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389 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Carbohydrates
CnH2nOn
disaccharide, polysaccharide
U:dehydration D:hydrolysis
monosaccharide
Lipids
3 fatty acids molecules and a glycerol backbone
chief means of food storage in animals
release more E than anything else
provide insulation and protection
Phospholipids
glycerol, two fatty acids,
phosphate group, nitrogen containing alcohol
and cephalin
Waxes
Ester of fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols
Ex: skin, fur, leaves of higher plants
Steroids
3 fused cyclohexane rings 1 fused cyclopentane ring
Ex: Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen, corticosteroid
Carotenoids
produce colors in plants or animals
Ex: Carotenes, xanthophylls
Porphyrins
four joined pyrrole rings
Ex: Heme+Fe = hemoglobin
Proteins(composition)
made of CHONPS
1 structure: a.a. sequence
2 structure: a helices b-pleated sheets
Structural proteins
Physical support of a cell or tissue
Extra( cartilage, tendon, bone) or Intracellular(proteins)
Ex: fibrous scleroproteins > collagen
Enzymes (rate?, examples)
Increase rate of chemical rxns
ex; amylase, lipase ATPase
albumins and globulins
Transport proteins
Carriers of important materials
Ex: hemoglobin/cytochromes carry oxygen/electrons
albumins and globulins
Antibodies
Immunoglobulins(Igs)
Bind to foreign particles(antigens)
including disease-causing organisms
1) attract other cells(leukocytes) to phagocytize antigen
2) cause antigens to agglutinate(form clump) and removed by phagocytic cells
Simple proteins
composed of amino acids
Hormones
proteins that function as chemical messenger
Ex: insulin, acth
Conjugated proteins
protein fraction + non protein fraction
Lipoproteins
protein bound to lipid
Glycoproteins
protein bound to carbohydrates
Chromoproteins
proteins bound to pigmented molecules
Metalloproteins
proteins complexed with a metal ion
Nucleoproteins
proteins associated with nucleic acids
Enzymes II
specific to substrate; active site
Induced fit> lock and key theory
conformation of active site changes
lower activation E; unchanged, not consumed, no deltaG change
Enzymes optimal conditions
optimal temperature, pH
high temperature denatures
high concentration high rate then reach Vmax rxn becomes constant
Reversible rxns
Enzyme activity
hydrolysis (break down) dehydration (synthesize)
Cofactors
nonprotein molecules
Ex: metal cations, organic groups
strong/covalent bonds with proteins
= prosthetic groups
Coenzyme
specific type of cofactor.
not synthesized by body
usually found in diet
Nucleic acids
contain CHONP
polymers of nucleotides
DNA and RNA
Cell theory
All livings things composed of cells
basic unit of life
arise from previous cells
carry genetic information in the form of DNA
Magnification
increase in apparent size of object
Resolution
differentiation between two closely situated objects
DNA
2' C : C-H; 3' C: dna pol binds; 5' C: phosphate group; thymine
can self replicate, basis of heredity, mutable
deoxyribose (sugar),nitrogenous base,phosphate group
Compound Light microscope
Total magnification:
magnification eyepiece * magnification objective
Diaphragm
controls the amount of light passing
Adjustment
focuses the image
coarse:roughly / fine:sharply
Phase contrast microscopy
study live cells
differences in refractive index
Electron microscopy
beam of e-
1000x than light microscope
tissues fixed, sectioned
and stained(heavy metals)
Centrifugation
based on density
denser particles will sink
at the bottom
Fluid mosaic model
phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
protein channels(small particles)
carrier proteins(larger proteins)
Nucleus
Contains chromosomes ( DNA+histones)
nucleolus: ribosomal RNA(rRNA)
Ribosomes
Protein production
free and some bound to ER
two subunits(one large, one small)
four binding sites(mRNA, A,P and E sites)
Endoplasmic reticulum
transport of molecules
throughout/out cell
Golgi apparatus
modifies, repackages and distributes vesicles
Mitochondria
Aerobic respiration
Energy production
Cytoplasm
cyclosis (streaming mvt within cell)
Vacuole
transport and storage of materials
more likely found in plants than in animals
Centrioles
involved in spindle formation
in animals but not in plants
direct separation of chromosomes during cell division
Cytoskeleton
supports, maintains and functions in cell motility.
microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
Microtubules
hollow rods made of tubulin
provide framework for organelle mvt
primary constituent of centrioles, cilia and flagella
Cilia/Flagella
cell motility and cytoplasmic movement
special arrangement of microtubules
Microfilaments
rods of actin, cell movement and support
cause indentation of cell membrane at metaphase plate(+ myosin)
Plant vs. Animal cells
no centrosome
presence of cell wall(cellulose)
chloroplasts
Many vacuoles vs. one central vacuole (plant)
Osmosis
hypertonicty(cell shrivel) vs hypotonicity(cell burst)
Facilitative/ Simple diffusion
down concentration gradient
no energy required
facil.(carrier) diff.(no carrier)
Intracellular circulation
brownian mvt(mvt due to kinetic E)
cyclosis(circular motion cytoplasm)
ER(passageway from nuclear membrane to cell surface)
Diffusion
cells are in direct contact with external environment
Circulatory system
cells far apart
use vessels to transport fluids
Karyokinesis
nuclear division
Cytokinesis
cell division
cleavage furrow
Interphase
Genome replicates
Prophase
chromosomes condense
spindles form
Metaphase
chromosome align
Anaphase
sister chromatids separate
Telophase
new nuclear membranes form
spindle disappears
chromosomes uncoil
Plant cells(vs. animal cells)
lack centrioles
division occurs through the formation of a cell plate
Meiosis
sex cells
haploid # (1N)
Mitosis
somatic cells
diploid # preserved (2N)
Synapsis
homologous chromosomes intertwine
tetrad
crossing-over occurs
Anaphase I(meiosis)
disjunction(homologous pairs separate and pulled to opposite poles)
provides genetic variation
Asexual reproductive mechanisms
fission, budding, parthogenesis, regeneration, asexual reproduction in plants
Fission
equal DNA content/size/cytoplasm
ex: bacteria, amoeba, paramecia, algae
Budding
unequal size/DNA
ex: hydra, yeast
Regeneration
regrowth of limbs or injured body part
as long as the central disk is present
hydra, starfish
Parthenogenesis
dvpt of unfertilized eggs
ex: male bees vs. worker/queen bees
Asexual reproduction (spore)
Alternation of generation
sporophyte(diploid) and gametophyte(haploid)
Vegetative propagation
undifferentiated tissues(meristems) can develop into new plants
artificial vs. natural
Natural vegetative propagation
Bulbs(form + bulbs; tulips, daffodils)
Tubers(underground stems> mature plants)
Runners(stems above/along ground> new roots and upright stems)
Rhizomes(undergound stems>new upright stems)
Artificial vegetative propagation
cut(new roots in water or moist ground
auxins accelerate root formation)
layering(take root when bent and covered with soil)
Connect cambiums of two closely related plants (scion and stock)
Sexual vs Asexual
two parents involved, genetic uniqueness
Sexual reproduction requirements
functional gametes
fertilization(conjugation)
development of zygote
Gametes
produced in gonads
male(testes) vs. female(ovaries)
both(hermaphrodites)
Spermatogenesis
occurs in the seminiferous tubules
spermatogonia>meiosis>4 haploid sperms
head(nucleus),tail(flagella), neck+body(mitochondria)
Oogenesis
occurs in the ovaries
diploid cell>meiosis>single mature egg, polar bodies
Mature ovum
most of cytoplasm, RNA, organelles and nutrients needed by a developing embryo.
Fertilization
union sperm nuclei and egg to form zygote
External fertilization
reproduce in water(vertebrates)
many eggs laid (no direct passage sperm to egg)
Internal fertilization
terrestrial vertebrates(direct passage sperm to egg cell)
early dvpt outside mother's body> many eggs layed
parental care= 1/ # eggs
Pathway of sperm
STEVEN UP
seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferesens, ejaculatory duct, nothing, urethra, penis
Testes
site of production of testosterone
Spermatogenesis
spermatogonia(2N)> 1 spermatocytes (2N)>2 spermatocytes (N)> spermatids(N)> spermatozoa(N)
Ovaries
1000s follicles
Follicles
produce estrogen
provide food, protection to immature ovum
mature during follicular phase
Immature ovum
released into abdominal cavity
drawn into nearby oviduct
LH
its surge triggers ovulation
Estrogen
steroid hormones necessary for female maturation
responsible for thickening the endometrium(uterine wall)
Progesterone
secreted by corpus luteum
stimulates dvpt and maintenance of endometrial walls
Menstrual cycle(follicular phase)
anterior pituitary secretes FSH
> promotes the dvpt of the follicle
Menstrual phase(ovulation)
mature ovarian follicle burst/ ovum released
peak in estrogen>LH surge>ovulation
Menstrual phase(luteal phase)
LH induces rupture of follicle into corpus luteum
Corpus luteum
secretes estrogen and progesterone
Progesterone
causes glands of the endometrium to mature and produce secretions that prepare it for embryo implantation
Menstrual phase(menstruation)
if egg not fertilized corpus luteum atrophies
drop in estrogen and progesterone causes endometrium to slough off
if egg fertilized placenta produces hCG which maintains corpus luteum
estrogen and progesterone still produced, maintain uterus until placenta produces the two hormones
Oogenesis
production of female gametes
primary oocytes>meiosis I>secondary oocyte+polar body>meiosis II triggered by spermatozoa>ovum+ second polar body
Oocyte cell membrane
two layers
1st corona radiata
2nd zone pellucida
Fertilization(path of sperm)
sperm(viable for 1-2 days)
vaginal canal>cervix>uterus>fallopian tube>penetrates corona radiata then zona pellucida(using acrosome) fuses with egg
Acrosomal process
triggers a cortical reaction
results in formation of a fertilization membrane (prevents multiple fertilizations)
release of Ca2+ increase metabolic rate
Monozygotic twins
zygote splits into two embryos
if at two-cell step separate placentas and chorions
if at blastula stage same placenta, one amnion
if incomplete division, siamese twins
Result of an indeterminate cleavage(cleavage where the cells can develop into a complete organism.
