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91 Cards in this Set

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IF 'BODY WATER VOLUME' increases what happens to 'BLOOD VOLUME' and 'BLOOD PRESSURE' respectively?
BLOOD VOLUME = INCREASES

BLOOD PRESSURE = INCREASES

(*DIRECTLY AFFECTED FROM BODY WATER VOLUME)
IF 'BODY WATER VOLUME' decreases what happens to 'BLOOD VOLUME' and 'BLOOD PRESSURE' respectively?
BLOOD VOLUME = DECREASES

BLOOD PRESSURE = DECREASES

(*DIRECTLY AFFECTED FROM BODY WATER VOLUME)
What percentage of 'WATER WEIGHT' is the average adult body composed of?

This equals out to approximately how many liters?

What is this referred to as?
50-60%

40 LITERS

REFERRED TO AS 'TOTAL BODY WATER'
What are the 2 types of 'FLUID COMPARTMENTS'?
1. INTRACELLULAR (ICF)
2. EXTRACELLULAR (EFC)
What is 'INTRACELLULAR FLUID' defined as?
'FLUID' CONTAINED IN THE CELLS
What is 'EXTRACELLULAR FLUID' characterized as?
ALL FLUID NOT CONTAINED IN CELLS.

INCLUDES FLUID BETWEEN TISSUES (INTERSTITIAL FLUID) AND PLASMA COMPONENT OF BLOOD
What fluid is considered to be 'TRANSCELLULAR FLUID'?
CSF (Cerebral Spinal Fluid)
Of the 50-60% 'TOTAL BODY WATER', what percentage represents 'INTRACELLULAR FLUID' (ICF)?
35-40%
Of the 50-60% 'TOTAL BODY WATER', what percentage represents 'EXTRACELLULAR FLUID' (ECF)?
ECF = 10-20% of 'TOTAL BODY WATER' Weight (TBW)
'EXTRACELLULAR FLUID' is separated into 2 sub-groups. What are the sub-groups?
1. INTERSTITIAL
2. PLASMA
What 'PERCENTAGE' of 'EXTRACELLULAR FLUID' is 'INTERSTITIAL FLUID'?
The majority of (ECF) is Interstitial Fluid

Appx. (65-75%)
What 'PERCENTAGE' of 'EXTRACELLULAR FLUID' is 'PLASMA' FLUID?
The minority of (ECF) is Plasma Fluid

Appx. (20-25%)
What is the 'TOTAL BODY WATER' (TBW) for infants and young children?
80% TBW
TRUE OR FALSE

'TOTAL BODY WATER' (TBW) DECREASES WITH AGE.
TRUE

(TBW) DECREASES WITH AGE
Which 'SEX' has less 'TOTAL BODY WATER'?

Why?
WOMEN

FATTY TISSUES HAVE LESS WATER
What percentage of 'BLOOD' is composed of 'WATER'?
BLOOD = 55% WATER (H2O)
What is 'DEHYDRATION' or 'HYPOVOLEMIA' characterized as?
LACK OF WATER (H2O)
What is 'WATER INTOXICATION' or 'HYPERVOLEMIA' characterized as?
EXCESSIVE WATER (H2O) INTAKE
What is the 'AVERAGE' water intake per day?
2500ml or 2.5L
What is 'EDEMA' characterized as?
LARGE AMOUNTS OF FLUID IN THE 'INTERSTITIAL' SPACE
What is 'ADH' and what are its functions?

(*THERE ARE 2 OF THEM)
ADH = ANTI-DIURETIC HORMONE

1. REGULATES OSMOLARITY
2. REGULATES VOLUME OF EXTRACELLULAR FLUIDS VIA WATER LOSS CONTROL
What is the function of a 'DIURETIC'?
'INCREASES' URINARY OUTPUT.

INCREASED BODY WATER LOSS
What is 'DIABETES INSIPIDOUS' characterized as?
LACK OF ADH (ANTI DIURETIC-HORMONE)

*NOT SUGAR RELATED

(INSIPIDOUS = W/OUT TASTE)
What are some 'causes' for 'HYPOVOLEMIA' / 'DEHYDRATION'?

