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97 Cards in this Set

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Structurally related to acetylcholine, used to produce muscle paralysis in order to facilitate surgery or artifical ventilation. Full doses lead to respiratory paralysis and require ventilation
Neuromuscular blocking drugs
These drugs strongly potentiate and prolong effect of neuromuscular blockade (NMB)
Inhaled anesthetics, especially isoflurane, aminoglycosides, and antiarrhythmic
These prevent the action of Ach at the skeletal muscle endplate to produce a "surmountable blockade," effect is reversed by cholinesterase inhibitors (ex. neostigmine or pyridostigmine)
Nondepolarizing type antagonists
Agent with long duration of action and is sost likely to cause histamine release
Tubocurarine
Non-depolarizing antagonist has short duration
Mivacurium
Agent can blocking muscarinic receptors
Pancuronium
Agent undergoing Hofmann elimination (breaking down spontaneously)
Atracurium
One depolarizing blocker that causes continuous depolarization and results in muscle relaxation and paralysis, causes muscle pain postoperatively and myoglobinuria may occur
Succinylcholine
During Phase I these agents worsen the paralysis by succinylcholine, but during phase II they reverse the blockade produced by succinylcholine
Cholinesterase inhibitors
Agent that is metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS)
Ethanol
Agent with zero-order kinetics
Ethanol
Rate limiting step of alcohol metabolism
Aldehyde dehydrogenase
System that increases in activity with chronic exposure and may contribute to tolerance
MEOS
Agent that metabolize acetaldehyde to acetate
Aldehyde dehydrogenase
Agents that inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase
Disulfiram, metronidazole, certain sulfonylureas and cephalosporins
Agent used in the treatment of alcoholism, if alcohol is consumed concurrently, acetaldehyde builds up and results in nausea, headache, flushing, and hypotension
Disulfiram
The most common neurologic abnormality in chronic alcoholics
Peripheral neuropathy (also excessive alcohol use is associated with HTN, anemia, and MI)
Agent that is teratogen and causes a fetal syndrome
Ethanol
Agent that is the antidote for methanol overdose
Ethanol
Drug that inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase and is used in ethylene glycol exposure
Fomepizole
Sedative-Hypnotics action
Reduce inhibition, suppress anxiety, and produce relaxation
Additive effects when Sedative-Hypnotics used in combination with these agents
CNS depressants
Common mechanism by which overdose result in death
Depression of medullary and cardiovascular centers
"Date rape drug"
Flunitrazepam (rohypnol)
The most important sign of withdrawal syndrome
Excessive CNS stimulation (seizures)
Treatment of withdrawal syndrome involves
Long-acting sedative-hypnotic or a gradual reduction of dose, clonidine or propranolol
These agents are CNS depressants
Ethanol, Barbiturates, and Benzodiazepines
MOA of general anesthetics
Most are thought to act at GABA-A receptor - chloride channel
Inhaled anesthetic with a low blood/gas partition coefficient
Nitrous oxide
Inversely related to potency of anesthetics
Minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC)
Inhaled anesthetics metabolized by liver enzymes which has a major role in the toxicity of these agents
Halothane and methoxyflurane
Most inhaled anesthetics SE
Decrease arterial blood pressure
Inhaled anesthetics are myocardial depressants
Enflurane and halothane
Inhaled anesthetic causes peripheral vasodilation
Isoflurane
Inhaled anesthetic that may sensitize the myocardium to arrhythmogenic effects of catecholamines and has produced hepatitis
Halothane
Inhaled anesthetic, less likely to lower blood pressure than other agents, and has the smallest effect on respiration
Nitrous oxide
Fluoride released by metabolism of this inhaled anesthetic may cause renal insufficiency
Methoxyflurane
Prolonged exposure to this inhaled anesthetic may lead to megaloblastic anemia
Nitrous oxide
Pungent inhaled anesthetic which leads to high incidence of coughing and vasospasm
Desflurane
DOC for malignant hyperthermia that may be caused by use of halogenated anesthetics
Dantrolene
IV barbiturate used as a pre-op anesthetic
Thiopental
Benzodiazepine used adjunctively in anesthesia
Midazolam
Benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, it accelerates recovery from benzodiazepine overdose
Flumazenil
This produces "dissociative anesthesia", is a cardiovascular stimulant which may increases intracranial pressure, and hallucinations occur during recovery
Ketamine
Opioid associated with respiratory depression, but is used in high risk patients who may not survive full general anesthetia
Fentanyl
State of analgesia and amnesia produced when fentanyl is used with droperidol and nitrous oxide
Neuroleptanesthesia
Produces both rapid anesthesia and recovery, has antiemetic activity and commonly used for outpatient surgery, may cause marked hypotension
