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52 Cards in this Set

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Phospholipid compund formed from arachidonic acid - involved in inflammation and contribute to vasodilation, increased permability, and platelet agregation.
Process of forming new blood vessels in a tumor mass
A gene associate dwith the initiation of cancerous behavior in a cell
Phospholipid compound formed from arachidonic acid - involved in inflammation: chemotactic to leukocytes, cause smooth muscle contraction and brochospasm
Abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of cells in a normal arrangement of tissue
Alteration in cellular growht in which cell morphologic characteristics are variable and disorderly. Dysplastic cells may become cancerous and therefore are often termed preneoplastic
Increase in cell size or function (cellular enlargement)
Having ientical alleles for specific gene produce
Referring to a gene that fails to be expressed in the phenotype when a dominant allele is present. The trait carried in a recessive allele is apparent only when two identical copies are present
A new and abnormal proliferation of cells. If malignant, the growht infiltrates tissue, metastasized, and often recurs
Death and degredation of body cells or tissues in response to injurious events
A gene allele that is overtly expressed in the cells phenotype. Opposite of recessive
Programmed cell death, characterized by DNA degredation and cell dissolution, but without necrosis
Inadequate flow through the arterial system, producing tissue hypoxia
Containing only one set of chromosones (as distinct from diploid) as in a sperm cell or egg
Having three homologous chromosones instead of the usual pair as in Trisomy 21 (Down's Syndrome)
Transformation of one kind tissue to another fully differented tissue
One or two or more alternative forms of a gene located at the same site on a homologous chromosone
Reduction in size and function of a cell or tissue; wasting
An abnormal number of chromosones in humans either more or less than 46
Differentiate reversible and irreversible cell injury
1. If the change is short lived or mild the cell may withstand the assault and completely return to normal
2. The cell may adapt to a persistent but sublethal injury and completely return to normal (Reversible Cell Injury)
3. Cell death may occur if the injury is too severe or prolonged (Irreversible)
What two processes cause irreversible cell injury?
1. Necrosis - Cell death by external injury
2. Apoptosis - triggered by intracellular signaling cascades that result in cell suicide - it may be a normal physiologic process in some intances and pathologic in others
What is a symptom of cell injury?
Hydropic Swelling
What causes hydropic swelling?
accumulation of H20 and results from a malfunction of NA K pump. NA ions migrate into the cell that pulls H2O in. Regardless of cause, reversible injuries and early stages of irreversible injuries often result in cellular swelling and accumulation of excess substances within the cell
What are common adaptive responses for Cellular Adaption?
1. Atrophy - decreased cell size
2. Hypertrophy - increased cell size
3. Hyperplasia - increased cell number
4. Metaplasia - Conversion of one cell type to another
5. Dysplasia - Disorderly growth
What is irreversible cell injury?
Pathologic cellular death when an injury is too severe or prolonged to allow cellular adaption or repair
What are the two processes of irreversible cell injury?
1. Necrosis - usually occurs as a consequence to ischemia or toxic injury and is characterized by cell rupture and spilling of contents into the extracellular fluid and inflammation
2. Apoptosis - occurs in response to injury that does not directly kill the cell but triggers intracellular cascades that activate a cell suicide response - generally do not rupture and are ingested by neighboring cells without inflammation
What are the etiologies of cell injury?
Lack of O2 and nutrients
Immune Response
Physical and Mechanicalfactors
What are common causes of cell injury?
Hypoxic Injury
Nutritional Injury
Infections & Immumologic injury
Chemical Injury
Physical and mechanical injury
Ischemia and Hypoxic injury
Living cells must receive a continous supply of O2 to produce ATP to power energy requiring functions.
Lack of O2=power failure in teh cell. Tissue hypoxia is most often due to ischemia.
What are common causes of nutritional injury?
Chronic Alcoholism
Acute severe illness
Self imposed dietary restriction
Malabsorbtion Syndrome
What are causes of infectious and immunologic injury?
Virus - small bits of genetic material theat use the hosts cell "intracellular parasites"
Describe Cellular Aging?
Extrinisc - events that progressively damage cells
Intrinsic - genetic programs of the cells themselves
What is somatic mutation theory?
