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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the advantages of IV anesthetics
don't require vaporizer equipment or facilities for gas disposal

faster onset than most agents
what are IV anesthetics most commonly used for
induction
what do most IV anesthetics lack
analgesic properties
what barbiturates are commonly used for rapid induction
thiopental and thiamylal
what are the properties of thiopental and thiamylal
produce dose dependent decrease in arterial blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output

potent respiratory depressant

decreases cerebral blood flow, desirable for pt w/ cerebral swelling
what are the drug of choice for premedication
benzodiazepines
what are the properties of benzodiazepines
inadequate sedation for surgical anesthesia

large doses produce anterograde amnesia

slow onset of CNS depressant effects
what are the SE of inhaled anesthetics
depress myocardial or vascular function
which inhaled anesthetics cause a REDUCTION IN CARDIAC OUTPUT
halothane
enflurane
which inhaled anesthetics cause a DECREASE IN SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE
isoflurance
desflurane
sevoflurane
what factors of inhaled anesthetics influence cardiovascular effects
surgical stimulation
intravascular volume status
ventilatory status (hypercapnia attenuates decrease in BP)
duration of anesthesia
what do inhaled anesthetics do to respiratory system
cause dose dependent decrease in tidal volume and increases respiratory rate

increase PaCO2 threshold therefore less responsive to hypoxia

bronchodilatory agents
what do inhaled anesthetics do to uterine smooth muscle
cause uterine relaxation good for fetal surgery
what do inhaled anesthetics do to the brain
increase cerebral blood flow, bad for pt w/ brain trauma
what do inhaled anesthetics do to the kidney
decrease renal blood flow
what do inhaled anesthetics do to the liver
decrease blood flow
what inhaled anesthetic causes nephrotoxicity
enflurane
sevoflurane
what causes malignant hyperthermia
increase release in free calcium
what treats malignant hyperthermia
dantrolene by reducing release of free calcium
what is given w/ benzodiazepines for general anesthesia
opioid analgesia
what are the benefits of opioids
useful in pt where circulatory reserve is limited/impaired cardiac function because DO NOT SUPPRESS CIRCULATION
what are the typical drugs of choice of opioid analgesics
fentanyl and sufentanil
what are the side effects of opioid analgesics
awarness during surgery
laryngeal rigidity, impaired ventillation
postoperative morbidity and increased mortality
what are the benefits of propofol
quick recovery w/ limited postoperative nausea

similar rate of onset to barbituates
what are the side effects of propofol
respiratory depressant
severe acidosis w/ prolonged administration
decrease in BP
pain at site of injection
what benzodiazepines have pain at site of injection
diazepam
lorazepam

NON WATER SOLUBLE
what benzodiazepines don't have pain at site of injection
midazolam

WATER SOLUBLE
what is etomidate used for
induction of anesthesia in pt w/ limited cardiovascular reserve
what are the benefits of etomidate
minimal cardiovascular and respiratory depression

requires use of opioid analgesics, NO ANALGESIC EFFECTS
what are the side effects of etomidate
pain of injection
myoclonic activity
N/V
repease use can cause hypotension and electrolyte imbalance
what is the only IV anesthetic that has both anesthetic and analgesic properties
kentamine
what IV anesthetic is related to PCP therefore has a high potential for abuse and acts at the NMDA glutamate Rc
kentamine
what are the properties of Kentamine
cardiovascular and cerebrovascular stimulant

contraindicated w/ head trauma