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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CNS consists mainly of...(2)
brain
spinal cord
Segment of spine in order and # of segment in them (6)
1)Cranial
2)cervical (7)
3)Thoracic (12)
4)Lumbar (5)
6)Saccral (5)
7)Coccygeal (1)
There are __ cranial nerves what is #10? (and its fxn)
12

vagus nerve, main PSNS nerve
Gray matter?
part of spine that contains nerve cell bodies
White matter?
part of spine that contains myleinated axons
Receptor/Afferent nerves enter the spine...(and other name for these nerves)
dorsally, SENSORY FIBERS
Effector nerves exit the spine...(and other name for these nerves)
ventrally, MOTOR FIBERS
Sensory fibers convery...
status (like pain, etc)
Sensory fibers are...
AFFERENT
Somatic Motor System
1)efferent to...
2)NT is...
3)arise from...
4)one peripheral synapse @...
1)voluntary skeletal striated muscle
2)ACh
3)ALL levels of spine
4)@ NEUROMUSCULAR JXN
When you see NEUROMUSCULAR JXN think....
Somatic Motor system
Somatic motor neuron exit the spine
ventrally
Autonomic system
a)efferent to...
b)2 peripheral synapses to...
a)involuntary visceral organs/smooth muscle
b)ganglion then organ
Smooth muscle will always be innervated with...
autonomic system
Basic setup of an ANS neuron
1)Preganglionic neuron arises from CNS and synapses to ganglion
2)Postganglionic neuron arises from a ganglion and synapses @ and organ cell
Unmyleinated/myleinated setup of ANS?
Preganglionic is MYLEINATED

Postganglionic is UNMYLEINATED
3 different types of visceral effectors
1)smooth muscle
2)gland cell
3)cardiac muscle
Location of Preganglionic neuron body?
intermediolateral part of gray matter
Efferent neurons always leave the spine....
VENTRALLY
Divergence?
Postganglionic fibers are more numerous than preganglionic
2 ways to classify ANS?
1)anatomical
2)physiological
ANATOMICAL desc. of parasympathetic neurons (4)
1)arise from cranial and sacral cord regions ONLY
2)long preganglionic nerve
3)short postganglionic nerve
4)ganglia really close to organ
Vagus nerve effects...(4)
1)lungs
2)heart
3)stomach
4)small intestine
ANATOMICAL desc. of sympathetic neurons (4)
1)arise from thoracic and lumbar regions ONLY
2)short preganglionic nerve
3)long postganglioic nerve
4)most ganglia are in SYMPATHETIC CHAIN
2 classes of ANS via PHYSIOLOGICAL desc. (and this classification is by...)
1)cholinergic
2)adrenergic

based on NT released
Cholinergic neurons
1)NT is...
2)released by...(3)
1)NT is ACh
2a)ALL preganglionic autonomic neurons
2b)ALL postganglionic parasympathetic neuron
2c)SOME postganglionic sympathetic neurons
Adrenergic neurons
1)NT is...
2)released by...
1)NE
2)MOST postganglionic sympathetic neurons
Adrenal Medulla
a)ratio release of E/NE
b)is a modified....
c)innervated by...
a)80/20
b)sympathetic ganglion
c)preganglionic sympathetic neurons (cholinergic)
Somatic nerve layout (pic)
.
Autonomic Parasympathetic nerve layout (pic)
.
Autonomic sympathetic adrenergic nerve layout (pic)
.
Autonomic sympathetic cholinergic nerve layout (pic)
.
How is ACh released in cholinergic systems (5)
1)action potential hit nerve ending
2)Ca++ influx
3)vesicle fuses with terminal
4)vesicle contents (NTs) released to synapse via exocytosis
5)NTs react with receptors on dendrite of receiving neuron
ACh can act on 2 types of receptors
1)muscarinic
2)nicotinic
ACh synthesis steps (3)
1)choline + acetyl CoA
2)in presence of choline acetyl-transferase
3)ACh is formed
Release of ACh is dependent upon....
Calcium-dependent
Termination of effect of ACh via (2)...and desc. of 1
1)acetylcholinesterase is found in synapse and is very efficient so effects of ACh are brief
2)reuptake
NE receptor types (2)
alpha & beta
NE synthesis steps (4)
1)tyrosine & tyrosine hydroxylase forms DOPA
2)DOPA and DOPA decarboxylase forms dopamine
3)DOPAMINE IS THEN TAKEN INTO VESICLE
4)dopamine reacts with dopamine-B-hydroxylase inside vesicle to form NE
Making E from NE? (3)
1)inside vesicle
2)NE reacts with phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase
3)THIS ENZYME IS ONLY IN THE ADRENAL MEDULLA
4 catecholamines and what makes them catecholamines?
1)DOPA
2)dopamine
3)NE
4)E

b/c have 2 adjacent OH's
How is NE's effect stopped (3)
1)reuptake
2)broken down via MAO and COMT in receiving cell
3)activation of alpha2 receptors on releasing nerve
2 pools of NE?
1)vesicles of NE
2)NE reuptaken/NE that has leaked out of vesicles
NE release steps
1)Action potential
2)Ca++ influx
3)vesicle fuses with terminal
4)vesicle contents released to synapse via exocytosis
5)NTs react w/ receptors on dendrite of receiving neuron
Adrenal medulla lacks...and why?
axons, it just dumps NE/E into the blood
Release of NE/E is via...
exocytosis
How does the "adrenergic effect" initiate?
NE/E interacts w/ an adrenergic receptor
What can be done with reuptaken NE? (2)
1)it can be put into vesicles
2)stay in an extravesicular pool
When NE interacts with COMT it creates ____ which is ___
normetanephrine

