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What is the value of studying church history?
There are many reasons to study church history, but perhaps the most significant is the fact that it is the means by which we learn from example (both positive and negative) of our predecessors, which assists us in "expanding our present" and "shaping our future." As well, the study of Church history prevents us from being abstract, theoretical, and academic regarding truth, as it enables us to see how truth relates to life's practicalities." A third reason would be that the sin patterns of a different generation would be different from our own, and therefore they could inform us of our abuses of the Word of God.
Briefly trace the spread of Christianity through the centuries.
• Resurrection-100 AD The gospel began to spread through most of the Mediterranean region as well as reaching Mesopotamia, Syria, and likely India.
• 100—325 In the 2nd Century, the church spread into Gaul (France), Germany, and North Africa. In the 3rd Century, Christianity moved into Persia and most of Asia Minor. In the face of intense Roman persecution, Christianity had grown and had churches in most Roman provinces, spreading throughout the Roman empire and even beyond.
• 325-600 Reached the British isles where Ireland became a sending off point for missionaries
• 500-700AD With the rise of Islam in the face of half-hearted Christianity, some areas like the Middle East and North Africa, previously strongholds of the gospel became desolate of Christianity.
• 700-1500 Up to the split of the Eastern and Western Church in 1050 and the period of stagnation and the damage of the crusades- Christianity began to make inroads into East Asia during the latter part of this period.
• 1500-1600 Reformation led to a renewed push for missions and revival among churches.
• 1600-1800 Colonization leads to the spread of Christianity to America, Australia and Western and Southern Africa.
• 1800-1900 Modern missionary movement William Carey, Hudson Taylor, etc.
• 1900-2000 The Gospel flourishes in Asia, Africa, and South America.
What were the “sola's” of the Reformation?
Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone),
Sola Fides (Faith alone),
Sola Gratia (Grace alone),
Sola Christos (Christ alone),
Soli Deo Gloria (Only to the Glory of God)
Briefly discuss the development of 'covenant theology'
Ultimately Covenant theology begins in Scripture and was to some extent developed by Augustine. What we know as covenant theology first appeared in the works of Zwingli and Bullinger. Calvin, whose name is usually most associated with covenant theology really only has it in seed form. It gained greater strength among 17th century theologians where it became known as federal theology. Ursinus and especially Olevianus, the founder of a well-developed federal theology, developed the understanding of the covenant of works and the covenant of grace and subordinated the covenant to the doctrine of election. Cocceius stressed the Biblical theology approach of looking at the covenant history (pre-Vos). Prior to this century, covenant theology saw the covenant as a contractual agreement between God entered into with man. With more recent language and archaeological discoveries, covenant theology has come to emphasize the relationship between God and man as a vassal relationship, patterned after the covenants of that time, established and maintained by God’s grace. Through this theology a greater emphasis was placed on God's gracious and faithful dealing with mankind.
What are the historical origins and distinctives of the following:
a. Methodist Churches
Origins: Began in Oxford University as a movement within the Church of England and expanded under the leadership of Charles and John Wesley
Distinctives: Typically has been concerned with ministry to the poor and disadvantages, expressing its faith in compassion for human condition.
b. Pentecostal Churches
Origins: Born out of the movement that was sparked in 1901 when Miss Agnes Ozman, a Bethel Bible College student, spoke in tongues after principal Charles Partham laid hands on her and prayed for her to receive the power of the Spirit.
Distinctives: Seeking to receive the gift of tongues is regarded as a sign of baptism of the Holy Spirit, itself a requisite for full discipleship. Other gifts are sought as well: healing, love, joy, answers to prayer, etc.
c. Episcopal Churches
Origins: the Episcopalian Church began in America as an extension of the Church of England. However, During the American Revolution a great controversy arose over prayers for the monarchy in the liturgy, so after the revolution it severed ties with the Church of England and became its own denomination.
Distinctives: Acknowledges no central authority, though maintains a hierarchy of bishops, relies totally on traditional liturgical worship, while not defining the exact nature of the communion element (regarded as a mystery).
d. Presbyterian Churches
Origins: Dating back to John Knox in 1560 and the Scots Confession becoming the expression of government assigned by the Westminster Assembly in the Form of Government.
