRESENCE)
True or False:

Growth Hormone is synthesized from a LARGER precursor peptide.
TRUE

Synthesized from a LARGER precursor peptide
There are 2 disorders that can occur when excess HGH is present. What are the 2 disorders and what defines them?
1. GIGANTISM - Excess HGH before puberty

2. ACROMEGALY - Excess HGH post-puberty in adults.
Acromegaly/Gigantism are almost always due to what two factors?
PITUITARY ADENOMA (Main)

ECTOPIC GRH SECRETION
What are the symptoms of ACROMEGALY? (*There are 8 of them)
1. OVERGROWTH OF BONE (SKULL/MANDIBLE)
2. THICK/PUFFY NOSE
3. LARGE EARS
4. LARGE TONGUE
5. LARGE HANDS
6. INCREASED SWEATING
7. FATIGUE
8. WEIGHT GAIN
What are the possible treatments of 'ACROMEGALY'? (*There are 3 of them)
1. Transsphenoidal microsurgery
2. Radiotherapy
3. Medicinal Management
What is 'PITUITARY DWARFISM'?
LACK OF GH or GRH before puberty.

May be caused by a 'HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY TUMOR'
What are the symptoms of 'PITUITARY DWARFISM'? (*There are 2 of them)
1. SMALL BODY W/ NORMAL PROPORTIONS
2. MILD OBESITY W/ LACK OF APPETITE
How is 'PITUITARY DWARFISM' diagnosed?
1. LOW RISE IN GH POST-STIMULUS.
- ARGININE
- ORAL LEVODOPA
- CLONIDINE
What is the treatment of 'PITUITARY DWARFISM'?
hGH INJECTIONS

(Children over 10 may need larger doses)
What are the effects of 'PROLACTIN'? (*There are 2)
1. STIMULATE PRODUCTION OF MILK

2. PROMOTE BREAST DEVELOPMENT IN PREGNANCY
What are the effects of 'TSH (THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE)'? (*There are 2)
1. STIMULATE T4/T3 SECRETION FROM THYROID

2. PROMOTE/MAINTAIN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THYROID GLAND
What are the effects of 'FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE)'? (*There are 4)
1. STIMULATE GROWTH/DEVELPOMENT OF FOLLICLE (EGG) TO MATURITY

2. STIMULATE FOLLICLE TO SECRETE 'ESTROGENS'

3. STIMULATE TESTICULAR GROWTH

4. ENHANCES CONCENTRATION OF TESTOSTERONE NEAR SPERM WHICH = INCREASED SPERMATOGENSIS
FSH enhances the production of androgen-binding protein in the 'SERTOLI CELLS'. This causes what to occur (in males)?
INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF TESTOSTERONE NEAR SPERM

INCREASED SPERMATOGENSIS
The secretion of 'FSH' is regulated by what?
GnRH (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone)
The secretion of 'FSH' is referred to as being ________, which is the case with many other hormones as well.
EPISODIC
Without this hormone, a follicle will NOT reach maturation.
FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE)
This hormone acts with 'FSH' in the development of the follicle (egg).
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
This hormone promotes ovulation. (Known as the "SURGE")
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
This hormone is responsible for the formation of the corpus luteum.
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
In 'males' this hormone STIMULATES production of TESTOSTERONE by the INTERSTITIAL CELLS.
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
Cortisol is also known as what?
GLUCOCORTICOIDS

(*Synthetic Hydrocortisone)
What are the effects of 'ACTH' (ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN)? (*There are two of them)
1. MAINTAIN NORMAL GROWTH/DEVELPOMENT OF ADRENAL CORTEX

2. STIMULATE GLUCOCORTICOID SECRETION (CORTISOL)
The first '1-13' amino acids of ACTH are IDENTICAL to what other hormone?
(MSH) MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE
'GH' promotes growth of bone in two ways. What are the two ways?
1. BONE THICKNESS
2. BONE LENGTH
'GH' promotes growth of bone by stimulating the activity of these cells.
OSTEOBLASTS