INACTIVE
When NE interacts with MAO it does what to NE? making it...
deamination

INACTIVE
The actions of COMT and MAO both eventually break down NE/E to....
vanylmandelic acid (VMA)
___ is disposed of in the same way as NE
E
COMT and MAO are found where?
in liver
Other metabolism pathways for E/NE include...(2)
1)sulfate
2)glucuronide conjugation
ACh levels can't be measured b/c....
it is quickly degraded and doesn't escape the synapse easily
mimetics fxn?
mimic effects of natural transmitter
....mimics effects of ACh
cholinomimetic
Direct cholinomimetic action?
interacts w/ cholinergic receptor
Indirect cholinomimetic action?
facilitates ability of endogenous ACh to promote release or prevent termination of ACh
Mixed acting cholinomimetic action?
has both direct and indirect action
Direct cholinomimetic action at a MUSCARINIC receptor
a)location
b)activated by...(3)
c)types of muscarinic receptors (5)
a)in/on membrane of cell
b1)ACh released from postganglionic PSNS neurons
b2)some postganglionic SNS neurons
b3)muscarinic receptor agonists
c)M1, M2, M3, M4, M5
Direct cholinomimetic action at a NICOTINIC receptor
a)location (4)
b)activated by...(3)
c)types of nicotinic receptors (2)
a1)in/on membrane of dendrite
a2)cell body of postganglionic autonomic neurons
a3)cells of adrenal medulla
a4)skeletal muscles cells
b1)ACh released from ALL preganglionic neurons
b2)nicotinic receptor agonists
b3)ACh released from ALL somatic motor neurons
c)Nn, Nm
___ mimics effects of NE
adrenomimetic
____ prevents reuptake of NE
cocaine
Adrenomimetics direct action?
interacts w/ adrenergic receptor
Adrenomimetics indirect action?
facilitates ability to produce or prevent termination of action of NE
Indirect acting adrenomimetics act where?
ON EXTRAVESICULAR NE POOL
Mixed acting adrenomimetic?
has both direct and indirect action
What type of receptor do cholinomimetics act on?(2)
nicotinic
muscarinic
What type of receptors do adrenomimetics act on?(2)
alpha or beta adrenergic receptors
Alpha receptor adrenomimetics
a)location
b)activated by...(3)
c)receptor types(2)
a)in/on membrane of cells
b1)NE released from postganglionic sympathetic neurons
b2)E released from adrenal medulla
b3)alpha receptor agonists
c)alpha1, alpha2
Beta receptor adrenomimetics
a)location
b)activated by...(3)
c)receptor types(3)
a)in/on cell membrane
b1)NE released from potganglionic sympathetic neurons
b2)E released from adrenal medulla
b3)Beta receptor agonists
c)Beta1, Beta2, Beta3
Most end organs contain both...but...
alpha and beta receptor but one type will predominates
Lytics?
antagonize effects of nerve stimulation
____ blocks effects of cholinergic nerve stimulation
Cholinolytic
Cholinolytic fxn(2)
1)prevent release of ACh
2)compete w/ ACh @ muscarinic/nicotinic receptors
...blocks effects of adrenergic nerve stimulation
adrenolytic
Adrenolytic fxn(2)
1)prevent release of NE
2)compete w/ NE/E @ alpha/beta receptors
2 muscles control size of pupil (also known as the ____ smooth muscles)
1)sphincter muscle
2)radial muscle

IRIS
Sphincter smooth muscle fxn (2) (and which predominates)
1)contraction and miosis (smaller pupil) via M3 activation
2)Beta2 activation causes relaxation/mydriasis(bigger pupil)

M3 ACTIVATION PREDOMINATES
Radial smooth muscle fxn
alpha1 activation causes contraction and mydriasis(bigger pupil)
Accomodation?
change in lens shape to focus image on retina when viewing objects @ different distances
_____ is responsible for accomodation
CILIARY SMOOTH MUSCLE
Ciliary smooth muscles fxns(2)
1)M3 receptor activation causes contraction and accomodation for NEAR vision (MAKING LENS FATTER!!)
2)slight B2 receptor mediated relaxation for distant objects
Lacrimal glands receptor?
M3
Atropine does what?
Activates the Beta2 receptor of ciliary smooth muscle to dilate the pupil
Airway smooth muscle fxns (2)
1)M3 receptor causes bronchoconstriction
2)B2 receptor causes bronchodilation
Asmatics usually get what type of drug
B2 agonists for bronchodilation
Bronchial glands fxn
M3 receptor activation causes secretion
...(2) comprise enteric nervous system
myenteric plexus
submucosal plexus
Myenteric plexus sends its output to...(2)
circular muscle
longitudinal muscle
Circular muscle and longitudinal muscle fxns(2)
1)M3 receptor causes contraction (incr motility)
2)alpha1/2, beta1/2 receptors cause relaxation (decr motility)
Submucosal plexus sends output to...(2)
1)submucosa
2)mucosa
Gastrointestinal sphincters fxns (2)
1)M3 receptor causes relaxation (letting stuff pass thru more easily)
2)alpha1 receptor causes contraction
GI glands fxns (2)
1)M3 receptor causes secretion from pancreatic, gastric, intestinal glands
2)B2 causes inhibition of gastric acid secretion
___ prevent ACh from acting on circular/longitudinal smooth muscle causing...
T3-L3 in spine

relaxation of the circular/longitudinal smooth muscle
____(2) causes CONTRACTION of circular/longitudinal smooth muscle and....
S2-S4 in spine, vagus

release of ACH @ glands to cause secretion