Dizygotic twins
two ova released fertilized by two different sperm
Sexual reproduction plants
alternation of generation (diploid & gametophyte)
sporophytes(2N)>meiosis>spore(1N)>gametophyte(1N)>mitosis>gametes(N)>fertilization>sporophyte(2N)
Mosses
gametophyte dominant generation
Ferns
sporophyte dominant generation
Flower(male and female)
male: stamen(fap: filament, anther, pollen grains)
female: pistil(soso: stigma, style, ovary, ovules)
then petal, sepal, receptacle
Anther
produce monoploid spores which develop into pollen grains
Epycotyl(seed formation)
precursor of upper stem and leaves
cotyledons
seed leaves. Dicot seeds have 2 while monocot seeds 1
Hypocotyl
develops into lower stem and root
Endosperm
grows and feed embryo
absorbed by cotyledon in dicots
Seed coat
develops from outer covering of ovule
Seed
embryo+seed coat, formed in the ovary walls
usually inside fruit, dispersed by air, water, animals
germinates under proper conditions of T, O2, moisture
Meristem
undifferentiated tissue which undergo active cell reproduction
apical: growth in length(tips roots, stems)
lateral:or cambium (lateral growth)
between/can differentiate into xylem and phloem
Stomach
contains HCL and enzyme pepsin
Liver
stores nutrients
detoxifies chemicals
forms urea
produces glycogen/bile
Bile
detergent that emulsifies fat.
produced in liver, stored in gallbaldder
Pancreas
secretes pancreatic juices
secretes sodium bicarbonate(neutralizes chyme)
Large intestine
water reabsorption
caecum, rectum
Genes
composed of DNA
located on chromosomes
Allele
alternative form of a gene
Phenotype
physical manifestation of the genetic makeup
genotype
genetic makeup of an individual
Mendel's Law of Dominance
dominant vs recessive allele
Monohybrid cross
one trait
Punett square
used to determine ratio of different genetic combinations
Testcross
cross used to determine an unknown genotype with 100 accuracy
Ax crossed with aa.
Dihybrid cross
two traits
crossing over
Mendel's law of independent assortment
Incomplete dominance
Red with white gives
Red(1) pink(2) white(1)
Sex linked
Male can't directly pass it to male offspring
Drosophila melanogaster(advantages)
reproduces often/in large numbers
few chromosomes large, easily recognizable in shape and size
mutations occur frequently
Environmental factors(trait genetics)
factors such as temperature can affect species
ex: crooked vs straight wings low vs. high T
Genetic problems(non-disjunction)
failure of 2 homologous pairs (meiosis I) to separate or sister chromatids (meiosis II)
ex: trisomy 21 Down's syndrome
Genetic problems(chromosomal breakage)
spontaneous or induced by environmental factors
ex: mutagenic agents, X-rays
Mutagenic agents
induce mutations
cosmic/X/ultraviolet rays, radioactivity, chemical compounds(mustard gas, colchicine)
sometimes carcinogenic
Mutation types
addition, deletion, substitution
Genetic disorders
phenylketonuria(PKU)
disease, inability to produce proper enzyme for phenylalanine metabolism
sickle cell anemia
defective hemoglobin, less oxygen carried
Purines
Adenine and guanine(A G)
nitrogenous base
two rings GUPTA
Pyrimidines
cytosine thymine
nitrogenous base
one ring
DNA(3D shape)
double stranded helix
sugar & phosphate outside,base inside
A-T: 2 H bonds; C-G 3 H bds (Greece)
Watson-Crick DNA model
DNA replication semiconservative?