(*THERE ARE 6 CAUSES)
1. DECREASED WATER INTAKE
2. INCREASED WATER OUTPUT
3. DIARRHEA
4. LOSS OF BLOOD
5. DRAINAGE FROM BURNS
6. LACK OF ADH
What are some of the 'symptoms' of 'HYPOVOLEMIA' / 'DEHYDRATION'?
1. LOSS OF WEIGHT
2. RISE IN BODY TEMPERATURE
3. INCREASED HEART RATE
4. CARDIAC OUTPUT
5. DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE
6. DECREASED URINE
What are some of the 'causes' of 'WATER INTOXICATION' / 'HYPERVOLEMIA'?

(*THERE ARE 3 CAUSES)
1. EXCESSIVE IV ADMINISTRATION
2. PSYCHOTIC DRINKING EPISODES
3. RENAL FAILURE (DECREASED URINARY OUTPUT)
What are some of the 'symptoms' of 'WATER INTOXICATION' / 'HYPERVOLEMIA'?

(*THERE ARE 7 OF SYMPTOMS)
1. DECREASED BODY TEMPERATURE
2. INCREASED BLOOD PRESSURE
3. EDEMA
4. WEIGHT GAIN
5. VOMITING
6. CONVULSIONS
7. COMA
What are some of the body 'responses' of 'WATER INTOXICATION' / 'HYPERVOLEMIA'?

(*THERE ARE 3 RESPONSES)
1. INHIBITION OF THIRST VIA HYPOTHALAMUS
2. DECREASE OF ADH/ALDOSTERONE
3. INCREASED URINARY OUTPUT
(SODIUM LEVELS DROP)
What are some of the body 'responses' of 'DEHYDRATION' / 'HYPOVOLEMIA'?

(*THERE ARE 4 RESPONSES)
1. LESS SALIVARY SECRETION
2. DRYING OF MOUTH/PHARYNX
3. DRINKING STIMULATED BY BRAIN
4. INCREASED ALDOSTERONE (REGULATES SALT/WATER BALANCE)
What are the 'EFFECTS' after 1% (0.7L) of 'TOTAL BODY WATER' has been lost?
1. THIRST
What are the 'EFFECTS' after 5% (3.5L) of 'TOTAL BODY WATER' has been lost?

(*THERE ARE 3 OF EFFECTS)
1. LETHARGY
2. IRRITABILITY
3. LOSS OF APPETITE
What are the 'EFFECTS' after 10% (7L) of 'TOTAL BODY WATER' has been lost?

(*THERE ARE 2 EFFECTS)
1. INCOORDINATION
2. DEATH
These 2 'HORMONES' are 'MADE' in the 'HYPOTHALAMUS'.
1. ANTI-DIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)
2. OXYTOCIN
What 2 'HORMONES' are released from the 'POSTERIOR PITUITARY'?
1. ANTI-DIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)
2. OXYTOCIN
'WATER PILLS' ARE ALSO CONSIDERED TO BE A WHAT?

HOW DOES THIS WORK?
WATER PILLS = DIURETIC

INCREASED BODY WATER LOSS VIA URINATION
'CAFFEINE' CAUSES INCREASED URINARY OUTPUT BECAUSE IT ACTS AS A WHAT?
DIURETIC
'INCREASED' osmolarity stimulates the release of what?
ANTI-DIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)
'DECREASED' osmolarity inhibits the release of what?
ANTI-DIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)
Less 'ANTI-DIURETIC HORMONE' (ADH) causes decreased permeability of what?

(*2 THINGS)
1. DISTAL TUBULES
2. COLLECTING DUCTS

(KIDNEYS)
What is considered to be the 'UNIVERSAL' solvent?
WATER (H2O)
What is a 'SOLUTE' defined as?
DISSOLVED SUBSTANCE

(eg., SALT)
What is a 'SOLVENT' defined as?
SUBSTANCE IN WHICH THE SOLUTE IS DISSOLVED

(eg., WATER)
What does 'mg%' mean?
mg (SOLUTE) / 100 ml (SOLUTION)
How do you make a liter of '500 mg% GLUCOSE'?
500mg / 100ml x 1000ml/ 1L

EQUALS = 5000mg (GLUCOSE) / 1L

Weight out 5000mg of GLUCOSE and DILUTE to 1 LITER with WATER
What is 'MOLARITY' (M) defined as?
MOLES SOLUTE / LITER
A 'MOLE' consists of how many 'MOLECULES'?
'AVOGADRO'S NUMBER'

6x10^23 MOLECULES
What is an 'ACID' defined as?
'DISSOCIATES' in water to form 'HYDROGEN IONS' (H+) AND 'ANIONS'

(*EASILY DONATES THE HYDROGEN / H+)
What defined a 'STRONG ACID'?
AN ACID THAT CAN 'COMPLETELY' DISSOCIATE.