Distinctives: Offices of Teaching Elder and Ruling Elder. Usually hold to the WCF, Spiritual presence in the elements (Calvin),
e. Baptist Churches
Origins: A third-generation Reformation development that appeared in England about 1610 wanting to take Protestantism to its logical conclusion. Convinced that Puritanism needed to still be reformed.
Distinctives: Believe only self-professed believers are eligible for admission to the church. Practice believer-baptism, evangelistic, missions and biblically minded
f. Orthodox Churches
Origins: 1056 schism between East and West (Bishop of Constantinople vs. Bishop of Rome)
Distinctives: icons, 7 Ecumenical Councils, don’t hold to the Pope, traditionalist, ornate to use all senses in worship
g. Mennonite Churches
Origins: Dating from 1520’s in central Europe, take name from Menno Simmons who led them in a pursuit of biblical living.
Distinctives: No common doctrine, rejection of infant baptism, real presence at the Lord’s supper, pacifist, no oaths, complete separation of church and state
h. Lutheran churches
Origins: Germany; Martin Luther, 1517 October 31 commonly the beginning of the reformation. 1521 Diet of Worms which lead to Luther’s excommunication.
Distinctives: Consubstantiation, Salvation by grace, justification by faith, Augsburg Confession (and the Book of Concord)
Briefly identify and give dates for the following:
Council of Nicea
325. The council of Nicea was concerned primarily with the nature of the second person of the trinity—Jesus Christ. Arius asserted that Christ was not eternally generated from the Father, but created from the non-existent. Athanasius and his followers asserted that Christ was eternally begotten of the father. The semi-Arians argued that Christ was homoiousios ("of similar substance") with the father. The Council adopted the Athanasian position of homoousios ("the same essence").
Council of Chalcedon
451. The Christological council. Christ is one person, with two natures.
The Council of Chalcedon dealt with the heresies of Nestorianism and Eutychianism. The Eutychians taught that Christ possessed two natures in one person, and that each performs its own function. The Council asserted that the redemption of fallen humans required a mediator who was human and divine, passible and impassible, mortal and immortal, and that Jesus Christ permanently assumed human nature. Significantly the Council asserted that properties of both Christ's human and divine natures can be attributed to one person, that the suffering “I” ; of the God-man can be regarded as truly, really infinite, yet the divine nature remained impassible, that divinity and not humanity is the root and basis of Christ' s personality, and that the logos did not unite with a distinct human individual, but with a human nature.
Reformation
Sola Scripture: Scripture alone.
Sola Fide: Faith alone.
Sola Gratia: Grace alone.
Sola Christos: Christ alone.
Soli Deo Gloria: To God alone be the glory.
1517. We may use this as a date for the Reformation since the beginning of the Reformation is traditionally tied to Luther's nailing of his Ninety-five theses to the door at Wittenburg. This was the culmination of a developing movement to reform the Catholic Church from it medieval laxity. Above all it was a time of spiritual renewal in which God graciously intervened to return his gospel to the center stage of human history.
Counter-Reformation
1534-1563 (1540'5). The Counter-reformation was the Catholic response to the Reformation in which many of the abuses of the Catholic church were corrected, and traditional Catholic doctrine was resoundingly re-affirmed. This formulated in the articles of the Council of Trent, a council which was held to combat the spread of Protestantism. Affirmed that Church/tradition were on par with Scripture, sacraments and transubstantiation, and justification is faith plus works.
Heidelberg Catechism
1563. Written by Olevianus and Ursinus this beautiful work has the form of a catechism, but the content of a confession. Held by the Continental Reformed Church (European-German, Dutch). Many say the Heidelberg Catechism has a more personal feel than the Westminster Confession.
Belgic Confession
1561. Written by Guido de Bres this confession is one of the three standards of the Dutch Reformed Church. It draws heavily on the Gallican Confession.
Synod of Dort
1618. A convening of Reformed thinkers to answer the assertions of the Remonstrants. Although political and other issues affecting the Dutch church were raised at this Synod, its primary business was answering the five points of Arminianism. Their response is what we today know as TULIP, or the five points of Calvinism.
