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85 Cards in this Set

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sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body, divided into catabolic reactions and anabolic reactions
Metabolism
break down large chemicals and release energy
catabolic reactions
build up large chemicals and require energy
anabolic reactions
acquisition of food and other raw materials
ingestion
process of converting food into a usable soluble form so that it can pass through membranes in the digestive tract and enter the body
digestion
passage of nutrient molecules by diffusion or active transport through the lining of the digestive tract into the body proper
absorption
circulation of essential compounds required to nourish the tissues and removal of waste products from the tissues
transport
building up of new tissues from digested food materials
assimilation
consumption of oxygen by the body to convert glucose into ATP
respiration
removal of waste products produced during metabolic processes
excretion
creationof complex molecules from simple ones
synthesis
control of physiological activities
regulation
body's metabolism functions to maintain its internal environment in a changing external environment
homeostasis
ability to respond to a stimulus
irritability
increase in size caused by a synthesis of new materials
growth
process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and water into carbs
photosynthesis
generation of additional individuals of a species
reproduction
all living things are composed primarily of these 6 elements
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus
unit of an element
atom
unit of a compound
molecule
atoms are joined by these to form compounds
chemical bonds
compounds that don't contain carbon
inorganic compounds
made by living systems and contain carbon
organic compounds
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
carbs
used as storage forms of energy
carbs
structural molecules
carbs
single sugar subunits
monosaccharide
composed of two monosaccharide subunits
disaccharides
disaccharides are joined by this
dehydration synthesis
involves loss of a water molecule
dehydration synthesis
substance of life
protoplasm
chains of repeating monosaccharide subunits
polymers or polysaccharides
polysaccharide that serves a structural role in plants and is insoluble in water
cellulose
process of adding water to large polymers to break them down into smaller subunits
hydrolysis
composed of C, H and O in a greater ratio than 1:2:1
lipids
consists of 3 fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone
lipid
have long carbon chains that give them their hydrophobic character and carboxylic acid groups make them acidic
fatty acids
chief means of food storage in animals
lipids
release more energy per gram weight than any other class of biological compounds
lipids
provide insulation
lipids
provide protection against injury
lipid
major component of fatty tissue
lipid
another name for fatty tissue
adipose tissue
5 lipid derivatives
phospholipids, wax, steriod, carotenoids, porphyrins
contain glycerol, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and nitrogen containing alcohol
phospholipids
esters of fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols
wax
found as protective coatings
wax
have 3 fused cyclohexane rings and 1 fused cyclopentane ring
steriods
include cholesterol, sex hormones, and corticosteriods
steriods
fatty acid-like carbon chains containing conjugated double bonds and carrying 6-membered carbon rings at each end
carotenoids
have two subgroups of cartenes adn xanthophylls
carontenoids
contain 4 joined pyrrole rings
porphyrins
often complexed w/ a metal
porphyrins
composed primarily of C, H, O, and N but may also contain P and S
proteins
proteins are polymers of these
amino acids
amino acids are joined by these through dehydration reactions
peptide bonds
chains of peptide bonds produce this polymer
polypeptide
another term for protein
polypeptide
9 protein structures
simple, albumins & globulins, scleroproteins, conjugated, lipoproteins, mucoproteins, chromoproteins, matalloproteins, nucleoproteins
composed entirely of amino acids
simple proteins
functional proteins that act as carriers or enzymes
albumins and globulins
fibrous in nature and act as structural proteins
scleroprotein
contain a simple protein portion plus at least 1 nonprotein fraction
conjugated protein
protein bound to a lipid
lipoprotein
protein bound to a carb
mucoprotein
protein bound to pigmented molecules
chromoprotein
protein complexed around a metal ion
metalloprotein
protein containing histone or protamine bound to nucleic acids
nucleoproteins
5 functions of proteins
hormones, enzymes, structural protein, transport protein, antibodies
proteins that function as chemical messengers secreted into the circulation
hormones
biological catalysts that act by increasing the rate of cheical reactions important for biological functions
enzymes
contribute to the physical support of a cell or tissue, may be extracellular or intracellular
structural proteins
carriers of important materials
transport proteins
bind to foreign particles that have entered the body
antibodies
the molecule upon which an enzyme acts
substrate
area on each enzyme to which the substrate binds
active site
nonprotein molecule that many enzymes require the incorporation of to become active
cofactors
polymers of subunits called nucleotides
nucleic acids
code all of the info. required by an organism to produce proteins and replicate
nucleic acids
controls the amt. of light passing through the specimen
diaphragm
used to observe nonliving species
light microscopy
controls activities of the cell
nucleus
surrounded by a nuclear membrane
nucleus
dense structure in the nucleus
nucleolus
where ribosomal RNA synthesis occurs
nucleolus