Chronic exposure to normal background environmental radiation results in random genetic damage becomes extensive enought to impair critical functions
What is free radical theory?
slow metaboic rate = longer life span.
Metabolic rate determines the production of activated O2 free radicals. Aging is thought to result from cumulative and progressive damage to cell structures
What is immunolgic Theory?
Aging is due to failure of the immune system which = progressive destruction of body cells.Functional capacity of the immune system declines with age and ability to distinguish between self tissue and foreigh tissue becomes impaired.
What is error theory?
based on the idea that random errors in the translation of key cellular proteins eventually lead to cell death
Aging is distinct from disease. The maximal life span is limited by the aging process itself rather than by the ravages of disease.
Aging theories are of two general schools. According to the first school, aging is caused by extrinisc events that progressively damage cells.Aligned with this school are the somatic mutation theory, the free radical theory, and the immunologic theory of aging. According to the second school, aging is caused by intrinsic genetic programs. Representatives of this school are the neuroendocrine theories and the programmed senecence theory. The discovery of telomere shortening with each cell division supports the genetic theory of aging.
Age related changes in body systems can generally be described as a decrease in functional reserve and a reduced ability to adapt to environmental demands.
Somatic death is characterized by the absence of respirations and heartbeath. Definitions of brain death have been established to describe death in instances in which heartbeat and respiration are maintained mechanically.
After death, body temperature falls, blood and boy fluids collect in dependent areas, and rigor mortis ensues. Within 24 to 48 hours the tissues begin to deteriorate and rigor mortis gives way to flaccidity.
Hypoxia is an important cause of cell injury that uually results from poor oxygenation of the blood (hypoxemia) or inadequate delivery of blood to the cells (ischemia)
Reperfusion injury to cells may occur when circulation is restored, owing to the production of partially reduced O2 molecules that damage cell membranes and trigger immune-mediate injury.
Nutritional Injury is a common cause of dysfunction and disease. Malnutrition is rampant in many poor countries, whereas industrialized nations are facing an epidemic of obesity-related disorders, including heart disease and diabetes
Cellular damage due to infection and immunologic responses is common. Some bacteria and viruses damage cells directly, others stimulate the host's immune system to destroy the host's cells
Chemical, physical, and mechanical factors cause cell injry in various ways. Chemicals may interfere with normal metabolic process in the cell, injury due to physical factors, such as burns and frostbite, causes direct destruction of tissues. Radiation-induced cell death is primarily a result of radiolysis of water, with resulting free radical damage to the cell memrane
Necrosis occurs when the injury is too severe or prolonged to allow adaptation and is usually a consequence of disrupted blood supply
Local and systemic indicators of cell death include pain, elevated serum enzyme levels, inflammation (fever, elevated WBC count, malaise), and loss of function
Different tissues exhibit necrosis of different types: heart (coagulative), brain (liquefactive), Lung (caseous), and pancreas (fat).
Gangrene refers to a large area of necrosis, which may be described as dry, wet, or gas gangrene. Gas and wet gangrene may be rapidly fatal.
Apoptosis is cell death resulting from activation of intracellular signaling cascades that cause cell suicide.Apoptosis is tidy and not usually associated with systemic manifestations of inflammation.
Hydropic swelling is an early indicator of cell injury. It results from Na K pump dysfunction at the cell membrane
Intracellular accumulation of abnormal endogenous or exogenous particles indicate a disorder of cellular metabolism
Damage from accumulation of abnormal intracellular protein is limited by chaperone proteins that attempt to refold the protein into its correct shape and by the ubiquitin-proteosome system that digests targeted proteins into fragments
Adaptive cellular responses indicate cellular stress due to altered funcitonal demand or chronic sublethal injury
Hypertrophy and hyperplasia generally result from increased functional demand. Atrophy results from decreased functional demand or chronic ischemia. Metaplasia and dysplasia result from persistent injury
What are types of chromosomal abnormalities
1. Abnormal # of chromosones
2. Alteration in the structure of one or more chromosomes
How may chromosones due humans have?
46 Chromosones
22 pr. autosomes
2 sex chromosones
What is Aneuploidy
Abnormal number of chromosones either more or less than 46. Usual cause is nondisjunction and failure to seperate normally
What is monosomy
Deficient 1 chromosone
What is polysomy
too many chromosones