(BUILD)
'GH' stimulates the proliferation of this type of cartilage. What does this do for the bones?
1. EPIPHYSEAL CARTILAGE

2. MAKES SPACE FOR BONE FORMATION
Long bones will continue to grow as long as this happens.
EPIPHYSEAL PLATE remains cartilaginous or 'open'.
'GH' causes growth-promoting effect INDIRECTLY by stimulating what?
SOMATOMEDINS
There are 3 things that 'GH' does NOT act directly on target cells to have occur. What are the 3 things?
1. CELL DIVISION
2. ENHANCED PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
3. BONE GROWTH
What is 'Somatomedin IGF' and what causes the release of it?
1. IGF = INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR

2. STIMULATED BY 'GH'
This hormone is stimulated by 'GH' and mediates MOST of 'GH' growth-promoting activity.
IGF-I = INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR
The major source of IFG-I is found where?
LIVER
The production of IGF-I is controlled by a number of factors in addition to 'GH'. There are 3 of them. What are they?
1. NUTRITIONAL STATUS
2. AGE
3. TISSUE-SPECIFIC FACTORS
- GONADOTROPINS
- SEX HORMONES
These hormones play a MAJOR role in stimulating the closure of the epiphyseal plate.
SEX HORMONES
The 2 'POSTERIOR PITUITARY' hormones are synthesized where? How are they transported?
1. SYNTHESIZED IN HYPOTHALAMUS
2. INTRACELLULARLY TO 'POSTERIOR PITUITARY'
What are the effects of 'OXYTOCIN'? (*There are 2 of them)

Both of these are considered to be what type of 'Feedback Mechanism'?
1. STIMULATES MILK SECRETION
2. STIMULATES STRONG UTERINE CONTRACTIONS DURING PARTURITION

'POSITIVE FEEDBACK'
How does 'OXYTOCIN' cause 'Milk Secretion'?
CAUSES CONTRACTION OF MYOEPITHELIAL CELLS AROUND MAMMARY ALVEOLI.
How does 'OXYTOCIN' cause 'Uterine Contraction'?
ALTERS TRANSMEMBRANE IONIC CURRENTS IN MYOMETRIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.
Where is ADH released? It is released in response to what (*2 things)?
1. POSTERIOR PITUITARY
2. INCREASED PLASMA TONICITY
3. FALLING BLOOD PRESSURE
Where is the 'ADRENAL GLAND' located?
SUPERIOR BORDER OF THE KIDNEY
The 'ADRENAL MEDULLA' secretes what type of hormones?
CATECHOLAMINE HORMONES
The 'ADRENAL CORTEX' secretes what type of steroids?
CORTICOSTEROIDS
'CORTICOSTEROIDS' which are secreted from the 'ADRENAL CORTEX' participate in 3 things. What are the 3 things?
1. MINERAL BALANCE REGULATION
2. ENERGY BALANCE
3. REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION
What % of the catecholamines released from the 'ADRENAL MEDULLA' is 'EPINEPHRINE'?
80% = EPINEPHRINE
What % of the catecholamines released from the 'ADRENAL MEDULLA' is 'NOREPINEPHRINE'?
20% = NOREPINEPHRINE
The 'ADRENAL GLAND' is separated into two parts. What are the two parts?
1. ADRENAL CORTEX (UPPER)
2. ADRENAL MEDULLA (LOWER)
The 'ADRENAL CORTEX' is separated into '3 ZONES'. What are the 3 zones and where are they located?
1. ZONA GLOMERULOSA (Outer)
2. ZONA FASCICULATA (Middle)
3. ZONA RETICULARIS (Bottom)

*Glow Faster Rat! (Mnemonic)
There are 3 main types of 'CORTICOSTEROID' hormones. What are they?
1. MINERALCORTICOIDS
2. GLUCOCORTICOIDS
3. GONADOCORTICOIDS
1. 'MINERALCORTICOIDS' are responsible for what hormone?