Westminster Assembly
1643-1652. The Westminster Assembly was a gathering of eminent Puritan divines, assembled by the British Parliament in 1643 with the charge of producing a Confession of Faith to unite the United Kingdom ecclesiastically. The assembly sat from 1643-1652, during which time it handled ecclesiastical concerns such as the ordination of ministers, trial of heretics, etc. its most enduring work is the Confession of Faith, and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms. These would become the standard of faith and practice for the Presbyterian, Congregational and Regular Baptist churches in Scotland, England and America. The Confession and Catechisms were borne out of Scotch and English Calvinism, and were structured upon the foundation of the "Irish Articles of Faith" of 1615.
Pietism
1600's. Primarily based in Germany, it was a movement against dead orthodoxy in the
Lutheran Church. The common emphasis was on individual conversion and living orthodoxy that lead to a changed life. The duo of Spener and Franke at the Halle began the movement which was later carried by Zinzendorf and the Moravians. The movement played a large influence in the development of the modern missionary movement.
Emphases:
*Individual experience over theology
*New birth
*Spiritual discipline
*Lay involvement in the church
*Renewal preaching
*Love for all people.
Great Awakening(s)
First Great Awakening: 1741-1745. The Great Awakening was a remarkable outpouring of
the Holy Spirit that swept through New England colonies. Through the Reformed preaching of George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards, thousands were truly converted to Christ. There were however, many instances of abuse that accompanied the outpouring prompting the able mind of Edwards to defend the true nature of the Awakening in such works as ''Distinguishing Marks" and "Treatise on the Religious Affections." Tennet: "Danger of an unconverted ministry ."
Second Great Awakening 1800-1825. After the First Great Awakening steady religious decline brought the country to a new religious low by the 1800's. Unlike the First Great Awakening this revival went in to the frontier as well. It was also characterized by a longer duration and more fervor than concern for theology. This awakening led to significant church growth, improvement of morals and national life, checking of the growth of Deism, growth of missions, and social reform movements. It left a permanent mark on the American evangelical scene with its revivalistic emphasis and Arminian theology.
Old Side/ New Side
This was the controversy over the Great Awakening. The New Side was pro-revival and staunchly Calvinistic. Included in the New Side ranks were Edwards, Tennet, and Whitefield. The Old Side were Anti-Revival. Many were Arminian, Unitarian or Universalist. The most famous Old Side adherent was Charles Chaucy.
Old School
Old School/New School
1837. This was the controversy over the Second Great Awakening. There was an effort to create a cooperative plan for reaching the frontier out of which emerged a debate over seeming doctrinal indifference. The Old School were strict subscriptionists, and skeptical about the excesses of the Cane Ridge revivals and the New Measures of Finny. The New School was, at best, lax subscriptionists, and often Arminian or rationalists. This controversy would split the Presbyterian Church into two denominations in 1837, a division that would last until the reunification--only to split again along North-South line in the Civil War Era.
Auburn Affirmation
1924. Issued by a group of Presbyterians meeting in Auburn, New York this was designed to safeguard the unity and liberty of the Presbyterian Church. The affirmation was intended to display tolerance, but became a marker on the battle field between conservative and liberals in the church. The Affirmation denied the need of ordained Ministers to commit to the five essentials:
1. Inspiration and inerrancy of Scripture;
2. The virgin birth;
3. Substitutionary atonement
4. Christ real and historical resurrection and
5. Jesus working of miracles
Scholasticism
The system and method of learning for philosophy and theology during the medieval period as developed in European university contexts. It relied on philosophical methods and the use of reason to make clear divisions and distinctions within a body of knowledge. The system flourished from the 11 th-14th centuries. Some notable scholastics include: Thomas Aquinas, Peter Abelard, Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Lombard and Duns Scotus.
Babylonian Captivity
Also known as the Avignon schism. Period in the 14th century when popes lived in Avignon, France, due to the political situation. The term, which referred to the Jews' captivity in Babylon (586 BC), was used by Luther in the 16th century to describe the Roman Catholic Church's "captivity" to the papacy and need for gospel liberation.
Humanism
An intellectual movement in 14th-16th century Europe in which man was the measure of all things. It sought to base education on the Greek and Latin classics, interpreted from within a Christian context. Theologically, the term indicates the high value that Christianity places on humans as created and redeemed by God.
Radical Reformation
The "left" of "third" wind of the Protestant Reformation that describes those who sought a radical approach, a return to early Christian precedents for the nature and government of the church, rejecting national or state churches. Among others it included the Anabaptists such as the Mennonites and the Amish.
