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149 Cards in this Set

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T/F:
The alimentary canal is a tube within a tube that is food and digestion related.
True
What are the two types of digestion?
Mechanical (Mixing, chewing, moving) and enzymatic.
What are the 4 major function of the GI system?
Motility
Secretion
Digestion
Absorption
T/F:
The function of motility is much like that of an assembly line.
False:
Disassembly line, breaking down complex molecules
Mixing of secretions of ingested material and movement of material in the GI system is known as?
Motility
A lump- like ball of soft material created via salivation is known as?
Bolus
Saliva is what type of digestion?
Enzymatic
What anatomical part of the mouth plays a role in swallowing and prevents the bolus from entering the nasal cavity?
Palate
What are the two parts/ areas associated with the tonsils?
Lingual and pharyngeal
What is the area between the teeth and the cheek?
Buccal cavity
The role of the ___________ is to close the airway to prevent food from entering the trachea.
The role of the _epiglottis_ is to close the airway to prevent food from entering the trachea.
T/F:
The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the oropharynx.
False:
Nasopharynx
What is the length of the esophagus as mention in lecture?
25cm
T/F:
The esophagus is rigid and is split into 3 different sections.
False:
Flaccid
What 3rd of the esophagus consists of skeletal muscle and is innervated by the cerebral spinal system?
The top 3rd
The 1st 2 sphincters of the 7 found in the entire GI system are?
Pharyngoesophageal (UES) and the Gatroesophageal sphincters
Which 3rd of the esophagus is all smooth muscle and innervated by the autonomic system?
The bottom 3rd
Which 3rd of the esophagus is mostly smooth muscle but contains skeletal muscle?
Middle 3rd
What is the esophageal hiatus?
A gap in the diaphragm allowing the esophagus to pass through.
This sphincter's dysfunction can lead to issues such as GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) aka heart burn.
Gastroesophageal sphincter
GERD is caused when ________ enters back into the esophagus.
GERD is caused when _stomach acid_ enters back into the esophagus.
T/F:
The Gastroesophageal sphincter (LES) is also known as the cardiac sphincter.
True
What is the name of the area where the esophagus meets the stomach?
Cardia
Gas and formed and trapped in what part of the stomach?
Fundus
T/F:
The body of the stomach is very glandular and has thick smooth muscle.
False:
The body has thin smooth muscle
What are the 3 parts of the pyloric region?
Antrum, pylorus canal, and pyloric sphincter (pylorus)
What is the 3rd sphincter of the 7 total found in the GI system?
The pyloric sphincter
What is the purpose of the pyloric sphincter?
To control what exits the stomach into the duodenum of the small intestine
What part of the stomach forces the material in the stomach into the small intestine?
Pyloric canal
T/F:
The antrum and pylorus canal both contain thick smooth muscle making them ideal for mixing and grinding.
True
The lesser omenter serves what purpose in the body?
To suspend the stomach
T/F:
The greater omenter is located behind the intestines.
False:
Located in the front
Source of beer belly
What is the function of the greater omenter?
To store fat
T/F:
The greater omenter is lacking numerous arteries and veins.
False:
Very saturated with arteries and veins
The different tones of the stomach are what types of conditions?
Neurological
What is the process of eating/ chewing?
Mastication
What type of stomach condition has too much tone aka no relaxation with food?
Hypertonic stomach
_________ are folds of the stomach formed from muscular wall contraction.
_Rugae_ are folds of the stomach formed from muscular wall contraction.
Stomach sagging occurs from there not being enough tone in the stomach, this is known as which condition?
Orthotonic stomach
When a stomach is flaccid with no tone it is known as a ________ stomach.
When a stomach is flaccid with no tone it is known as a _atonic_ stomach.
T/F:
There is still an amount of tone in normal stomach during contraction.
True
What role does the greater omentum in the inflammatory response of the intestines?
Highly vascularized so able to release cell components quickly
Adheres to infected intestines to prevent intestinal fluid from entering the rest of the body
T/F:
The greater omentum can adhere to infected intestines and surgical procedures such as cesarean sections.
True
The lesser omentum is just a specific name for what anatomical term?
Mesenteries
The parietal peritoneal lines what part of the body?
The abdominal cavity
What membrane lines the organs of the abdominal area?
Visceral peritoneal
__________ are double sheets of serous membranes that suspend part of the GI tract and are routes for nerves, arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels.
_Mesenteries_ are double sheets of serous membranes that suspend part of the GI tract and are routes for nerves, arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels.
In the abdominal cavity, how many serous membranes were mentioned in lectures?
4
What is the difference between serous membranes and mucous membranes?
Serous membranes secrete watery protein solution
What is the width and length of the duodenum?
Width: 2.5cm
Length: 25 cm
T/F:
Like the esophagus, the small intestine is lacking tone.
False:
The SI has tone
What is the longest section of the small intestine in the human body?
Ileum
What is the 4th sphincter of the 7 sphincters of the GI system?
Ileocecal sphincter
What two section does the Ileocecal sphincter seperate?
