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9 Cards in this Set

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Ottoman Military Annexations in the Arab World (4)
-Defeat of Mamluks in Syria and Egypt: 1516-1517
-Conquest of Iraq: 1514-1552
-Conquest of Yemen: 1539-1635
-Lower Nubia/Sudan/Red Sea: 1555-1557
2 Groups that pledged allegiance to the Ottomans
-Hashemite Sharifs of Hijaz
-Quraysh and clan of Hashem
Naval Support and Allegiance
-N. African Turkish Sea Ghazis to prevent European attacks, esp. Spain and Phillip II
Significance of Ottoman Rule in the Arab Lands (5)
1. Controlled all of the Major Capitals of Islam
2. Capital of Islam-->Outisde the Arab World
3. Ottoman Sultan is protector of Islamic Holy Sites
4. Ottomans Control the trade routes
5. Revenue from Arab Lands helped conquer Europe
What was happening in Europe that made it easier for the Ottomans to capure the Arab World?
-W. Europe is occupied with shipbuilding
-Religious reform (Luther's 95 Theses)
-Schism in European Society
-Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Franco-Ottoman Alliance
Welcomed by the Huguenots
-Capitulations for French merchants (subject to French law, not Ottoman)
-French build a consulate in Aleppo 1547
Ottomans faced early Mamluk revolts and suppressed them
-Mamluk Egyptian revolt in 1520
-While Mamluks remained in Egypt, no more Mamluks were allowed in Syria
-After 1517, Mamluks were imported as administrators
Bedouin Insubordination
-Being settled in the Gulf Emirates, now are a potential threat to trade routes and pilgrim caravans
-Frontier of settlement affected by Bedouin insubbordination
Ottoman policy towards the Bedouin:
1. Buy militant chiefs off
2. Appoint Bedouin Chiefs as sub-governors and tax farmers
3. One clan against the next
4. Fight smaller tribes