Puritanism
16th and 17th century Protestant religious movement that sought to "purify" the Church of England in more Reformed Protestant directions. The movement was Calvinistic in theology -and Presbyterian or Congregational in church government. The church reform impulses were continued in America, primarily in New England where it was a major cultural force. Puritans stressed theology as leading to ethical action while ethics is grounded in true theology.
Modernism
A theological movement of the late 19th and early 20tb centuries among Protestants and Roman Catholics who sought to interpret Christianity in light of modern knowledge. It
sought to alter Christian doctrine, which was seen as evolving and in need of being reshaped by modern knowledge. It was condemned by Pope Pius X in 1907. Schliermacher, Fosdick.
Fundamentalism
Term for evangelicalism in 20th century America that sought to preserve conservative
Protestant views and values against liberal theology and the higher criticism of Scripture. A strong focus was on the inerrancy and literal interpretation of Scripture.
Neo-orthodoxy
Return to Christianity without having to be historically grounded. Somewhat a theological rediscovery of biblical doctrines, but with the modem naturalistic presuppositions. A theological movement including Karl Earth, Emil Brunner, and others. It opposed liberal theology and stressed the reinterpretation of Reformation themes such as God's transcendence, human sinfulness, and the centrality of Christ. It was dominant in Europe and America after World War n until the 1960's. Also called Neo-Calvinism, Neo-Protestantism, and Neo-Reformation theology.
Briefly identify the following people with date (century) and their significance:
1. Polycarp
[2nd century]
Disciple of the apostle John, later became bishop of Smyrna. He seems to have been the leading Christian figure in Roman Asia in the middle of the 2nd century and his long life is thus an important link between the apostolic age and the great Christian writers who flourished in the 2nd century.
Clement
[1st century]
Wrote the epistle to the Corinthians stressing the importance of Apostolic succession. Considered to be the 4th pope by the Roman Catholic Church. Likely martyred under Dominitian in 100 AD .
Ignatius
[2nd century]
Bishop of Antioch. Wrote seven letters giving insight into Christians' attitudes toward persecution. Opposed Gnosticism. First to distinguish between bishops and elders. Martyred under Trajan.
Marcion
[2nd century]
Heretic. Beginning around 145, Marcion taught that Jehovah, the god of the Old Testament was an arbitrary and vindictive god distinct from the God and Father of Jesus of the New Testament. He believed that the Father's purpose was to create only a spiritual world, but Jehovah, out of evil intent or ignorance made the physical world and placed mankind in it. God of the New Testament sent Jesus because he is a God of love, and in the end there will be no judgment because of his love. In order to support these views Marcion produced his own canon, rejecting the Old Testament and accepting only the book of Luke and certain edited versions of Paul's letters.
Justin
[2nd century]
One of the great apologist of the 2nd century, he personally opposed Marcion. He also was the first orthodox writer to evaluate the relationship between Christianity and Philosophy. He taught that all truth belongs to Christians, and developed the doctrine of the logos. He was beheaded in Rome under Marcus Aurelius.
Eusebius of Caesarea
[3rd-4th century]
Father of church history, he wrote Ecclesiastical History. Bishop of Caesarea during the Arian controversy and Council of Nicea. Eusebius dealt mainly with the succession of Christian bishops and teachers from apostolic times, heresies, the suffering of the Jews, and the persecution and martyrdom of Christians. He also recounted traditions about the New Testament writers and details about the canon of Scripture. .
Tertullian
[2nd-3rd century]
He was the first major Christian author to write in Latin. He was therefore the first to use many of the technical words common in later Christian theological debates. Tertullian lived most, if not all, his life in Carthage, capital of the Roman province of Africa. He vigorously opposed heresies in the church such as Marcionism, and was an advocate for purity and holiness in the church.
Constantine
[3-4th century]
He was an emperor of the Roman Empire who before a 'particular battle received a vision in which he was told to place the Christian symbol "Xp" on the shields of his men. He was victorious in the battle and from that time was converted to the Christian faith. One of the most significant aspects of Constantine's rule is the Edict of Milan (313), which made the persecution of Christians illegal.
