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29 Cards in this Set

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What does the epidermis depend on for nutrition?
The dermis
What are some of the contents of the dermis?
Connective tissue,sebaceous glands,sweat glands,and hair folicles.
Functions of skin include:
Major functionkeep body in homeostatis,provides boundaries for body fluids,protection, vit.D synthesis
The color of normal skin depends on these four pigments:
Melanin,carotene,oxyhemoglobin, deoxehemoglobin.
Oxyhemolobin
bright red pigment dominates in arteries and capillaries
Deoxyhemoglobin
deoxygenated darker, bluer pigment in cutaneous tissues gives skin bluish cast cyanosis
Carotene
yellow pigment in subcutaneous fat and heavly keratinzed plams & soles
Melanin
brownish pigment, genetically determined and increased by sunlight
Two types of hair and describe
Vellus:short fine,unpigmented
Terminal: coarser thicker more conspicuous ex.scalp, eyebrows
Lunula
whitish moon on end of nail plate
What is the normal angle between the proximal nail fold and the nail plate?
Less than 180 degrees
Eccrine sweat glands
open directly to skin surface help control temp, widely distributed
apocrine sweat glands
mainly in axillary and genital regions, usually open to hair follicles, stimulated by stress
Causes of generalized itching
w/o obvious reasons:
dry skin, aging,lice pregnancy,uremia,jaundice,
leukemia,drug reaction
Arising in lowest or basal level of epidermis 80% of skin Ca, shinny, translucent,slow growing,rarely metastasize
Basal cell carcinoma
upper dermal layer Ca,16% this type,crusted,scaly,red
inflammed or ulcerated can metastasize
Squamous cell carcinoma
arising from melanocytes,4% of skin Ca this type,most lethal
Melanoma
What is lifetime risk for invasive melanoma and non invasive melanoma?
invasive: 1 in 65
non-invasive 1 in 37
True/ False
Mortality rate for melanoma are highest among white males
3.6%
ABCDE for melanomas
Asymmetry
Borders(irregular)
Color(change)
Diameter > 6mm or different from others
Elevation or enlargement
Which is the most harmful UV to skin?
UV-B most common cause of skin cancer(UV-C is most carcinogenic but is blocked by ozone.)
What are the effects of UV-A rays?
photoaging
Yellow coloring that accopmanies high levels of carotene (palms and soles)
Cartenemia
Hair loss diffuse, patchy, or total
Alopecia
Most common location for decubitus ulcers
Sacrum,ischial tuberosites,greater trochanters, and heels
Pressure related ,intact skin, temp changes,consistancy(firm,boggy), color (red,blue)
Stage I decubitus (pressure)ulcer
Partial thickness ski loss or ulceration involving epidermis,dermis or both
Stage II decubitus (pressure)ulcer
Full thickness skin loss,damage or necrosis of subcutaneous tissue,may extend to but not through muscle
Stage III decubitus (pressure) ulcer
Full thickness, skin loss,destruction, tissue necrosis,or damage to muscle bone or supporting structures
Stage IV decubitus ulcer