2. Where is this hormone made?

3. What does this hormone do?

4. What regulates this hormone?
1. ALDOSTERONE
2. ZONA GLOMERULOSA (OUTER)
3. Na+/K+/WATER BALANCE
4. RENIN-ANGIONTENSIN SYSTEM
1. 'GLUCOCORTICOIDS' are responsible for what hormone?

2. Where is this hormone made?

3. What does this hormone do? (*4 things)

4. What regulates this hormone?
1. CORTISOL
2. ZONA FASCICULATA (MIDDLE)
3. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, DECREASED ANTIBODY PRODUCTION, GLUCOSE/CARBO METABOLISM, VASOCONSTRICTION
4. ACTH (In response to stress)
1. 'GONADOCORTICOIDS' are responsible for what hormones?

2. Where are these hormones made?

3. What does these hormones do?

4. What regulates these hormones?
1. SEX HORMONES
2. ZONA RETICULARIS (BOTTOM)
3. SUPPLEMENT THE SEX HORMONES FROM THE GONADS
4. N/A (NONE)
What cells of the 'ADRENAL MEDULLA' are responsible for the secretion of catecholamines (norepi, epi) in a sympathetic response?
CHROMAFFIN CELLS
What disease would someone have with the following symptoms:

1. Inadequate glucocorticoid/mineralcorticoid secretion resulting in hypoclycemia

2. Na+ / K+ Imbalance

3. Dehydration

4. Hypotension

5. Weight Loss

6. General Weakness
ADDISON'S DISEASE
'ADDISON'S DISEASE' has a symptom of 'inadequate secretion of glucocorticoids/mineralcorticoids. This is caused by DECREASED activity where?
ADRENAL CORTEX
The 'INCREASED SKIN PIGMENTATION' and 'HYPERSECRETION' of ACTH is a symptom of what disease?
ADDISON'S DISEASE
What are the characteristics of 'ADDISON'S DISEASE'? (*There are 9 of them)
1. HYPOGLYCEMIA
2. Na+ / K+ IMBALANCE
3. DEHYDRATION
4. HYPOTENSION
5. WEIGHT LOSS
6. GENERAL WEAKNESS
7. SKIN PIGMENTATION (DARK)
8. ACTH LEVELS 'HIGH'
9. LOW LEVELS OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS/MINERALCORTICOIDS
What disease would have the following symptoms:

1. Hypersecretion of 'CORTICOSTEROIDS' via ACTH oversecretion.

2. Puffy Face

3. Hyperglycemia

4. Hypertension

5. Decreased antibodies

6. Muscle Weakness

7. Supressed Wound Healing
CUSHING SYNDROME
Someone with 'HIGH/INCREASED ADRENAL CORTEX' activity with HIGH levels of corticosteroids causing CUSHING SYNDROME, generally has one of these.
TUMOR OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX
Someone with 'DECREASED ANTIBODIES' has what kind of levels of 'CORTICOIDS'? Why?
HIGH LEVELS OF 'GLUCOCORTICOIDS'

Because 'CORTICOIDS' create 'Cortisol' which decreases INFLAMMATION as well as ANTIBODY PRODUCTION.

They also stimulate 'ALDOSTERONE' which would create HYPERTENSION.
What is 'CUSHING SYNDROME'? What are the symptoms? (*There are 8)
1. PUFFY FACE
2. HYPERGLYCEMIA
3. HYPERTENSION
4. DECREASED ANTIBODIES
5. MUSCLE WEAKNESS
6. SUPRESSED WOUND HEALING
7. OVERSECRETION OF ACTH
8. HIGH LEVELS OF CORTICOSTEROIDS
What disease would someone have with the following symptoms:

1. INCREASED FACIAL/BODY HAIR
2. INCREASED ACNE
3. INCREASED PALENESS
4. INCREASED MUSCULARITY
5. ATROPHY OF BREAST
6. MENSTRUATION STOPS
7. MASCULIZATION OF FEMALES
ADRENOGENITAL SYNDROME
The 'ALTERATION' of enzymes that are required to produce 'MINERALCORTICOIDS' and 'GLUCOCORTICOIDS' results in an increase of production of what type of HORMONES?
SEX HORMONES