HCl -> H+ and Cl-
What defines a 'WEAK ACID'?
HOLD ON TO 'MOST' OF THEIR HYDROGEN IONS.

THEY DO 'NOT' DISSOCIATE COMPLETELY.
What defines a 'BASE'?

What are some examples?
BASES = DISSOCIATE TO FORM OH- and CATIONS WHEN ADDED TO WATER

NaOH -> Na+ and OH-

KOH -> K+ and OH-

NH4OH -> NH4+ and OH-
How are 'SALTS' formed?

What is an example of this?
WHEN ACIDS REACT WITH BASES

NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H2O
What is released when equal amounts of 'ACIDS' and 'BASES' are mixed when 'salts' are formed?
HEAT

(EXOTHERMIC REACTION)
What is the 'IONIZATION' of 'WATER'?

*Constant
Kw= 10^-7 Molarity (M)
What happens to the 'HYDROGEN ION' concentration when an 'ACID' is added?

What happens to the pH?
HYDROGEN ION CONC. 'INCREASES'

pH DECREASES = MORE ACIDIC
What happens to the 'HYDROGEN ION' concentration when a 'BASE' is added?

What happens to the pH?
HYDROGEN ION CONC. 'DECREASES'

pH INCREASES = MORE BASIC
What is scale of the pH system?
1 through 14

1 = ACIDIC (HIGH H+)

14 = BASIC (LOW H+)
On the 'pH SCALE', when there is an increase by '1 UNIT', how much is the 'HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION' decreasing?
DECREASES BY FACTOR OF 10
What is the definition of a 'BUFFER'?
SOLUTIONS OF 'TWO' OR 'MORE' CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS THAT PREVENT MARKED CHANGES IN [H+] (pH).

ACID OR BASE ADDITION TO SOLUTION DO 'NOT' AFFECT pH
What is the 'BICARBONATE BUFFER'?
H2CO3 and NaHCO3

Carbonic Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate
Why does adding a 'STRONG ACID' to the 'BICARBONATE BUFFER' prevent a large pH change?
H+ is transferred from a 'STRONG ACID' to a 'WEAK ACID'

'WEAK ACID' holds on to the 'HYDROGEN IONS'

(HCl + NaHCO3 -> NaCl + H2CO3)
The 'pH' of 'BLOOD' and 'BODY FLUIDS' are regulated by what three mechanisms / organs?
1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (LUNGS)
2. KIDNEYS
3. BUFFERS IN BODY FLUIDS
How does the 'RESPIRATORY SYSTEM' regulate 'pH'?
CONTROLS LEVELS OF 'CARBON DIOXIDE' CO2 IN THE FLUIDS/BLOOD.
How do the 'KIDNEYS' regulate 'pH'?
CONTROL [HCO3-] IN BODY FLUIDS VIA ACID EXCRETION.
'RED BLOOD CELLS' are work as a good 'BUFFER' system. Why?
'RED BLOOD CELLS' contain 'HEMOGLOBIN' which has 'HIGH' histodine content.
HOW MANY 'O2' MOLECULES CAN ONE 'HEMOGLOBIN' MOLECULE CARRY?
4 O2 MOLECULES
Increasing the concentration of 'CARBON DIOXIDE' (CO2) will cause the 'bicarbonate buffer' system to proceed which way?

Why?
PROCEED TO THE 'RIGHT'

INCREASED CO2 LEVELS = INCREASED CARBONIC ACID

(RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS)
How is the 'BICARBONATE BUFFER' equation written?
CO2 + H2O = H2C03 = HC03- + H+
What is the 'HENDERSON-HASSELBACH' equation?

When is it used?
pH = 6.1 + log [HCO3-] / [CO2]

Used to calculate the 'BLOOD' pH when we know the CO2 and HCO3- levels.
What do the 'KIDNEYS' do if the 'BLOOD' pH is too high? (BASIC)
KIDNEYS EXCRETE 'BICARBONATE' INTO THE URINE.
What do the 'KIDNEYS' do if the 'BLOOD' pH is too low? (ACIDIC)
KIDNEYS RETAIN 'BICARBONATE' AND PUT IT BACK INTO THE BLOOD.