The Ileum of the SI and the Cecum of the LI
T/F:
The veriform appendix is a "worm-like" structure at the end of the large intestine that to this day has no known function.
True
What are the 4 sections of the colon?
Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
What is the shape of the sigmoid section?
S-shaped and leads to rectum
What is the length of the rectum?
20 cm
Which sphincter of the anus is the 5th of the 7 sphincters found in the GI system and consist of smooth muscle and is involuntarily controlled by the ANS?
Internal sphincter
Splanchnic drainage leads to what part of the GI system?
Hepatic portal vein
What organ processes absorbed material from ingestion, metabolizes, then empties the metabolites into the vena cava?
Liver
What types of molecules are unable to enter the hepatic circulation, thus avoiding liver processing?
Chilomicrons
What structure is 1 cell thick that can only flow in one direction into the thoracic lymphatic duct into the systemic circulation avoiding the 1st pass hepatic portal?
Lacteal
Which hemmroidial vein empties into the hepatic portal system?
Superior hemmroidial vein
Which hemmrhoidial vein empties into the inferior vena cava?
Inferior hemmrhodial vein
The terminology for two things connecting or joining together as mentioned in lecture is?
Anatomosis
What is the innermost layer of the GI tract known as?
Mucosa
What are the 3 layers of the mucosa and which is inner, middle, and outer?
Inner- Epithelium
Middle- Lamina propria
Outer- Muscularis mucosae
Which layer of the mucosa is connective tissue with blood and lyphatic vessels, nerves, ducts of glands, and lymph nodes?
Lamina propria, the middle layer
What is the role of the lymph nodes in the lamina propria?
To keep bacteria undercontrol in the GI tract to prevent damages
What type of cells make up the epithelium layer of the mucosa?
stratified squamous
Contractions of what layer of the mucosa is responsible for the formation of rugae?
Muscularis mucosae
What type of muscle makes up the muscularis mucosae?
Smooth
What is the accumulation of nerve cells bodies and fibers outside of the central nervous system known as?
A plexus
The mucosa is the innermost layer of the GI tract, followed by the __________.
The mucosa is the innermost layer of the GI tract, followed by the _submucosa_.
T/F:
The Meissners plexus is found in the muscularis externa layer of the GI tract.
False
The Meissners is found in the submucosa layer
The submucosa layer includes all of the following except:
Connective tissue
Nerve plexus (Meissners)
Smooth muscle
Blood and lymphatic vessels
Lymph nodes
Glands
Smooth muscle
What 2 types of smooth muscle are found in the muscularis externa?
Circular and longitudinal
What nerve plexus is found in the muscularis externa?
Myenteric or Auerbachs plexus
What is the outermost layer of the GI tract tube?
Adventitia
T/F:
The adventitia always has a serous membrane.
False
The adventitia can be with or without a serous membrane
If the adventitia has a serous membrane, what is the name of the serous membrane?
Visceral peritoneum
Peristalsis refers to the movement of what?
A bolus
The extrinsic portion of the ANS is split into what 2 systems?
The sympathetic and the parasympathetic
Which extrinsic ANS is mainly postganglionic adrenergic fibers?
Sympathetic
Which extrinsic ANS is mainly preganglionic cholinergic fibers that travel via the vagus and pelvic nerves?
Parasympathetic
What is another name for the intrinsic system?
The enteric nervous system
What are the 2 plexi found in the GI tract wall that are associated with the intrinsic/enteric system?
Submucosal/Meissner and Myenteric/Auerbach
Which nerve plexus controls mainly secretory activity and blood flow and where is it located?
The submucosal/meissner plexus located in the submucosa
Which nerve plexus regulates contraction and relaxation of the GI smooth muscle and where is it located?
The myenteric/auerbach plexus located in the muscularis externa
In the network of nerve cell bodies and processes, which neurons monitor activity?
Sensory
In the network of nerve cell bodies and processes, which neurons communicate between plexi?
Interneurons
In relation to resting membrane potential, the base line of the RMP can be altered by what 3 things?
Extrinsic, intrinsic, and hormones
What reason is given for why the RMP varies from -40 - -80 mV over time?
Ion leaking
The ________ is known as the change in RMP over time.
The _Basic Electric Rhythm_ is known as the change in RMP over time.
What produced the basic electrical ryhthm?
Specialized smooth muscle intestitial cells (of Cajal)
The basic electrical rhythm produces what types of waves?
Slow waves
T/F:
If the threshold of a slow wave is reached there is no activity of the smooth muscle.
True
Which threshold of the 3 mentioned in motility, must be reached in order for there to be a small contraction of the smooth muscle?
The contraction threshold
Which threshold of the 3 mentioned in motility, must be reached in order for there to be a large contraction of the smooth muscle?
The electrical threshold
What is the term used for the baseline level of contraction?
Tone
The level of depolarization depends on what 3 things?
Hormones, extrinsic, and intrinsic behavior (neuronal)
T/F:
All thresholds (slow wave, contraction, electrical) and tone, RMP, and the basic electrical rhythm, are all controlled by endogenous/exogenous hormones and neurotransmitter substances (excitatory and inhibitory).