Chrysostom
[4th century]
He was given this name (meaning "Golden mouth") after his death since he was such a great preacher. He was considered a great orator and exegete of Scripture and was made the Bishop of Constantinople. During this time he preached the truth of Scripture including many messages calling for repentance. He was banished from the city twice and eventually exiled to an obscure village near the Black Sea where he died.
Jerome
[4-5 century]
An ascetic and scholarly monk. While the private secretary of the bishop of Rome. His greatest achievement was translating the Scriptures into Latin from the original languages (Vulgate)
Pelagius
[4-5 century]
British monk who settled in Rome. An opponent of Augustine, he denied that human sin was inherited from Adam. Man, he said, was free to act righteously or sinfully. Death is not a consequence of sin. Adam did not introduce sin, but merely was a bad example. Thus, it is possible not to sin. Man is able to chose salvation, and is able to live for God without the agency of the Holy Spirit.
. Augustine
[4-5 century]
One of the greatest and most influential leaders of the western church, Augustine lived during the disintegration of the Roman empire. In 391 he was ordained a priest and four years later was elevated to Bishop of Hippo. He battled Donatism and Pelagianism. His writings include The City of God and Confessions . He was a staunch advocate for the depravity of man and the primacy of grace in salvation. His works on sin, grace, and predestination laid the groundwork of the Reformation.
Bernard of Clairvaux
[12th century]
The last of the church fathers; mystic, monk and theologian. He was a strong spiritual reformer- the leader of the Cistercian movement. He was the major preacher of the Second Crusade and held to a full Augustinian view.
Gregory the Great
[6th century]
Considered one of the ablest men to occupy the position of Pope- some call him the father of the Medieval papacy. He became pope in 590 after previously serving many other leadership roles in the church. A strong civic and spiritual leader, he brought order to Rome and helped establish the idea that the Pope was the supreme authority in the church. Wrote The Pastoral Rule
Francis of Assisi
[12-13th century]
An innovator of the Roman system, he believed that the most serious problem in the church was worldliness and set to rebuild the church around the pattern of living like Jesus- an ascetic lifestyle, the life of poverty. In 1215, his order of Lesser Brothers received Papal approval.
Anselm
11th century]
Archbishop of Canterbury, and known as the father of scholasticism, Anselm introduced a new theory of the atonement- the satisfaction theory- saying that man’s sin is a debt to God, not the devil and that Christ’s death alone has satisfied God’s offended sense of honor. He tried to make the content of Christian faith clear to reason, though insisted that faith must come first. Developed two proofs for the existence of God; the ontological and the cosmological.
Aquinas
[13th century]
Dominican monk-turned teacher, Aquinas was the author of the monumental Summa Theologica, the summary of the Roman Catholic Church. Scholasticism reached its pinnacle in Aquinas’ writings. Combining the greatest of the ancient Greek philosophers, particularly Aristotle, with Christian thought, Aquinas built a theological system, which has been accepted as the basis for all Roman Catholic theological instruction today.
Wycliffe
[14th century]
Morning Star of the Reformation.
Translated the Bible into middle English. Declared a heretic in 1382
Believed the Bible is the supreme authority, that the clergy should hold no propriety, that there was no basis for the doctrine of transubstantiation.
He was a fore-runner to the Reformation. . -
Hus
[14th century]
Preached against the abuses of the Catholic Church, especially the morality of the priests, preaching of the Bible in the common language of the people (not Latin), opposed the sale . of indulgences, and Papal infallibility. He wanted the church to practice Communion "in both kinds".
Excommunicated from the church and burned at the stake 1415.
Was a Bohemian priest who discovered Wycliffe's religious writings. He compared the character of the Pope to that of Christ, discovering that the Pope fell quite short of the mark. Thus he was excommunicated, and burned at the stake.
Tyndal
[15-16th century]
An English Bible translator.
The 1611 King James Version is 90% the work of Tyndal .Was martyred for his opposition to the Pope in 1536.
Luther
[15-16th century]
Credited with being the father of the Reformation for his posting of the 95 thesis on the church door in Wittenburg, Germany 1517.
Excommunicated from the Catholic church when he refused to recant his positions after the Diet of Worms.
An accomplished preacher, author, and hymn writer . .Father of the Lutheran church
Disagreed with Calvin on the issue of communion as he believed "consubstanciation."