(ADRENOGENITAL SYNDROME)
What is 'ADRENOGENITAL SYNDROME'? What are the symptoms? (*There are 7)
1. INCREASED FACIAL/BODY HAIR
2. INCREASED ACNE
3. INCREASED PALENESS
4. INCREASED MUSCULARITY
5. ATROPHY OF BREAST
6. MENSTRUATION STOPS
7. MASCULIZATION OF FEMALES
This 'HORMONE' is known as the MAIN SEX HORMONE. What is it? Which sex does it affect more?
DHEA - Dehydroepiandrosterone

EFFECTS SEEN MORE IN FEMALES
What is 'PHEOCROMOCYTOMA'? What characteristics does it have?
TUMOR IN THE ADRENAL MEDULLA
(Originates in 'Chromaffin Cells)

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
INCREASED CATECHOLAMINE SECRETION
Where is the 'THYROID GLAND' located? What 3 things does it secrete?
NECK

1. THYROXINE (T4)
2. TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T3)
3. CALCITONIN
What are the effects of the hormones (T3/T4) secreted from the 'THYROID GLAND'?
1. DEVELOPMENT
2. GROWTH
3. METABOLISM
The 'THYROID GLAND' consists of how many lateral lobes? What is it 'interconnected' by?
1. TWO LATERAL LOBES
2. ISTHMUS
What are 'THYROID FOLLICLES'? How many of these do humans have?
1. SPHERICAL SACS
2. ~ONE MILLION
'THYROID FOLLICLES' are lined with what type of cells? What do these do?
1. PRINCIPAL CELLS
2. SYNTHESIZE T4/T3
'THYROID FOLLICLES' also contain a protein-rich fluid. What is this protein-rich fluid called?
COLLOID
Between the 'THYROID FOLLICLES' there are some cells. What are these cells and what do they do?
1. PERIFOLLICULAR CELLS
2. SYNTHESIZE CALCITONIN
The 'THYROID FOLLICLES' can store how many months worth of T3/T4?
6 MONTHS
TRUE or FALSE

Without the 'THYROID HORMONE' a woman can still get pregnant.
FALSE

The 'THYROID HORMONE' MUST be present for a woman to get pregnant.
What is the 'BASAL METABOLIC RATE'?
The 'METABOLIC RATE' at REST or when you FIRST WAKE UP.
What are the characteristics of T3/T4? (*There are 6)

How are they regulated?
1. INCREASE RATE OF ENERGY
2. RELEASE FROM CARBOHYDRATES
3. REGULATE GROWTH
4. STIMULATE NERVOUS SYSTEM
5. REGULATE BODY TEMPERATURE
6. INCREASE RATE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

Regulated from 'HYPOTHALAMUS'
Regulated from TSH
What does 'CALCITONIN' (THYROCALCITONIN) do?

What kind of cells make this?

How is it regulated?
1. LOWERS BLOOD CALCIUM BY INHIBITING RELEASE OF CALCIUM FROM BONE TISSUE

(Tones DOWN Blood Ca2+ levels)

2. MADE FROM C-CELLS

3. REGULATED BY BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS
What disease would a person have with the following symptoms:

1. LOW T3/T4 IN CHILDREN
2. STUNTED GROWTH
3. THICKENED FACIAL FEATURES
4. LARGE PROTRUDING TONGUE
5. ABNORMAL BONE GROWTH
6. METNAL RETARDATION
7. DECREASED BASAL META. RATE
8. GENERAL LETHARGY
CRETINISM

(C = CHILDREN/INFANTS)
What are the symptoms of 'CRETINISM'? (*There are 8)
1. LOW T3/T4 IN CHILDREN
2. STUNTED GROWTH
3. THICKENED FACIAL FEATURES
4. LARGE PROTRUDING TONGUE
5. ABNORMAL BONE GROWTH
6. METNAL RETARDATION
7. DECREASED BASAL META. RATE
8. GENERAL LETHARGY
If a child has insufficient T3/T4 secretion, what disease does he have? What will happen if not treated?
1. CRETINISM

2. MENTAL RETARDATION
What is the adult form of the disease where there is 'INSUFFICIENT SECRETION OF T3/T4'?
MYXEDEMA
What disease does someone have if they have the following symptoms?