new daughter double helix has one strand from parent helix and one newly synthesized one
Genetic code
composed of AUCG
20 amino acids, codons
universal, degenerate(some codons code for same amino acid)
RNA
nitrogenous base(uracil instead of thymine), phophate and ribose(2'C:OH)
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
mRNA
carries complementary of template strand from nucleus to ribosomes
monocistronic: one strand codes for one polypeptide
tRNA
found in cytoplasm, brings a. a. to ribosomes
recognizes a. a. and mRNA codon
explained by 3D structure 1 end contains 3-nucleotide sequence (anticodon) and the other is site of a.a. attachment
one type of tRNA for each a.a (40 total)
rRNA
structural component of ribosomes
most abundant
synthesized in nucleus
Aminoacyl- tRNA synthetase
Each a.a has its own enzyme
active site binds to a.a. and corresponding tRNA
Polypeptide synthesis
ribosome scans mRNA binds to AUG
1)elongation hydrogen bonds mRNA in A site and anticodon
2) translocation uncharged tRNA removed
3) terminates with termination codons
Many ribosomes can translate a single mRNA(polyribosome)
Newly formed protein
assumes characteristic native conformation determined by a.a sequence
its polypeptides chain can form inter/extra molecular cross bridges with disulfide bonds
Cytoplasmic DNA(bacteria)
in mitochondria, chloroplasts, plasmid influence nuclear genes
can provide resistance(ex: plasmids)
Bacterial genome
nucleiod(circular chromosome) + plasmids
Episomes
pieces of DNA sometimes found in plasmids
can integrate bacterial genome
Genetic variance(bacteria)
provided through transformation, conjugation and transduction
as opposed to binary fission where there is no diversity
Transformation
plasmid incorporated into bacterial chromosome through recombination
inheritable genetic combinations
Conjugation
Sexual mating, transfer of genetic material between two temporarily joined bacteria
donor(+) recipient (-)
Bacteria must have sex factors(ex:F factor)
Hfr cells can recombine with bacterial chromosomes
Transduction
fragments of bacterial chromosome packaged into viral progeny
virions infect new bacteria and introduce new genetic material through recombination with host DNA
Recombination
occurs by breakage and rearrangements of adjacent regions of DNA
organisms carrying different genes or alleles for same trait are crossed
Operon
promoter, operator, structural genes
Operator
sequence of non-transcribable DNA
repressor binding site
Regulator
codes for repressor that binds to operator prevents transcription
Inducible system
inducer binds to repressor
repressor can;t bind to operator transcription occurs
inducer is substrate so if [substr.] absent synthesis is negligible
Repressible system
need repressor+co-repressor(structural genes/end products) to bind to operator to stop transcription
If co-repressor is deficient
constitutive operons
Bacteriophage
virus that attack bacteria
protein coat, nucleic acid, tail sheath/fibers(use to bind)
Bacteriophage(lytic cycle)
cause bacterials cell to burst
virions that emerge are called virulent
In cell culture, plaque(clear space) where bacteria lawn was previously present.
Bacteriohage (lysogenic cycle)
bacteriophage becomes integrated in bacterial genome in harmless form (provirus)
bacteria(+integrated virus) becomes resistant to further infection
can reenter lytic cycle as a result of environmental circumstances
Cleavage(process)
Morulation>Blastulation>Gastrulation>Neurulation
Morulation
ball of embryonic cells
Blastulation
morula develops a fluid-filled cavity
called blastocoel that develops into blastula
Gastrulation
blastula develops into three-layered structure
Ectoderm(dating) face, skin, anal canal, nails, nervous system
Endoderm: epithelial linings of the digestive and respiratory tracts, pancreas, thyroid, bladder lining, parts of liver
Mesoderm: circulatory system, musxoskeletal system,excretory system, gonads, connective tissue throughout the body, portions of digestive and respiratory organs
Neurulation
develop into a rudimentary nervous system
neural folds
>neural tube>brain and spinal cord(CNS)
>neural crest>peripheral nervous system
Chorion
gas exchange, moist
Allantois
respiration, excretion, blood vessels to transport O2, CO2, water, salt and nitrogenous waste.
Amnion
amniotic fluid provides aqueous environment
protects embryo from shock
Yolk Sac
Food
Non-placental internal development
without placenta (ex: marsupials)
exchange of food and oxygen between young and mother limited
Placental internal development
placenta+umbilical cord
Placenta+umbilical cord
outgrowths of four extra-embryonic membranes:
amnion, chorion, allantois, yolk sac.