KIDNEYS EXCRETE 'EXCESS' H+ INTO URINE.
What is the 'normal' range for pH in 'BLOOD'?
7.35 - 7.45pH

(AVERAGE = 7.4pH)

(Slightly BASIC)
What are the 4 'ACID-BASE' disorders in the human body?
1. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
2. RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
3. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
4. METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
What is 'METABOLIC ACIDOSIS' defined as?
LOW pH (INCREASED H+ IONS)

FROM 'ALL' CAUSES EXCEPT FOR RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY
What are some of the 'symptoms' of 'METABOLIC ACIDOSIS'?

(*THERE ARE 4 'SYMPTOMS')
1. SEVERE DIARRHEA (LOSS OF BICARBONATE)
2. DIABETES MELLITUS
3. HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE (LACTIC ACID)
4. KIDNEY FAILURE (ACID ACCUMULATION)
What are some of the 'symptoms' of 'RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS'?

(*THERE ARE 3 'SYMPTOMS')
LOW pH (INCREASED H+ IONS)

DUE TO RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY

1. OVER-ANESTHESIA
2. LUNG DISEASES
3. DAMAGE TO RESPIRATORY CENTER
What are the 'effects' of 'ACIDOSIS' on the human body?

(*THERE ARE 4 OF THEM)
1. DISORIENTATION
2. COMA
3. DEATH
4. LOWER LIMIT OF 'BLOOD' pH (6.8-7.0)
What is 'METABOLIC ALKALOSIS' defined as?
HIGH pH (DECREASED H+ IONS)

DUE TO 'ALL' CAUSES EXCEPT FOR 'HYPERVENTILATION'
What is 'RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS' defined as?
HIGH pH (DECREASED H+ IONS)

LOW BLOOD CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) LEVELS DUE TO 'HYPERVENTILATION'
'RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS' may be caused by the following 3 things. What are they?
1. FEVER
2. ASPIRIN POISONING
3. HIGH ALTITUDE (LOW OXYGEN)
'METABOLIC ALKALOSIS' may be caused by the following 2 things. What are they?
1. VOMITING (LOSS OF STOMACH ACID)
2. EXCESSIVE SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION
What are the 'effects' of 'ALKALOSIS' on the human body?

(*THERE ARE 4 OF THEM)
1. OVEREXCITABILITY OF NERVOUS SYSTEM
2. TETANY (CRAMPS)
3. DEATH
4. UPPER LIMIT OF 'BLOOD' pH (7.8-8.0)
What percent of the body weight is composed of water?

1. 35-40%
2. 50-60%
3. 40-50%
4. 99.5%
3. 50-60%
Which of the following symptoms would be associated with 'hypervolemia'?

1. DECREASED TEMP., INCREASED B.P., EDEMA
2. INCREASED TEMP., DECREASED B.P., LOSS OF WEIGHT
3. DRY MOUTH, INCREASED ADH RELEASE, AND EDEMA
4. YELLOW JAUNDICE, LOSS OF HAIR, AND AN INCREASE IN THE HEMATOCRIT
1. DECREASED TEMP., INCREASED B.P., EDEMA
ADH HAS IT'S EFFECT ON BODY WATER BALANCE BY AFFECTING WHICH ORGAN?

1. THE ADRENAL GLANDS
2. THE BLADDER
3. THE KIDNEYS
4. THE HEART
3. THE KIDNEYS
How would you prepare a 1 M NaCL solution?
(Atomic Wt of Na=23, Cl=35)

1. 58 gm of NaCl in 100 ml
2. 58 gm of NaCl in one quart
3. 58 gm of NaCl in one liter
4. 116 gm of NaCl in 100 ml
3. 58 gm of NaCl in one liter
When CO2 increases and the pH of the blood becomes 7.1 what is this condition referred to as?

1. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
2. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
3. RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
4. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
1. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
What is the normal pH range of the blood?

1. 6.8 to 7.8
2. 7.39 to 7.41
3. 7.1 to 7.6
4. 7.35 to 7.45
4. 7.35 to 7.45
TRUE OR FALSE

Most of the body water is in the 'intracellular space'
TRUE
TRUE OR FALSE

A person that has lost 15-20% of their body water may die.
TRUE
TRUE OR FALSE

Most of the 'extracellular fluid' is plasma
FALSE
TRUE OR FALSE

The 'kidneys' regulate body pH by regulating CO2.
FALSE