1. WEIGHT GAIN
2. SLOW PULSE
3. DRY/BRITTLE HAIR
4. DECREASE BASAL METAB. RATE
5. LACK OF ENERGY
6. COLD SENSATIONS
7. DIMINISHED PERSPIRATION
8. WEAKNESS
9. INSUFFICIENT T3/T4 SECRETION.
MYXEDEMA
What are the characteristics of 'MYXEDEMA'?
1. WEIGHT GAIN
2. SLOW PULSE
3. DRY/BRITTLE HAIR
4. DECREASE BASAL METAB. RATE
5. LACK OF ENERGY
6. COLD SENSATIONS
7. DIMINISHED PERSPIRATION
8. WEAKNESS
9. INSUFFICIENT T3/T4 SECRETION.
What is a 'GOITER' and what is it caused by?
ENLARGED THYROID GLAND

- INSUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE
- CREATES CYCLE BY EXCESSIVE TSH RELEASE
What disease would someone have with the following symptoms:

1. WEIGHT LOSS
2. WARM/MOIST SKIN
3. INCREASED APPETITE
4. INCREASED BASAL METAB. RATE
5. TREMOR
6. GOITER
7. EXOPHTHALMOS (BULGING EYES)
8. MUSCULAR WEAKNESS
9. RAPID PULSE
10. EXCESSIVE T3/T4 SECRETION
GRAVE'S DISEASE (THYROXICOSIS)
What are the symptoms of 'GRAVE'S DISEASE' (THYROXICOSIS)? (*There are 10 of them)
1. WEIGHT LOSS
2. WARM/MOIST SKIN
3. INCREASED APPETITE
4. INCREASED BASAL METAB. RATE
5. TREMOR
6. GOITER
7. EXOPHTHALMOS (BULGING EYES)
8. MUSCULAR WEAKNESS
9. RAPID PULSE
10. EXCESSIVE T3/T4 SECRETION
What is the treatment for 'GRAVE'S DISEASE'? (*There are 3 of them)
1. SURGICAL REMOVAL OF PORTION OF THYROID GLAND

2. RADIOIODINE

3. ANTITHYROID DRUGS
What disease(s) is/are possible with 'HYPOTHYROIDISM'?
1. CRETINISM
2. MYXEDEMA
What disease(s) is/are possible with 'HYPERTHYROIDISM'?
1. GRAVE'S DISEASE
'NEONTAL HYPERTHYROIDISM' affects approximately how many babies per year? When are they treated?
1:4000 BABIES

3-4 MONTHS AFTER BIRTH
What does 'CALCITONIN' inhibit?
OSTEOCLASTS

(Bone Removal)
The 'CALCIUM' in the body is found for the most part in 3 places. What are the 3 places and what are their percentages?
1. 99% - SKELETON/TEETH
2. 0.9% - INSIDE CELLS OF BODY
3. 0.1% - INTERSTITIAL FLUID/PLASMA (EXTRACELLULAR FLUID)
Where is 'CALCITONIN' produced?

What cells produce it?

What does it do?
1. THYROID GLAND
2. PARAFOLLICULAR or C-CELLS
3. LOWERS BLOOD CALCIUM/PHOSPHATE LEVELS
How does 'CALCITONIN' lower blood calcium levels? (*2 things)
1. INHIBIT OSTEOCLASTS (BONE RESORPTION)

2. STIMULATE URINARY EXCRETION OF 'CALCIUM' / 'PHOSPHATE' VIA KIDNEY REABSORPTION 'INHIBITION'.
What are the glands that are attached to the 'posterior' portion of the 'THYROID GLAND' called?
1. PARATHYROID GLANDS
What are the effects of 'PARATHORMONE' (PTH)?
INCREASES BLOOD CALCIUM
TRUE or FALSE