Gestation
three trimesters
1st: fetus 9cm brain, eyes, gonads, limbs, liver, skeleton
2nd: 30-36 cm face, toes, fingers
3rd: antibodies
Protozoans
movement of gases and nutrients through simple diffusion
Intracellular digestion
VS. coelenterates>extracellular digestion,nerve net
Cnidarians(coelenterates)
two cell thick
cells are in direct contact with either internal or external environment
No need for a specialized circulatory system
Arthropods
open circulatory systems(one way, two opening digestive tract)
interstitial fluid in direct contact with body tissues
through dorsal vessel and into sinuses(uric acid>malphigian tubules)
like annelids but with specialized sensory organs
Annelids(earthworms)
Closed circulatory system (one way, two opening digestive tract)
aortic loops connect dorsal to ventral vessel
primitive central nervous system with fused ganglia
Cardiovascular system
four chambered heart, network of blood vessels and blood
Blood pump(path)
aorta>arteries>arterioles>capillaries>
venules>veins
Capillary walls
exchange of nutrients, cellular waste product, gases occurs (diffusion)
enzymes, hormones
Heart(right side)
pumps deoxygenated blood into pulmonary circulation(lungs)
Heart(left side)
pumps oxygenated blood into systemic circulation
Atria
Upper chambers of the heart(thin wall)
Ventricles
Lower chambers of the heart(extremely muscular)
generates force that propels system regulation
pumps against a higher resistance
Atriovascular valves
between atria and ventricles
prevent backflow into the atria
Tricuspid valve
valve on the right side of the heart
three cusps
Mitral valve
valve on the left side of the heart
two cusps
Semilunar valves
three cusps
aortic valve(between the left ventricle and aorta)
pulmonic valve(between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery)
Heart pumping cycle
systole and diastole; make up heartbeat
Systole
period during which ventricles contract
Diastole
period of cardiac muscle relaxation
blood drains into all four chambers
Cardiac output
total volume of blood pumped by left ventricle per minute
heart rate*stroke volume(volume pumped out of the left ventricle per contraction)
Contraction(mechanism)
sinoatrial node(SA)>impulse>atrioventricular node(AV)> bundle of His(AV bundle))
>Purkinje fibers(walls of both ventricules)
Cardiac contraction(control)
originated and regulated by the sinoatrial node(the pacemaker: SA node)
Autonomous nervous system
modifies rate of heart contraction
Parasympathetic system
innervates heart via the vagus nerve
causes decrease in heart rate
Sympathetic system
innervates heart via the cervical and upper thoracic ganglia
increase in heart rate
Adrenal medulla
exert hormonal control via epinephrine(adrenaline)
increase in heart rate, contraction of blood vessels
Three types of blood vessels
arteries, veins, capillaries
Arteries
thick-walled, elastic, muscular vessels
transport oxygenated blood into the system(except pulmonary arteries)
Veins
relatively thin-walled, non-elastic,
conduct deoxygenated blood towards the heart(except pulmonary veins)
Capillaries
thinnest of all three types of vessels
red blood cell go through them single file
Lymphatic system
secondary circulation system distinct from the cardiovascular circulation
vessels, containing interstitial fluid(lymph), run parallel to blood vessels
absorption of fats, joins cardiovascular system at thoracic duct
Interstitial fluid(lymph)
can cross from lymphatic system to cardiac system
keep fluid constant
Lymph nodes
swellings along lymph vessels containing phagocytic cells(leukocytes) that filter(remove/destroy foreign particles and pathogens) lymph
Blood
4-6 liters human body
55% liquid: plasma(nutrients, repiratory gases, hormones, wastes, blood proteins(immunoglobins)
45% cellular components(white/red blood cells, platelets)
Fungi
cell wall made of chitin
eukaryotic, membrane bound organelles
heterotrophs; obtain nutrients by absorption
have filaments called hyphae and the whole thing called mycelium
No centrioles
Erythrocytes
red blood cells/250M hemoglobins(1B oxygen)
hemoglobin+oxygen=oxyhemoglobin
formed in bone marrow(lose nuclei, mitochondria, membranous organelles), circulate for 120 days then phagocytized
higher affinity of O2 than for CO2
Leukocytes
white blood cells
macrophages, lymphocytes
Macrophages
go from blood to tissues
phagocytize foreign material and organisms such as bacteria
Lymphocytes
involved in later immune protection
