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15 Cards in this Set

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Blastulation begins when the morula develops a fluid-filled cavity called the _______, which becomes a hollow sphere of cells called the ______.
blastocoel; blastula
The ____ is the stage of the embryo that implants in the uterus.
blastula
Once implanted in the uterus, cell migrations transform the single-cell layer of the blastula into a 3-layered structure called a _______.
gastrula (these three primary germ layers are responsible for the differential development of the tissues, organs and systems of the body at later stages of growth)
The three primary germ layers in the gastrula are:
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
What do the ectoderm cells differentiate into?
integument (epidermis, hair, nails, and epithelium of nose, mouth, and anal canal), lens of the eye, retina, and nervous system
What do the endoderm cells differentiate into?
epithelial linings of the digestive and respiratory tracts (including lungs) and parts of the liver, pancreas, thyroid, and bladder lining
What do the mesoderm cells differentiate into?
musculoskeletal system, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, connective tissue throughout body, and portions of the digestive and respiratory organs
________ cells give rise to many components of the peripheral nervous system, including the sensory ganglia, autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla, and Schwann cells.
neural crest cells
Internal development follows the neurulation process and includes:
organogenesis, growth, and gametogenesis
By the end of gastrulation, regions of the germ layers begin to develop into a rudimentary nervous system; this process is called
neurulation
______ develop in the mother without a placenta
marsupials
By the end of the first trimester:
most of the organs have formed, the brain is fairly developed, and the embryo is referred to as a fetus
By the end of the second trimester:
has grown a tremendous amount, begins to move around, face appears human, and its toes and fingers elongate
During the third trimester:
further brain development and continued rapid growth, antibodies are transported from mother to fetus; by the end, the growth rate slows and the fetus becomes less active bc it has less room to move
Which developmental stage has the greatest nuclear-to-cytoplasmic material ratio?
the blastula