Melanchthon
[15-16th century ]
An associate of Luther who brought a soft gentle nature to Luther's very course mannerisms.
Wrote Loci Communes and "Augsburg Confession."
Shifted toward Erasmus; theology of salvation and towards Calvin's view of the Lord's ,"'
Supper (Christ not present for the sake of the bread, but for the sake of man).
Zwingli
[15-16th century]
Swiss Reformer. Perhaps the third best known Reformers behind Calvin and Luther. Disagreed with Luther over issue of whether or not we may do what the Bible does not
forbid. Luther says we may, Zwingli says no.
Fought the "Radical Reformation" over the pace (he wanted slower) of the Reformation.lt1 a. Believed that Christ's presence in the Lord's Supper was spiritual not physical.
Calvin
[16th century]
Born French, he was "suddenly" converted sometime between 1532-34. First published his Institutes in 1536.
Served as pastor in Geneva, expelled, and returned three years later
Some think he set up a theocratic dictatorship there, but that is untrue-
Had a major effect on the organization and expression of what we call Reformed Theology.
Final edition of the Institutes published in 1559. Died in 1564.
Knox
[16th century]
Bishop of Rochester. Upon the ascendancy of Mary Stuart as queen of Scots, he fled to the Continent where he was influenced by Calvin. In 1559, he returned to Scotland, and became the leader of the Scots Reformation. He helped draft the Scots Confession of Faith, and the Book of Discipline. He is remembered as the founder of Presbyterianism and theories on liberty and government.
Covenanters
[17th century]
Name applied to those Scottish Presbyterians who signed the National Covenant and the Solemn League as well as to their followers. They resisted the Episcopal, "system of church government and the divine right of Kings (conflicting with the Stuart dynasty).
Arminius:
[16th century]
A progressive Protestant Dutch theologian, Arminius was the author of a brand of theology known as Arminianism developed as a reaction against what he saw as the sternness of Calvinism. Arminius discarded the idea of unconditional predestination and taught that man had freedom to choose or reject salvation. He was the first to urge that the state tolerate all religions and emphasized the more practical aspects of faith instead of the creedal.
Amyraut and the School of Saumur
[17 century]
French theologian and preacher, developed the doctrine of "hypothetical universalism" known as Amyraldianism. It taught that God wills all men to be saved, but because of inherited corruption, men reject hirn, so 2) God wills to save his elect by grace.
Jonathan Edwards:
: [18th century]
Theologian and pastor. Perhaps America's best theologian remembered for stressing the inseparability of an intellectual Reformed faith from "experimental" religion. His writings include: "The Freedom of the Will" and "Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God."
Richard Baxter:
[17th century]
Puritan preacher. Read him for his evangelism, spiritual counsel and church renewal, but not for grace centered living. He wrote The Reformed Pastor, A Call to The Unconverted, and A Christian Directory.
Zinzendorf:
[18th century]
The founder of the Moravian Church. He was a German count whose importance lies in the creation of a missionary, service-oriented, ecumenical free church based upon a common experience of salvation and mutual love, and the emphasis upon deep, emotional religious expression which was intended to breathe new life into Protestantism.
George Whitefield
: [18th century]
An English Calvinistic revivalist who was a major figure in the Great Awakening. Known for his eloquence and incredible speaking voice, he would preach to thousands gathered in the countryside. He was also influential in the founding of orphanages across the colonies. His eloquence and intelligence earned him the friendship of such notables as Benjamin Franklin.
John Wesley
: [18th century]
An Arminian revivalist who, with the help of his brother Charles, founded Methodism as a movement within the Anglican Church. An itinerate preacher who was greatly influenced by the German Moravians, Wesley was one of the major forces behind the Evangelical revival in England. The Methodists stressed personal piety and devotion, as well as man's free choice to receive God's grace. Wesley emphasized the teaching of justification by faith alone and the pursuit of holiness to the point of "Christian perfection."
34. Marrow Controversy:
[18th century]
A controversy in the Church of Scotland over rival theological views of legalism and merit in contrast to God's grace in Jesus Christ. The basis of the controversy was over a book, The Marrow of Modem Divinity, which advocated strongly Calvinistic doctrines and was held to favor antinomianism.