production of antibodies(B cells)
cytolysis of infected cells(T cells)
humoral and cell-mediated immunity
Platelets
cell fragments, no nuclei
involved in clot formation and wound healing
Clotting
Platelets>release a chemical(when in contact with exposed collagen) >cause agglutination of many platelets(plug)
platelets+damaged tissue>thromboplastin(clotting factor)
Liver>prothrombin+ thromboplastin>thrombin
fibrinogen+thrombin> fibrin
fibrin>coat
Fibrin
threads coat damage area
trap blood cells
Serum
fluid left after blood clotting
Humoral immunity
involves production of antibodies
Cell mediated immunity
cell that combat fungal/bacterial infection
Active immunity(humoral)
production of antibodies during immune response
through vaccination, requires weeks to build up
Vaccination
weakened, inactive or related form of an antigen
Passive immunity(humoral)
transfer of antibodies produced by another individual or organism
short lived, but acquired immediately
ex: maternal antibodies, gamma globulin(blood containing antibodies against hepatitis
Non-specific defense mechanism
skin, mucous-coated epithelia, macrophages, inflammatory response, interferons
Skin
physical barrier against bacterial invasion
pores> sweat( enzyme) tbreaks bacterial cell walls
Mucous-coated epithelia
filter and trap foreign particles
Macrophages
engulf and destroy foreign particles
Inflammatory response
injured blood cells>histamine>blood vessels dilate
>influx of blood+granulocytes>phagocytize foreign material
accompanied by a fever(retards bacterial growth, rise in T)
Interferons
produced by cells under viral attack
prevent spread of virus
interfere with viral replication
Allergic reactions
inappropriate reactions to food and pollen
cause formation of antibodies and release of histamine
Transplants
can be rejected as a result of immune response
immuno-suppressing drug decrease the chance of rejection
ABO blood types
A(antigen A, anti-B), B(antigen B, anti-A, Ab(antigens A and B, no antibodies, universal recipient), O(no antigen, antibodies A, B, universal donor)
Rh factor
another antigen
important in pregnancy
Rh- produces Rh+ antibodies
Rh+ individual affected
ex: fetus, erythroblastosis fetalis
Translocation(plants)
circulation in plants
Stem
primary organ of transport in plants
Vascular bundle
runs up and down the stem
contains xylem, phloem and cambium
Xylem
thick walled(provide rigidity to plant), inside vascular bundle
transport minerals and water up stem
old/inner:heartwood ;new/outer:sapwood
two types: tracheids and vessel cells
Rise of water in xylem
transpiration pull, capillary action, root pressure
Transpirational pull
as water evaporates from leaves created vacuum pulls water up stem
Capillary action
liquid rises up thin tube due to surface tension and interaction tube/liquid
Root pressure
water entering root hairs exerts pressure which pushes water up stem
Phloem
thin walled cells outside of vascular bundle
transport nutrients(carbohydrates produced in leaves) down stem
sieve tube cells and companion cells
Cambium
actively dividing, undifferentiated cells
give rise to phloem and xylem cells
Layers of tree
epidermis>cortex>phloem>cambium>xylem>pith
Pith
storage of nutrients, plant support
Fibrovascular bundle
absorb materials through root hairs
anchor plants, storage for energy reserves
Root hairs
specialized cell at the root
increase surface area for absorption of water and minerals from soil.
Endocrine glands
synthesize and secrete hormones directly into circulatory system
Exocrine glands
secrete substances transported by ducts
Adrenal glands
on top of kidneys
adrenal cortex+adrenal medulla
ACTH
>adrenal cortex>corticosteroids
control release of adrenal cortical hormones
Corticosteroids
mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids,
cortical sex hormones
Glucocorticoids
cortisol,cortisone
raise blood/plasma glucose levels
protein breakdown, gluconeogenesis,
decrease protein synthesis
Mineralcorticoids
aldosterone
increase in plasma levels of sodium and potassium
rise in blood volume and blood pressure
Cortical sex hormones
androgen
masculinizing effects
Adrenal medulla
>epinephrine, norepinephrine (catelochamines) both neurotransmitters
conversion of glycogen in liver and muscles
increase in the basal metabolic rate
Anterior pituitary gland
FLAT:tropic
FSH,LH,ACTH,TSH
PIG:direct
Prolactin, GH
Tropic hormones(anterior pituitary)
stimulate endocrine glands to release hormones
