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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Is glugagon secreted in response to high or low glucose concentrations?
low
Where is water not permeable in what part of the nephron?
Ascending loop of Henle
What is the net production of both ATP and NADH in glycolysis?
2 each
Is glucose oxidized or reduced?
oxidized
Is glycolysis an aerobic or anaerobic process?
anaerobic
Where does the Krebs (citric acid) cycle take place in cellular respiration?
mitochondrial matrix
Where does glycolysis take place?
cytosol
Where does the formation of coenzyme A take place in cellular respiration?
mitochondrial matrix
Where in the cell does ATP synthesis take place in cellular respiration?
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Does glucagon raise or lower blood sugar concentrations
raise
Where is oxytocin produced?
hypothalamus
What does oxytocin do?
Stimulates uterine contractions and mild production
For each molecule of glucose, how many times must the Krebs cycle turn for glucose to be completely oxidized?
twice (1 per pyrivic acid)
Where is oxytocin secreted from?
posterior pituitary
How many acetyl CoA molecules are produced per pyruvic acid?
one
What is the final electron receptor in the electron transport system?
oxygen
In the electron transport system, how many ATP molecules are produced per FADH2?
2
In the electron transport system, how many ATP molecules are produced per NADH?
3 (2 in glycolysis)
In what part of the nephron are glucose, amino acids, and vitamins reabsorbed?
proximal convoluted tubule
What are the three germ layers of the new embryo?
Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm
What develops from the ectoderm? (2)
Nervous system, Epidermis
What develops from the endoderm?
Lungs and GI mucosa, glands, and organs
What develops from the mesoderm?
Muscoskeletal system, circulatory system, excretory system, reproductive system, connective tissues
What are mated in a 'test cross'?
unknown & recessive
What is it called when homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis resulting in 1 or 3 copies of a chromosome?
Nondisjunction
What is the order of embryonic development?
Morula -> Blastulation -> Blastula -> Implantation -> Gastrula -> Gastrulation -> Neurolation
What hormone(s) promote development of ovarian follicles?
FSH & LH
What hormone do follicles secrete?
Estrogen
What causes ovulation
high estrogen levels -> LH surge -> ovulation
What hormone induces the ruptured follicle to develop into the corpus luteum?
LH
What hormone(s) does the corpus luteum secrete?
estrogen & progesterone
What part of the brain is responsible for the coordination of motor impulses, especially balance and posture?
Cerebellum
What part of the brain is responsible for hunger, thirst, sexdrive, water balance, pain, blood pressure, and temperature regulation?
Hypothalamus
What part of the brain is responsible for regulating breathing, heart rate and GI activity?
Medulla
What secretes cholecystokinin (CCK)?
duodenal mucosa
What does cholecystokinin do?
stimulates release of bile from gall bladder
What does secretin do?
causes pancreas to release enzymes
What enzymes does the pancrease secrete? (5)
amylase, trypsin, chymotripsin, carboxypeptidase, lipase
What secretes lactase?
intestinal mucosa
What does lactase do?
breaks down lactose
(lactase + lactose -> glucose + galactose)
Where is ADH produced?
posterior pituitary
Does ADH increase or decrease blood pressure?
increase
Where and how does ADH affect the nephron?
increases permeability and thus water reabsorption in distal tubule and collecting duct.
Which are purines and which are pyramidines?
Purines -> A/G
Pyrimidines -> T/U/C
What secretes calcitonin?
thyroid gland