William Carey
[18-19th century]
Shoemaker turned missionary, Carey had a vision for the church to be involved in foreign missions. His was the first real attempt at foreign missions by the Protestant church. In 1793 the Baptist Missionary Society sent Carey to India. Stationed near Calcutta, he and his colleagues translated the Bible into many of the native languages, set up printing presses, and colleges. His life inspired other missionaries to take the gospel to the ends of the earth, adopting his motto: "Attempt great things for God; expect great things from God."
George Muller
[19th century]
Greatly influenced by Pietism and known mainly for his orphanage work in Bristol England. When his second orphanage was built, he and his wife began to travel around the world preaching the gospel. He was known for his "faith mission" principle in which he received miraculous answers to prayer.
Charles Spurgeon
[19th century]
Calvinistic Baptist preacher and avid reader of the Puritans, known fondly as "The Prince of Preachers." In 1854 he became the pastor of a large congregation in London which built the Metropolitan Tabernacle to hold the crowds that came to hear him preach. He likely has more sermons published than any other preacher in history.
Charles Hodge
[19th century]
The best-known proponent of the Princeton theology. A noted polemicist, Hodge is remembered for his rational defense of the Reformed faith, and for his defense of creationism against naturalistic evolution.
. B. B. Warfield
[19-20th century ]
One of the last of the great Princeton theologians, respected for his scholarly defense of Augustinian Calvinism. He is remembered for his intellectual defense of Biblical inerrancy in the face of Scheierrnacherian and Ritschlian liberalism.
Charles Finney
[19th century]
After training to be a lawyer, Finney became a Presbyterian revivalist, and the father of the New School movement. He employed "New measures" of pragmatic techniques such as the anxious seat, to win souls. He was a key force in the Northern section of the Second Great Awakening of the first half of the 19th century .
. D. L. Moody
[ 19th century]
Dispensationalist revivalist, famous for his "sinking ship" theory: the world is lost, and Christians must endeavor only to save as many souls as they can before the end. Moody's emphasis led to the rampant separationism of the fundamentalist movement.
1. Discuss the controversy between modernism and fundamentalism. Be sure in your answer to identify and explain the significance of the Auburn Affirmation (who signed it? why? when?), the "five fundamentals," Harry Emerson Fosdick, and J. Gresham Machen.
Riding on a high tide of German higher criticism, liberalism infected the American church in the late 19th century. The issue would come to the fore in the Presbyterian Church USA in 1923, when 150 ministers signed an affirmation denying the necessity of subscription to the five fundamentals for ordination to the gospel ministry in the PCUSA. While many other institutions had fallen under liberalism, Old Princeton remained the bastion of Calvinist orthodoxy and intellectual defense of the Christian faith. When re-structuring of her board was ordered by the General Assembly, an action which would surely change her character, many of her orthodox faculty, under the leadership of NT scholar J. Gresham Machen, left to form Westminster Theological Seminary in 1929. When Machen and his followers objected to their tithes towards missions going to non-Christian pluralistic missions work, and established the Independent Board for Presbyterian Foreign Missions, they were defrocked by the PCUSA. They went on to found the Orthodox Presbyterian Church in 1936. Soon finding that they had been bound only by a common enemy, Machen and his fellow Old School Calvinists, and the dispentionalists, parted ways. Thus, under the leadership of Carl McIntire, the Bible Presbyterian Church was formed out of the dispensational group.
(McIntosh)
2. Trace the historical roots of the RPC~. From which major branch of Presbyterianism did the RPC~ come? Why is the RPCES important in PCA history? Be sure in your answer to identify and explain the significance of the Independent Board for Presbyterian Foreign Missions, J. Oliver Buswell, Robert Rayburn, Francis Schaeffer, and Carl Mclntire.
Conservatives in the PCUSA formed their own denomination, the Presbyterian Church of America (1936), because of the modernists movement in the PCUSA- however, when the common cause of battling the modernists grew less intense because of the successful formation of the new denomination, difference began to surface. These difference were along the lines of eschatology and the use/nonuse of alcoholic beverages. This difference split the denomination. The group favoring pre-millenialism and complete abstinence from alcohol and tobacco formed the Bible Presbyterian Church in 1938. The Presbyterian Church of America renamed themselves a year later to the the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. The Bible Presbyterian Church split in 1956, once under Carl McIntrye who was resolved to keep mission boards and seminaries out from under denominational control. This split resulted in the Bible Presbyterian Church, Collinswood synod (McIntyre’s group) and the Bible Presbyterian Church, Columbus synod. The Columbus synod changed their name to the Evangelical Presbyterian Church and soon merged with the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, General synod to form the Reformed Presbyterian Church Evangelical Synod (RPCES). Thus, the RPCES came out of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, Northern Presbyterian Church.