True
What are the two excitatory neurotransmitters mentioned in the motility notes?
Acetylcholine (Ach) and Substance P (Sub P)
How many known peptide hormones are there?
25
What are the 2 inhibitory compounds mentioned in the motility notes?
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and Nitric Oxide (NO)
T/F:
The Law of the Intestine states that the intestine is independent of outside stimulus.
True
What are the 5 parts of a reflex?
Sensory input
Afferent pathway
Processor
Efferent pathway
Effector
Dysphagia is a disease of what part of the GI system?
Esophagus
When you have difficulty in eating, usually in the upper end of the esophagus, you are experiencing?
Dysphagia
What are the 4 types of disorders mentioned in the notes that cause dysphagia?
Achalasia
Diverticula of esophagus
Esophageal web
Carcinoma of esophagus
What is the most frequent cause of dysphagia?
Esophageal webs
What disorder is a functional obstruction with ineffectual perstalsis and common in ages 30- 50?
Achalasia
An outpocketing of the wall, or ___________, is when the mucosa layer pertrudes inbetween the smooth muscle of the esophageal wall.
An outpocketing of the wall, or _Diverticula of the esophagus_, is when the mucosa layer pertrudes inbetween the smooth muscle of the esophageal wall.
T/F:
Diverticula of the esophagus can result in ischemic strangulation and thus necrosis.
True
What condition causing dysphagia is described as horizontal folds of mucosa projecting into the lumen?
Esophageal webs
What disorder of the esophagus is the 5th cause if death in men that is caused by GERD, alcohol, tobacco, irritants, and has a 12% survival rate?
Carcinoma of the esophagus
What are 4 things mentioned by Gause in lecture that can cause an inflammatory response in the esophagus, or esophagitis?
GERD, bacterial infection, feeding tube removal, or irritational food
T/F:
Esophageal varices is directly related to the conditions of the hepatic portal vein.
True
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an extreme form of pyrosis. What is pyrosis?
Heartburn
GERD can cause __________ or the fushion of the esophagus.
GERD can cause _stricture_ or the fushion of the esophagus.
What is chyme?
A mixture of stomach and small intestine content
What are the 3 main functions of the stomach in gastric motility?
Reservoir
Mixing chyme with gastric secretion
Controlling release of contents to prevent SI damage
When the stomach is empty it has (high/low) tone.
High tone from contraction
While eating, the expansion of the stomach and relaxation is preventing the pressure from (increasing/decreasing).
Increasing
What volume can the stomach hold without much increase in pressure?
1.5L
T/F:
After 1.5L of material accumulate in the stomach, efferent signals to the CNS tell you youre full.
False
Afferent
When fasting, how long does the stomach go without contraction?
75-90 minutes
After a long period of no contraction there is a 5- 10 minute period of intense ________ and ________ activity.
After a long period of no contraction there is a 5- 10 minute period of intense _electrical_ and _motor_ activity.
What initiates gastric contraction and where are these initiators found?
Pacemaker cells in the middle body of the stomach
Migrating myoelectric complex (MCC) refers to the gastric motility during the (eating/fasting) state.
Fasting
T/F:
The fundus and body of the stomach are thin-walled and contract vigorously.
False
contract weakly
T/F:
The pyloric region is thick walled therefore it contracts vigorously.
True
Chyme stratifies according to _________ in the stomach.
Chyme stratifies according to _density_ in the stomach.
What is the trend for liquids in the stratification process of chyme? (top, middle, bottom)
Liquids on bottom (leave first)
T/F:
When chyme stratifies, lipids float on top.
True
What type of particles in chyme stay in the stomach the longest?
The large or indigestable particles
What percentage of hiatus hernia is sliding type (LES pulls thru disphragm)?
90%
What is the upward herniation of the stomach thru the esophageal hiatus?
Hiatus hernia... duh
What part of the stomach is involved in the sliding type of hiatus hernia?
Cardia, enters hiatus into throracic cavity
What part of the stomach is involved in the paraesophageal type of hiatus hernia?
The fundus
T/F:
Retrosternal pain, pyrosis, and heartburn are interchangable terms when describing symptoms of different gatric disorders.
True
What kind of disorder in the stomach can occur within hours to two weeks following extreme stress?
Acute stress ulcers
A symptom of acute stress ulcers is upper GI bleeding. This can cause hematemesis. What does hematemesis mean?
Vomitting of blood
What is the number 1 cause of acute gastritis?
Alcohol
Can also be frequently caused by salicylates and staphylococcal endotoxin
Less common would be digitalis, iodine, tetracycline, caffiene
What term refers to intestinal bleeding in the part of the GI tract that is exposed to digestive enzymes producing black stool?
Melena
T/F:
Pernicious Anemia is a GI disease.
False
Not a GI disease
T/F:
Atrophic gastritis is a GI disease that causes pernicious anemia, which is not a GI disease.
True
Gatric cancer is (frequent/infrequent) but (not very/ unusually) lethal.
Gastric cancer is infrequent but unusually lethal.