TSH: thyroid gland to synthesize thyroxin
ACTH:adrenal gland to synth. glucocorticoids
Hardy-Weinberg
random mating, no natural selection/(em)migration/mutations, large population
p vs p^2
p frequency of allele
p^2: frequency of individuals
Law of Segregation
two alleles per trait
separate during gametogenesis (meiosis) homologous
pass on a recessive or dominant allele
Law of Independent assortment
non-homologous chromosomes separate independently
Glycolysis
glucose>pyruvate
NAD+>NADH (2ATP produced)
Fermentation
no aerobic respiration, no more ATP produced
pyruvate>ethanol(yeast+CO2) or lactic acid(muscle cells)
in cytoplasm
Pyruvate decarboxylation
pyruvate> acetyl-CoA
in mitochondrial matrix
cost 2 ATP
Krebs cycle
acetyl-CoA>4 CO2
in mitochondrial matrix
2 ATP produced
ETC/oxidative phosphorylation
34 ATP produced
across inner mitochondrial membrane
Lamarck theory
use and disuse
inheritance of acquired characteristics
Darwin theory
inheritable genetic variations
more offspring>competition
survival of the fittest
Speciation(favorable traits perpetuated)
mutation(causes variation)
Rise in blood glucose levels
epinephrine(adrenal medulla)
GH, glucorticoids, glucagon
Direct hormones
directly stimulate target organs
GH, prolactin, endorphin
GH
promotes bone muscle growth
deficiency>dwarfism
overproduction>gigantism(acromegaly)
Prolactin
stimulates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands
Posterior Pituitary
does not synthesize hormones
stores and releases oxytocin and ADH
Oxytocin
increase strength & frequency of muscle contractions
>milk secretions in mammary glands(suckling)
ADH(vasopressin)
antidiuretic hormone
promotes water reabsorption and increased blood volume
Hypothalamus
above pituitary gland
act on PG through negative feedback and inhibiting/releasing hormones via portal vein
produce oxytocin and ADH
controls sex drive, thirst, hunger, water balance, blood pressure, temperature regulation
GnRH
example of releasing hormone
Thyroid
important for growth, neurological development, increase metabolic rate
produce thyroid hormones and calcitonin
Hypothyroidism
slowed heart rate, fatigue
cretinism(in infants) mental retardation, short stature, obesity
Hyperthyroidism
overstimulation, increased metabolic rate, excessive sweat, weight loss
bulge in both(goiter)
Calcitonin
decrease Ca2+ levels in blood
cause retention of calcium by bone
VS. parathyroid
Pancreas
exocrine and endocrine organ(islets of Langer hans: glucagon and insulin)
Glucagon
protein degradation(gluconeogenesis)
increase blood glucose levels
Insulin
decrease blood glucose levels
VS. glucagon
underproduction>diabetes mellitus(hyperglycemia)
Parathyroid glands
VS. calcitonin
increase blood Ca2+ levels(volume)
cause release of calcium from bone
Kidney
produce renin>angiotensin>angiotensin I> angiotensin II> adrenal cortex> aldosterone> absorption of sodium> increase in water
increase in blood volume and pressure
Gastrointestinal hormones
stomach>gastrin>gastrin glands> HCl
Small intestine
small intestine>secretin>pancreas>sodium bicarbonate> neutralizes chyme
small intestine>cholecystokinin>contraction gallbladder>bile release
duodenum, ileum, jejunum
Pineal gland
secretes melatonin
Melatonin
regulation of circadian rhythms(24 hours), regulated by envrtal light/dark cycles
skin lightening
VS. MSH(skin darkening)
Hormones
2 groups
peptide hormones vs. steroid hormones
Peptide hormones
specific surface recptors
act via secondary messengers
short action
Steroid hormones
intracellular receptors
hormone/.receptor binding to DNA
promotes transcription of specific genes
long action
Auxins
involved in plant growth pattern
phototropism and geotropism
stimulate production of new xylem
Phototropism
shoots of plants bend toward light sources
auxin supply reduced on side exposed to light
ex: indoleacetic acid
Geotropism
negative vs. positive
negative: away from gravity
positive: toward gravity(side with more auxins penalized)
Gibberellins
stimulate the production of new phloem cells by cambium
inhibit formation of new roots
Kinins
promote cell division
work best in conjunction with auxin
Ethylene
stimulates fruit ripening
aging
Inhibitors
block cell division (VS. kinins)
maintain dormancy of buds and seed of plants in winter and autumn
ex: abscisic acid
Anti-auxins
regulate activity of auxins
Bone
organic portion(proteins, carbohydrates..) +inorganic (calcium, phophate...)