Propofol
Constant proportion of cell population killed rather than a constant number
Log-kill hypothesis
Treatment with cancer chemotherapy at high doses every 3-4 weeks, too toxic to be used continuously
Pulse therapy
Toxic effect of anticancer drug can be lessened by rescue agents
Rescue therapy
Drug used concurrently with toxic anticancer agents to reduce renal precipitation of urates
Allopurinol
Pyrimidine analog that causes "Thymine-less death" given with leucovorin rescue
5-flouracil (5-FU)
Drug used in cancer therapy causes Cushing-like symptoms
Prednisone
Side effect of Mitomycin
SEVERE myelosuppression
MOA of cisplatin
Alkylating agent
Common toxicities of cisplatin
Nephro and ototoxicity
Analog of hypoxanthine, needs HGPRTase for activation
6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)
Interaction with this drug requires dose reduction of 6-MP
Allopurinol
May protect against doxorubicin toxic by scavenging free radicals
Dexrazoxane
Blows DNA (breaks DNA strands), limiting SE is pulmonary fibrosis
Bleomycin
Bleomycin+vinblastine+etoposide+cisplatin produce almost a 100% response when all agents are used for this neoplasm
Testicular cancer
MOPP regimen used in Hodgkin's disease (HD)
Mechlorethamine+ oncovorin (vincristine)+ procarbazine, and prednisone
ABVD regimen used for HD, but appears less likely to cause sterility and secondary malignancies than MOPP
Adriamycin (doxorubicin) +bleomycin, vinblastine +dacarbazine
Regimen used for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
COP (cyclophosphamide, oncovin(vincristine), and prednisone)
Regimen used for breast cancer
CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) and tamoxifen if ER+
Alkylating agent, vesicant that causes tissue damage with extravasation
Mechlorethamine
Anticancer drug also used in RA, produces acrolein in urine that leads to hemorrhagic cystitis
Cyclophosphamide
Prevention of cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis
Hydration and mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA)
Microtubule inhibitor that causes peripheral neuropathy, foot drop (eg. ataxia), and "pins and needles" sensation
Vincristine
Interact with microtubules (but unlike vinca which prevent disassembly of tubules), it stabilizes tubulin and cells remain frozen in metaphase
Paclitaxel (taxol)
Toxicities include nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, leading to a severe interaction with aminoglycosides
Cisplatin
Agent similar to cisplatin, less nephrotoxic, but greater myelosuppression
Carboplatin
Converts asparagine to aspartate and ammonia, denies cancer cells of essential AA (asparagine)
L-asparaginase
Used for hairy cell leukemia; it stimulates NK cells
Interferon alpha
Anti-androgen used for prostate cancer
Flutamide (Eulexin)
Anti-estrogen used for estrogen receptor + breast cancer
Tamoxifen
Aromatase inhibitor used in breast cancer
Letrozole, anastrozole
Newer estrogen receptor antagonist used in advanced breast cancer
Toremifene (Fareston)
Some cell cycle specific anti-cancer drugs
Bleomycin, vinca alkaloids, antimetabolites (eg., 5-FU, 6-MP, methotrexate, etoposide)
Some cell cycle non-specific drugs
Alkylating agents (eg., mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide), antibiotics (doxorubicin, daunorubicin), cisplatin, nitrosourea
Anti-emetics used in association with anti-cancer drugs that are 5-HT3 (serotonin receptor subtype ) antagonist
Odansetron, granisetron
Nitrosoureas with high lipophilicity, used for brain tumors
Carmustine (BCNU) and lomustine (CCNU)
Produces disulfiram-like reaction with ethanol
Procarbazine
Slightly increased risk of breast cancer, endometrial cancer, heart disease (questionable), has beneficial effects on bone loss
Estrogen
Antiestrogen drugs used for fertility and breast cancer respectively
Clomiphene and tamoxifen
Common SE of tamoxifen and raloxifene
Hot flashes
Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used for prevention of osteoporosis and currently being tested for treatment of breast cancer (Stars study)
Raloxifene
Non-steroidal estrogen agonist causes clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in daughters of women who used it during pregnancy
Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
Estrogen mostly used in oral contraceptives (OC)
Ethinyl estradiol and mestranol
Anti-progesterone used as abortifacient
Mifepristone (RU-486)
Constant low dose of estrogen and increasing dose of progestin for 21 days (last 5 days are sugar pills or iron prep)
Combination oral contraceptives (OC)
Oral contraceptive available in a transdermal patch
Ortho-Evra
Converted to more active form DHT by 5 alpha-reductase
Testosterone
5 alpha-reductase inhibitor used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male pattern baldness
Finasteride (Proscar and Propecia respectively)
Anabolic steroid that has potential for abuse
Nandrolone and stanozolol
Anti-androgen used for hirsutism in females
Cyproterone acetate
Drug is used with testosterone for male fertility
Leuprolide