3. Trace the history of the formation of the PCA. When, where and why did the PCA begin? From what major branch of Presbyterianism did early members of the PCA come? Be sure in your answer to identify and explain the significance of the Presbyterian Evangelistic Fellowship, Concerned Presbyterians, the Presbyterian Journal, Morton H. Smith, W. Jack Williamson, Ken Keyes, and G. Aiken Taylor.
The Presbyterian Church in America was formed in 1973, under the name The National Presbyterian Church. The church was formed as a continuing biblical Presbyterian denomination, out of the Presbyterian Church in the United States (the Southern Presbyterian Church). Due to the rampant liberalism, especially in the form of Barthianism, in that denomination, several organizations had been formed to preserve the gospel witness in that denomination. These included the Concerned Presbyterians, Presbyterian Churchmen United, the Presbyterian Evangelsitic Fellowship, and Reformed Theological Seminary. When things had progressed to such a stage where a majority of these men came to a conviction that the PCUS was no longer a viable organ of gospel witness, they organized to form the PCA. The first General Assembly was held at Briarwood Church in Birmingham Alabama, in 1973. Col. Jack Williamson was elected moderator and Morton Smith was elected Stated Clerk. Two other denominations were asked to merge with the PCA: The OPC and the Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod(RPC, ES). The RPCES accepted, and in 1982 joined and was received by the PCA bringing with them Covenant College and Covenant Theological Seminary. Today the PCA continues to offer itself as a biblically based denomination: True to the Scriptures, the Reformed faith, and obedient to the Great Commission.- Mcintosh
4. What are some distinctives of the PCA?
1. God alone is Lord of the conscience and has left it free from any doctrines or commandments of men which are in any respect contrary to the Word of God, or which in regard to matters of faith and worship, are not governed by the Word of God. Therefore, the rights of private judgment in all matters that respect religion are universal and inalienable. No religious constitution should be supported by the civil power further than may be necessary for protection and security equal and common to all.

2. In perfect consistency with the above principle, every Christian Church, or union or association of particular churches, is entitled to declare the terms of admission into its communion and the qualification of its ministers and members, as well as the whole system of its internal government, which Christ has appointed. In the exercise of this right it may, notwithstanding, err in making the terms of communion either too lax or too narrow; yet even in this case, it does not infringe upon the liberty or the rights of others, but only makes an improper use of its own.

3. Our blessed Savior, for the edification of the visible Church, which is his body, has appointed officers not only to preach the Gospel and administer the Sacraments, but also to exercise discipline for the preservation both of truth and duty. It is incumbent upon these officers and upon the whole church in whose name they act, to censure or cast out the erroneous and scandalous, observing in all cases the rules contained in the Word of God.

4. Godliness is founded on truth. A test of truth is its power to promote holiness according to our savior’s rule, by their fruits you shall know them (Matthew 7.20) No opinion can be more pernicious or more absurd than that which brings truth and falsehood upon the same level.

5. While, under the conviction of the above principle, it is necessary to make every effective provision that all who are admitted as teachers be sound in the faith, there are truths and forms with respect to which men of good character and principles may differ. In all these it is the duty both of private Christians and societies to exercise mutual forbearance toward each other.

6. Though the character, qualifications and authority of church officers are laid down in the Holy Scriptures, as well as the proper method of officer investiture, the power to elect persons to the exercise of authority in any particular society resides in that society.

7. All church power whether exercised by the body in general, or by representation, is only ministerial and declarative since the Holy Scriptures are the only rule of faith and practice. No church judiciary may make laws to bind the conscience. All church courts may err, through human frailty, yet it rests upon them to uphold the laws of Scripture though this obligation be lodged with fallible men.

8. Since ecclesiastical discipline must be purely moral or spiritual in its object, and not attended with any civil effects, it can derive no force whatever, but from its own justice, the approbation of an impartial public, and the countenance and blessing of the great Head of the Church.