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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what causes occasional insomnia
stress and worry
what causes persistant insomnia
there is an underlying cause that must be treated

POSSIBLE CAUSES:
general panic disorder
depression
pain
what stage of sleep has hypnic myoclonia
stage 1
what are the properties of stage 1 sleep
easily awakened
hypnic myoclonia
slow eye movement
what stage are brain waves slower but are interspersed with sleep spindles
stage 2
what stages is it hard to wake someone up from
stages 3 and 4
what are the properties of stage 3
no eye movement, slow delta waves
what are the properties of stage 4
no eye movements, mostly slow delta waves
what are the properties of REM sleep
rapid eye movement
limbs paralyzed
rapid, irregular, shallow breathing
increased heart rate and blood pressure
can't regulate temperature
what happens if awakened during REM
may recall dreams
re-enter REM sleep
how do you know you're sleep deprived
fall asleep 5 mins after retiring
drowsy during the day
constantly yawn
what does melatonin do
it makes you sleepy
what is melatonin released from
suprachiasmatic nucleus
what does REM, Deep, and sleep deprivation do to epilepsy
rem prevents
deep promotes
sleep deprivation seizures
what is the frequency asthma and stroke
more frequent at night
what occurs in sleep apnea
as inhalation occurs windpipe collapses
blood O2 decreases and wakes sleeper
sleeper gasps for aid and goes back to sleep
why can't you give hypnotics and sedatives to someone w/ sleep apnea
b/c they may not wake up to breathe
how do you treat someone w/ sleep apnea
CPAP (possitive pressure)
what is RLS
uncontrollable urge to move legs
genetic component
how can you treat RLS
dopamin agonist, opiods if severe
what can aggravate RLS
dopamine antagonist
Ca channel blockers
caffeine
some antidepressants
how do BZD and N-BZD effect sleep
decrease sleep latency and number of awakenings
how do barbituates effect sleep
decrease sleep latency but REBOUND MAY OCCUR IF D/C
how does Ramelteon work
melatonin Rc agonist (GPCR)
reduces latency
where are the melatonin Rc found
MT1 and MT2 found in superchiasmatic nucleus
what are some non prescription sleep aids
diphenhydramine: benadryl
rebound may occur
what is narcolepsy
uncontrollable urge to sleep during the daytime, NOT SLEEP DEFICIT

disturbed sleep at night, especially REM

strong genetic component
what is the major genetic component of narcolepsy
DR2
how do you treat narcolepsy
CNS stimulants (amphetamines, methylphenidate) to block dopamine uptake
Modafinil
Sodium Oxybate