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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
T/F?
Sensory cells classified as mechanoreceptors give us our sense of hearing.
True
T/F?
The sclera is a dense, white, opaque protective coat that covers 85% of the outer surface of the eye and is continuous with the choroid.
False.
it's continuous with the cornea
T/F?
Photic stimuli are electromagnetic waves between 400 and 750 nM long.
True
T/F?
Tears produced by the lacrimal glands are comprised of 50% H2O, albumin, 1.5% NaCl, potassium, albumin, glucose, lysozymes and immunoglobulin.
False
98% H2O, 1.5% albumin, NaCl
T/F?
Large molecules and even small charged molecules are generally excluded from passing from the vascular lumen to the CNS tissue.
True
The sensation of spinning, usually resulting from inflammation of the semicircular canals, is termed ______.
vertigo
Nerve cell bodies of first-order sensory neurons going to the spinal cord are located in the __________ .
dorsal root ganglion
Second-order sensory neurons innervating the lower body have their cell bodies located in the spinal cord and synapse on third-order neurons located in the ________________.
thalamus
The correct nomenclature for sensory receptors that respond to pain is ________________.
nociceptors
T/F?
Intraocular pressure is created by the rates of secretion of aqueous humor by the ciliary processes and the rates of outflow by the trabecular meshwork.
True
T/F?
The dioptic media of the eye includes the cornea, aqueous humor, vitreous, choroid and lens.
False
only the cornea involves diopters
T/F?
Light energy entering the eye interacts with photopigments and cause sodium channels to open and produce a negative generator potential.
False
sodium channels CLOSE
T/F?
The strength of a stimulus applied to a sensory receptor is encoded and transmitted to the CNS as the amplitude of the action potential produced.
False
...as the intensity of the action potential produced
What sensory receptors involve the pineal eye?
photoreceptors
T/F?
Generator potentials are grades, vary in stimulus strength, are all-or-none, and must reach threshold to produce an AP.
False
NOT all-or-none
Phantom pain is usually associated with _____-order neurons.
second-order
Sensory receptors can produce an electrical signal containing far greater energy than that contained in stimulus, and this is called __________.
amplification
T/F?
Fourth-order neurons may transform info before transmitting it to the cerebral cortex.
False
THIRD-order!
T/F?
First-order neurons have their cell body (soma) usually located in a dorsal root ganglion only.
False
also can be in a cranial nerve ganglion
T/F?
Third-order neurons are located in the spinal cord or brainstem.
False.
Second-order neurons...
T/F?
First-order neurons have peripheral ending functions as the sensory receptor or receives input from an accessory sensory cell.
True
______________ is the reduction in discharge frequency during a sustained stimulus.
adaptation
What is a long-lasting stimulus that produces a prolonged, repetitive discharge in the primary afferent neuron called?
slowly adapting receptors
Sensory coding involves what 5 things?
modality
location
intensity
frequency
duration
What is the weakest stimulus that a sensory receptor can reliably detect called?
threshold stimulus
Which cutaneous receptor picks up high frequency vibrations and pressures?
Pacinian Corpuscles
T/F?
The aqueous humor is secreted bt the ciliary epithelium and has a pressure <25mmHg.
False
<22mmHg
The iris is made of what 2 oriented smooth muscle cells?
radially (dilatory)
and
circularly (sphincter)
oriented
What is the part of the eye that has the highest visual acuity/color?
macula lutea
What is the center of the macula called?
fovea
Hair cells in the ear are receptor cells and function as ___________.
mechanoreceptors
The crystals of calcium carbonate in the semicircular canals are called __________.
otoliths
Cranial nerve VIII is called the ____________ nerve.
vestibulocochlear
T/F?
Conductive hearing loss occurs when any change in the outer or middle ear impairs conduction of sound waves to the inner ear.
True
Sensorineural hearing loss is impairment of the ___________ or its CNS connection.
Organ of Corti
Besides noise exposure, aging, and disease, what else can cause sensoineural hearing loss?
ototoxicity
What is the most common form of sensorineural hearing loss?
Presbycusis
Ringing in the hear is called ________.
Tinnitus
__________ disease is the triad of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, and tinnitus.
Meniere's Disease
What is the inflammation of the middle ear called?
Otitis media
Otitis media usually results from an upper respiratory tract infection that extends via the Eustachian tube from the oropharynx.
False.
nasopharynx
What is it called when you have involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyes resulting from over stimulation of the semicircular canal system?
Vestibular nystagmus
T/F?
Vestibular nystagmus results from over stimulation of the cochlea.
False
over-stimulation of the semicircular canal system
T/F?
The cornea covers 25% of the eye and is lined by a thin tear film.
False
15%
The ______ is the neuronal and outer pigmented layer of the eye.
retina
The Vitreous humor makes up what percent of the eye's volume?
90%
The ________ are attached from the ciliary bodies to lens.
zonules
The _________ is the clear tissue at the front of the eye.
cornea
T/F?
The lens serves as the main refractive element of the visual system.
False
the cornea!
is directs incoming light through the lens for precise focusing on the retina
_________ is the loss in power of accommodation.
Presbyopia
T/F?
The lens has 1/3 refractive power.
True
The ability to increase the lens refractive power is called _________.
accommodation
T/F?
The transparent parts of the eye include the cornea, AH, lens, VH, and retina.
TRUE
______ and _____ regulate Na,K-ATPase.
ACh and NO
___________ binds to NOS, which makes NO and binds to sGC.
CaM (calmodulum)
What's missing?
NO-sGC-->cGMP--->____--->Na/K ATPase
RPP
(reversible phosphorylation)
Areas of aqueous humor flow include where?
trabecular meshwork
and
Schlemn's canal