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32 Cards in this Set

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Define Growth and Define Development
Growth: Increase in size
Development: Increase in complexity.
What defines the Embryonic Period of In Utero growth and development?
1. First 8 weeks following fertilization and implantation.
2. Characterized by rapid change from simple cell multiplication to human form.
3. Defining period for facial structures (head dominates embryo's appearance)
What facial structures are defined during the embryonic period?
1.Branchial (Pharyngeal)apparatus
2.Facial processes (Prominences)-surround primitive mouth (stomadeum)
What are the three facial processes?
1.Median frontonasal (median nasal processes and lateral nasal processes)
2.Paired maxillary
3.Paired manibular
What period of growth and development is most susceptible to insult?
Embryonic Period
What clinical relevance does the embryonic period have for the head and neck?
1.Cleft lip/palate
2.Syndromes (1st branchial arch)including Mandibulofacial dysplasia (Treacher Collins syndrome) and Pierre Robin syndrome.
3.Pharyngeal fistulae and cycts, DiGeorge's syndrome (branchial pouches)
What are the characteristics of the fetal period of growth?
1. 9 weeks in utero to birth.
2. Characterized by more growth than development.
3. Body grows more rapidly
4. Ossification begins.
What are the Cranial Nerve derivatives of the 5 Branchial Arches?

ARCH I
I: Trigeminal (V)
II: Facial (VII)
III: Glossopharyngeal (IX)
IV/VI: Vagus (X)
What are the skeletal derivatives of branchial arch I?
Maxilla, zygoma, zygomatic process of temporal bone, Meckel's cartilage, mandible, malleus, incus, spheno-mandibular ligament.
What are the muscle derivatives of branchial arch I?
Muscles of masication and facial expression: Masseter, temporalis,medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid, anteior digastric, mylohyoid, tensor veli palatini, tensor tympani.
What are the Skeletal derivatives of branchial arch II?
1.Riechert's cartilage 2.stapes
3.styloid process of temporal bone
4.lesser horn and superior body of hyoid bone 5.stylohyoid ligament
What are the Muscle derivatives of branchial arch II?
1. Frontalis
2. Orbicularis oris
3. Orbicularis oculi
4. Zygomaticus
5. Buccinator
6. Platysma
7. Stapedius
8. Stylohyoid
9. Posterior belly of digastric
What are the Skeletal derivatives of branchial arch III?
Greater horn and inferior body of hyoid bone.
What are the Skeletal derivatives of branchial arch IV/VI?
1.Laryngeal cartilages
2.thyroid
3.cricoid
4.arytenoid
What are the Muscle derivatives of branchial arch III?
Stylopharyngeus muscle
What are the Muscle derivatives of branchial arch IV/VI?
1.Cricothyroid
2.Instrinsic muscles of larynx
3.Constrictors of pharynx
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Genetic
Define Chromosome abnormality:
Entire chromosomes or large segments are missing, duplicated, or altered.
ie. Down syndrome, Turner's syndrome.
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Genetic
Define Single-Gene disorders:
Mutation causes protein product of single gene to be altered or missing.
ie. Sickle cell anemia, Marfan's syndrome.
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Genetic
Define Multifactorial disorders (mutation in multiple genes):
Frequently coupled with environmental causes.
ie. diabetes, cancer
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Genetic
Define Multifactorial Disorders (mutation in nonchromosomal DNA located within the mitochondria)
ie. Huntington's Disease
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Environmental
Define Malformation:
Morphologic defect resulting from an intrinsically abnormal development process.
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Environmental
Define Deformation:
Abnormal form of position of a body part caused by nondisruptive mechanical forces.
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Environmental
Define Disruption:
Morophological defect of an organ or body part resulting from breakdown or interference with an initially normal developmental process.
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Environmental
Define Association:
Concurrence, more often than by chance, or two or more anomalies.
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Environmental
Define Congenital:
Existing at birth. An anomaly is not always manifest in the newborn nursery. The term congenital malformation is a tautologism.
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Environmental
Define Familial:
Clustering of a disorder in the same family more so than can be accounted for by chance but not necessarily transmitted in Mendelian fashion
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Environmental
Define Syndrome (Gr. syn+dramein, to run):
Pattern of multiple anomalies pathogenically related and occurring in embryonically noncontiguous areas. craniosynostosis is confu
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Environmental
Define Nonsyndromic:
Condition that does not fit a recognized syndrome. This does not mean that the anomaly is nongenetic: thus, the term nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is confusing and imprecise. For some surgeons, this adjective denotes single-suture synostosis, whereas for others, it means bilateral coronal synostosis for which a proper name cannot be attached (noneponymous).
Abnormal Facial Development
Etiology
Environmental
Define Sporadic:
Any disorder occuring in the absence of a family history. The term does not imply an etiology. It covers several disparate phenomena, including a new mutation, the chance appearance of a recessive trait, multifactorial origin, environmental phenocopy, and unknown pathogenesis. Thus, the term is of little notational value.
Pouch, Groove, Membrane Derivatives
Pouch 1
Pouch 2
Pouch 3
Pouch 4
Groove 1
Grooves 2 to 4
Membrane 1
Pouch 1: Tympanic cavity, auditory tube, mastoid antrum.
Pouch 2: Crypt lining of palatine tonsils.
Pouch 3: Inferior parathyroid glands, thymus.
Pouch 4: Superior parathyroid glands, ultimobranchial body-->parafollicular cells
Groove 1: External auditory meatus
Grooves 2 to 4: Cervical sinus
Membrane 1: Tympanic membrane
What is the pathogenesis of cleft lip and/or palate?

When is palatal fusion typically completed in utero?
Failure of embryonic structures to merge and/or fuse.

Week 11
Palate closure oriented at ________ __________.

Secondary palate "zips" closed from _________ to _________.

Primary palate "zips" closed from _________ to __________.
Incisive foramen.

Anterior; Posterior

Posterior; Anterior