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57 Cards in this Set

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a group of immunemediated disorders targeting the peripheral nerves characterized by progressive weakness of the extremeties and attenuation or loss of reflexes.
guillain-barre syndrome. an autoimmune neuropathy
presentation of this autoimmune neuropathy includes rapidly progresive paralysis, often ascending, areflexia, evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, a neurologic emergency that may rapidly progress to respiratory compromise
Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequently identified organism in this syndrome, and there is a suspected link between the two causing neurologic symptoms
guillain barre
within the CNS, a bundle of pathway axons is called?
tract
fasciculus
peduncle
lemniscus
outside the CNS, in the peripheral nerves that connect the CNS to skin/muscle/organ systems are bundles of axons called?
nerves
if you have an occlusion of the basilar artery at the junction of the 2 posterior cerebral arteries, what will occur/
total blindness. the post. cerebral arteries supply the visual cortex
what do the cerebellar arteries' supply with blood?
the cerebellum and brainstem
what are the 3 main sensory systems entering the spinal cord?
Pain-temperature
Proprioception-stereognosis
Light Touch
if you have a lesion of the spinothalamic tract, what loss will this result in?
pain-temp sensation contralaterally, below the level of the lesion
what can be a major distinguishing factor of motor neuron disease VS. peripheral neuropathies?
absence of sensory changes
when upper motor neuron systems are damaged above the crossover of its tracts in the medulla, what is impaired?
motor impairment develops on the contralateral side
what does damage to LMN or the "final common pathway" result in?
it causes ipsilateral weakness and paralysis, muscle tone and reflexes are decreased or absent
what will damage to the basal ganglia result in?
damage produces changes in muscle tone *increase* disturbances in posture and gait, bradykinesia.
what will damage to the cerebellum result in?
impairment of coordination, gait and equilibrium
what are the two sensory pathways?
spinothalamic tracts
posterior columns
what are the functions of the sensory pathways?
"SCAR"
Sensation
Calibrate body pos. in space
Autonomic fxn: HR, RR, BP
Reflexes
where do the cortiospinal tracts originate?
in the motor cortex of the brain
what is the name of the tracts that synapse in the brainstem with motor nuclei of the cranial nerves?
corticobulbar
name the general parts that make up the CNS?
cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum and spinal cord, diencephalon, and the basal ganglia
what makes up the basal ganglia?
caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, claustrum, amygdala.
what are the two main pairs of arteries that supply the brain?
internal carotids
vertebral arteries
if the Right carotid artery is obstructed, what will occur?
weakness and loss of sensation on the LEFT side of the body
if the vertebral artery is occluded (aka PCA)what circulation is affected?
posterior cerebral circulation to the visual area of the cerebrum, the brain stem and the cerebellum. this will result in
visual loss
dizziness etc.
an occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery would result in?
loss of strength and sensation in the lower part of the body
an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery would result in?
predominantly affects strength and sensation in the upper regions of the body
if you were to inject contrast material into an artery in order to outline the blood vessels of the cerebral circulation, which side would you do so and why?
the Right side starting at the R brachial artery *demonstrating front and back cerebral circulations. Left side would only demonstrate post. circ. since L carotid arises dir from aorta
where do the veins of the brain drain into?
internal jugular
where are spinal taps performed?
in the largest cistern "lumbar cistern" between L2 and S2
difficulty forming words
dysarthria
difficulty with gait or balance?
ataxia
what does weakness made worse with repeated effort and improved with rest may suggest?
myasthenia gravis
a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness
parasthesias
distorted sensations in response to a stimulus that may last longer than the stimulus itself
dysesthesias
tonic-clonic motor activity, bladder or bowel incontinence and postictal state suggest?
a generalized seizure
a paroxysmal disorder caused by sudden excessive electrical discharge in the cerebral cortex
seizure
what type of stroke is more common?
ischemic 85%

hemorrhagic 15%
what are most strokes caused by?
thromboembolism.
other causes: local injury to vascular wall, *atherosclerosis. inflammation, dissection, viscosity changes, b.v.rupture
difficulty in articulating words due to disease of the central nervous system
dysarthria
A partial or total loss of language skills due to brain damage. Usually, damage to the left perisylvian region, including Broca's area and Wernike's area
aphasia
what is the MC brain tumor?
glioma
an acquired decline in cognitive function, insidious
dementia
what are the 3 categories for disorders of speech?
the voice
articulation
production/comprehension
P presents with dysphonia, your initial differential should include?
laryngitis
laryngeal tumor
unilateral vocal cord paralysis (CN X)
defect in the muscle control of the speech aparatus (lips, tongue, palate, pharynx)words may be nasal, slurred, indistinct. central symbolic aspect of language remains intact
dysarthria
what would be some causes of dysarthria?
motor lesions of the CNS or PNS, parkinsonism and cerebellar disease
a disorder that is usually caused by lesions of the dominant cerebral hemisphere, that the person cannot produce or understand the language
aphasia
what are the two common types of aphasia
wernicke's
broca's
sentences that lack meaning, words are malformed
paraphasias
invented words
neologisms
where is the lesion in Wernicke's aphasia?
posterior superior temporal lobe
where is the lesion in broca's aphasia?
posterior inferior frontal lobe
lack of content in speech, typical of schizophrenia
alogia
lack of interest, drive and ability to set and pursue goals, typical of schizophrenia
avolition
what are some functions tested to verify higher cognitive functions?
info and vocab:life
calculating ability: math
abstract thinking: proverbs
Comparisons
Constructional: draw a clock
MMSE.
a depressed mood and symptoms for most of the day, over the last 2 years, freedom from s/s no > 2 months at a time
dysthymic disorder
an observable, usually episodic, feeling or tone expressed through voice, facial expression and demeanor
affect
a more sustained emotion that may color a person's view of the world
mood