Parathormone (PTH) is essential for life
TRUE

Without (PTH), death would occur in a few days. (HYPOCALCEMIA)
How does 'PARATHORMONE' (PTH) increase blood calcium? (*3 ways)
1. STIMULATE OSTEOCLASTS
(REMOVE CA2+ FROM BONES)
2. STIMULATE KIDNEY REABSORPTION
3. PROMOTE FORMATION OF 'DIHYROXYVITAMIN' D3
'DIHYDROXYVITAMIN' (D3) is stimulated by (PTH). What does (D3) do? (*There are 4 things)
1. RAISE PLASMA CALCIUM/PHOSPHATE LEVELS

2. INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM/PHOSPHATE

3. REABSORPTION OF CALCIUM FROM BONES

4. RENAL REABSORPTION OF CALCIUM/PHOSPHATE SO LESS IS EXCRETED IN URINE
What 'VITAMIN' helps Calcium to be absorbed from the G.I. tract?
VITAMIN D
What is 'HYPERPARATHYROIDISM' usually caused by? What are the symptoms?
TUMOR IN PARATHYROID GLAND
CHARACTERIZED BY 'HYPERCALCEMIA'

SYMPTOMS:
- MUSCLE WEAKNESS
- NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS
- DECREASED ALERTNESS
- POOR MEMORY
What is 'HYPOPARATHYROIDISM' usually caused by? What are the symptoms?
REMOVAL OF PARATHYROIDS DURING THYROID SURGERY

SYMPTOMS:
- MIGHT LEAD TO DEATH
- 'HYPOCALCEMIA'
- INCREASED NERUOMUSCULAR EXCITABILITY
The 'PANCREAS' is considered to be what type of gland?
MIXED GLAND
The 'PANCREAS' has two types of glands. What are they?
1. EXOCRINE GLAND (w/ducts)
2. ENDOCRINE GLAND (w/out ducts)
The 'ENDOCRINE GLAND' is formed by what? What are they also referred to as?
1. CLUSTERS OF CELLS

2. 'ISLETS OF LANGERHANS'
Inside of the 'ENDOCRINE GLAND' there are two types of cells. What are the two types of cells?
ALPHA
BETA
'ALPHA CELLS' in the 'ENDOCRINE GLAND' of the 'PANCREAS' secrete what?
GLUCAGON

(Alpha Guy)
'BETA CELLS' in the 'ENDOCRINE GLAND' of the 'PANCREAS' secrete what?
INSULIN

(Beta Inside)
60-75% of the 'ISLET CELLS' in the 'ENDOCRINE GLAND' of the 'PANCREAS' secrete this hormone. What is the hormone, and what cells secretes it?
BETA CELLS

INSULIN
What are the effects of 'GLUCAGON'?
1. ELEVATES BLOOD GLUCOSE
2. STIMULATES GLYCOGENOLYSIS (LIVER)

Helps body to maintain sufficient blood 'GLUCOSE' levels during fasting and starvation.
What are the effects of 'INSULIN'? (*There are 3)
1. PROMOTES UPTAKE OF GLUCOSE IN CELLS

2. STIMULATES GLYCOLYSIS

3. LOWER BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS
There are some tissues that do NOT require insulin for 'GLUCOSE' uptake. What are the 4 tissues?
1. BRAIN
2. KIDNEY
3. INTESTINAL
4. RED BLOOD CELLS (RBCs)
What is 'GLUT4' and how does it function?
GLUT4 = (GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER)

INSULIN-REGULATED GLUCOSE DISPOSAL INTO CELLS
There is one symptom that is consist for both forms of 'DIABETES', what is it?
POLYURIA = INCREASED URINE
What is 'DIABETES MELLITUS' and what is it caused by? (*There are 6)
INSULIN DEFICIENCY

CAUSES:
1. GENETIC PREDISPOSITION (20% of diabetic patient relatives have abnormal glucose curves)

2. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS/DRUGS
3. INFECTIOUS AGENTS (MUMPS, RUBELLA, PANCREATITIS)
4. AUTOIMMUNE EVENTS (Antibodies damage beta cells)
5. ANTI-INSULIN RECEPTER ANTIBODIES
6. GENETIC SYNDROMES (Downs, Klinefelter, Turner's)
What are the two types of 'DIABETES MELLITUS'? Which ones is the worst?
Type I - INSULIN-DEPENDENT
(Juvenile Onset) = WORST

Type II - NONINSULIN-DEPENDENT
(Maturity Onset)
What are the characteristics of 'TYPE I - JUVENILE ONSET' diabetes? (*There are 3 of them)
1. INSULIN INJECTIONS
2. COMPLICATED BY KETOACIDOSIS (pH DROP)
3. Usually in youth but may occur at any age
What are the characteristics of 'TYPE II - MATURITY ONSET' diabetes? (*There are 3 of them)

What kind of treatment is there?
1. NO INSULIN INJECTIONS
2. MILD (KETOACIDOSIS IS RARE)
3. PATIENT IS USUALLY OBESE

TREATMENT = WEIGHT LOSS
What is 'GLYCOSURIA'?
GLUCOSE IN THE URINE

TM FOR GLUCOSE REABSORPTION MAXED OUT
What is 'POLYURIA'?
INCREASED URINE VOLUME

HIGH GLUCOSE ACTS AS AN OSMOTIC DIURETIC
What is 'POLYDIPSIA'?
INCREASED DRINKING, CAUSED BY 'POLYURIA'
What is 'HYPERGLYCEMIA'?
HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS (250-1000 mg)
What is 'KETOACIDOSIS'? How does this occur from 'DIABETES'?
ACETONE IN URINE
ACETONE BREATH
LOW BLOOD pH

- Occurs when cells do NOT get the sugar. Body will break down fats and this causes release of 'ACETIC ACID' which lowers pH and increases 'ACIDITY'.
What are the 8 symptoms of someone that has 'DIABETES MELLITUS'?
1. GLYCOSURIA
2. POLYURIA
3. POLYDIPSIA
4. HYPERGLYCEMIA
5. WEAKNESS
6. LOSS OF WEIGHT
7. ACETONE BREATH
8. VASCULAR ABNORMALITIES
*Micro-aneuryms. (Especially in eyes due to retinal ISCHEMIA)
What are the 3 chronic complications of 'DIABETES MELLITUS'?
1. HYPERGLYCEMIA
2. POLYOL PATHWAY
3. INCREASED RISK FOR INFECTION
What is the 'POLYOL PATHWAY'? Why is it a bad thing for a person with 'DIABETES MELLITUS'?
TISSUES THAT DO NOT REQUIRE INSULIN FOR CELL-TRANSPORT USE THIS PATHWAY.

GLUCOS -> SORBITOL via ALDOSE REDUCTASE.

SORBITOL -> FRUCTOSE. Fructose INCREASES intracellular osmotic pressure and attracts 'WATER'. This leads to cell swelling and cell injury.
Why is there an increased risk for 'INFECTION' for someone who has 'DIABETES MELLITUS'? (*There are 4 reasons)
1. PATHOGENS PROLIFERATE FAST DUE TO INCREASE GLUCOSE
2. HYPOXIA - GLYCOSYLATED Hb IN RBCs IMPEDE RELEASE OF OXYGEN
3. DECREASED BLOOD FLOW TO INFECTED AREA VIA VASCULAR DAMAGE
4. WHITE BLOOD CELLS HAVE IMPAIRED FUNCTION
What is the treatment for someone with 'DIABETES MELLITUS'? (*There are 4 of them)
1. EXERCISE / LOSS OF WEIGHT
2. DIETARY MANAGEMENT
3. ORAL ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS
4. INSULIN INJECTIONS
What is it called when 'INSULIN' is found in 'EXCESS' amounts in the body?
HYPERINSULINISM
How does 'HYPERINSULINISM' occur?
EXCESS AMOUNTS OF INSULIN IN BODY