Bone(types)
two types
compact(hard) + spongy(spicules)
Cartilage
softer than bone
made of chondrin(produced by chondrocytes)
no blood or lymph vessels
Muscle
smooth, cardiac and skeletal
smooth, cardiac, skeletal
one nuclei, not striated, involuntary(smooth)
one nuclei, striated, involuntary(cardiac)
many nuclei, striated, voluntary(skeletal)
Ossification
intramembranous(undifferentiated cells, skull) vs. endochondral(cartilage template, long bones)
Axial skeleton
skull, rib cage, vertebral column
Appendicular skeleton
arms, legs, pectoral and pelvic girdles
Bone structure
long bone(diaphysis(marrow cavity))
and rounded cells(epiphysis(spongy bone))
Epiphyseal plate
site where longitudinal growth occurs(cartilage to bone)
between diaphysis and epiphysis
Compact bone(canal)
Haversian canals along bone
(blood, lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue)
Osteon
Haversian canal+lamellae
Lacunae
host osteocytes
connected to Haversian canals through canaliculi
Red marrow
blood and immune cells(stem cells0
Yellow marrow
store fat
Bone remodeling
bone resorption and bone formation
Osteoblasts
bone formation
produce collagen(>bones)
regulated by parathyroid gland
Osteoclasts
bone resorption
break down bone
regulated by osteoblasts
Joints(three)
immovable, partly movable, synovial
low to high flexibility
Muscles
form antagonistic pairs
when one contracts the other relaxes
Bone marrow
produce immune cells
lymphocytes, monocytes, leukocytes, B and T cells
Thymus
secretes thymosin
stimulates pre-T cells to mature
Spleen
storage for blood, filters lymph and blood
Immune response
T cell response vs. B cell response
T cell response
cellular response
direct action of T cells
B cell response
humoral response
production of anitbodies
T cells
cytotoxic, suppressor, helper
memory T cells
mature in Thymus
Cytotoxic T cells
destroy cells that are infected by a pathogen recognized by T cells
helper T cells
coordinate the immune response of other cells by secreting lymphokines (interleukins)
Suppressor T cells
regulates T and B cells to decrease activity
B cells
Igs, memory B cells
mature in Bone marrow
MHC class I
proteins on the surface of all cells
MHC class II
proteins on the surface of immune cells(macrophages, B cells and T cells)
Antibodies
light and heavy chain joined by disulfide bonds
constant vs. variable region(binds to antigen)
Epitope
variable region on the surface of an antigen
Immune response
primary vs secondary response
after first exposure to a antigen the immune system reacts faster when it reinfects
Immunological memory
provided by memory cells after first exposure to an antigen
survive a long time
Small intestine
digestion of fats
absorption of carbohydrates
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 12H2O+ sunlight> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

opposite of respiration
Photsynthesis(light reactions)
take place in grana
light energy produces ATP
oxygen and NADPH produced
Photosynthesis(Calvin cycle)
takes place in stroma
use ATP and NADPH to fix carbon dioxide into organic material
light not required
Inhalation
diaphragm contracts and flattens out, chest cavity increases
external intercostal muscles contract >rib cage up and out
Exhalation
diaphragm/external intercostal muscles relaxe, curves upward
chest cavity decreases, air pushed out
External vs internal intercostal
antagonistic muscles found in the chest
Lung
surrounded by two membranes
parietal(outer) and visceral plate(inner)
in between interpleural space
INterpleural space
its puncture causes the lungs to collapse
Ventilation
regulated by medulla oblongata(respiratory centers)
Carbon dioxide(pH)
decreases pH reacts with water to form carbonic acid
Surfactant
substance that prevents alveolar collapse
Shunts in fetus
foramen ovale(right atrium and left atrium)
ductus arteriosus(pulmonary arteries and aorta)
Comparative embryology
early in development different organisms have very similar set of genes(homeobox)
Comparative biochemistry
metabolism of different organisms based on same complex compounds
similarities in the genetic code
Vestigial structures
structures or organs that seem to serve no useful function
Convergent evolution
convergent:analogous structures
selection pressure and ecological roles
Divergent evolution
divergent: homologous structures
similar structures evolved from common ancestor
Genetic drift
change in gene pool due to chance
the smaller the population the greater the impact
Founder effect
a form of genetic drift
a small subset of population becomes isolated from original population
Cerebellum
coordination and equilibrium
Consumers
first consumer eats producers
then n+1 consumer eat n consumer(n>=1)
Producers
autotrophic plants and chemosynthetic bacteria
Nephron
removes urea from body
Epoglottis
prevents food from going into trachea
Prokaryotes(bacteria)
cell wall, cytosol, nucleiod(DNA), flagella, ribosome, cell membrane
Gram positive cell
peptidoglycan
Gram negative cell
LPS(lipopolysaccharide)
Photoheterotrophs
use light to generate energy
must obtain carbon in organic form
Virus
genetic material surrounded by protein coat
Karyogamy
nuclear fusion
happens in fungi
Endospores
may germinate into vegetative cells under the appropriate conditions
do not degrade compounds to generate energy/ synthesize molecules
core wall permits extreme heat resistance
Complement system
forms a membrane complex that results in cell lysis
IgA
prevent colonization of mucosal surfaces
IgM
opsonizing antibody(agglutination, binds to antigen for phagocytosis)
IgG
crosses the placenta
IgE
hypersensitivity response
Expressivity
severity of a disease when an individual has the recessive harmful type
Aerotolerant
grow equally throughout the tube
Bacteria(growth pattern)
lag phase, log phase, stationary phase, death phase
Exotoxin vs. endotoxin
exotoxin: produce by both gram+/-
cell
endotoxin:produced only by gram- cells
Non-cyclic vs. cyclic elctron flow
cyclic: only photosystem I
non-cyclic: reactions of photosystems 1 &2
both in light reactions
Leaf(adaptations)
waxy cuticle:reduce transpiration, conserve water
palisade:elongated chloroplasts
spongy layer
guard cells
Guard cells
open/close stomata
open during day to admit CO2
close at night to prevent transpiration