EXCESS GLUCOSE IS TAKEN INTO CELLS RAPIDLY. BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS DROP AND BRAIN SUDDENLY LACKS GLUCOSE.
What are the symptoms of 'HYPERINSULINISM'? (*There are 7 of them)
1. NERVOUSNESS
2. SWEATING
3. INCREASED HEART RATE
4. HUNGER
5. WEAKNESS
6. CONVULSIONS
7. COMA
What is the treatment for someone affected with 'HYPERINSULINISM'?
CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE
(ORALLY OR INTRAVENOUSLY)
What is 'HYPOGLYCEMIA'?
OCCURS WHEN BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS FALL BELOW '40 - 50 mg%'.
What is 'REACTIVE HYPOGLYCEMIA'?
MOST COMMON IN ADULTS (TYPE II DIABETES)

HYPERACTIVE RESPONSE OF BETA CELLS TO RIDE IN BLOOD GLUCOSE
What are the symptoms of 'HYPOGLYCEMIA'? (*There are 6 of them)
1. HUNGER
2. WEAKNESSS
3. BLURRED VISION
4. ALTERED CEREBRAL FUNCTION
5. HEADACHE
6. MOOD CHANGE
What are the PARASYMPATHETIC/SYMPATHETIC responses respectively for someone with 'HYPOGLYCEMIA'?
PARASYMPATHETIC = HUNGER

SYMPATHETIC = ANXIETY, SWEATING, COOL SKIN
What is 'GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS' (GDM)?
DIABETES THAT OCCURS DURING PREGNANCY 'but' DISAPPEARS AFTER DELIVERY.
What is the ratio of 'GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS (GDM)'?
1-14% OF PREGNANCIES
When does 'GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS (GDM)' occur?
3rd TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY
TRUE or FALSE

A woman with 'GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS (GDM)' is at a higher risk of complications with 'PREGNANCY', 'MORTALITY', and 'FETAL ABNORMALITIES'.
TRUE

SHE IS AT HIGHER RISK FOR COMPLICATIONS
What are some of the 'FETAL ABNORMALITIES' associated with a baby whose mother had 'GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS' (GDM)? (*There are 5 of them)
1. LARGE BODY SIZE
2. HYPOGLYCEMIA
3. HYPOCALCEMIA
4. POLYCYTHEMIA
5. HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
What is the percentage of 'PREGNANT WOMEN' that will develop 'DIABETES MELLITUS' within 15 years after having (GDM)?
40-60%
What percentage of the women who have (GDM) will convert to having 'TYPE II - DIABETES MELLITUS' within 10 years?
25%
Which of the following is NOT released by the 'ANTERIOR PITUITARY'?

1. PROLACTIN
2. OXYTOCIN
3. GROWTH HORMONE
4. FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE
OXYTOCIN
What does Growth Hormone (GH) stimulate?
THE UPTAKE OF AMINO ACIDS INTO CELLS
Excess 'GROWTH HORMONE' in 'ADULTS' causes a condition known as?
ACROMEGALY
Spermatogensis is 'STIMULATED' by what hormone?
FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE
ADH is synthesized in the...
HYPOTHALAMUS
Glucocorticoids are released from which portion of the 'ADRENAL CORTEX'?
ZONA FASCICULATA

(*MNEMONIC - FASt CORTICOIDS)
'HYPERsecretion' of corticosteroids casues a condition known as what?
CUSHING SYNDROME
Thyroxine is produced by:

1. HYPOTHALAMUS
2. THYROID GLAND
3. PRINCIPAL CELLS
4. 2 AND 3
4. 2 AND 3

PRINCIPAL CELLS / THYROID GLAND
'GLUCAGON' is secreted by...

1. ADRENAL MEDULLA
2. ADRENAL CORTEX
3. BETA CELLS
4. ALPHA CELLS
4. ALPHA CELLS

(*MNEMONIC - ALPHA GUY OR GENERAL AUTHORITY)
'INSULIN' causes:

1. DECREASED BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS
2. GLYCOLYSIS
3. CELLS TO UPTAKE GLUCOSE
4. ALL OF THE ABOVE
4. ALL OF THE ABOVE