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38 Cards in this Set

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ABO blood typing
Method of characterizing an individual’s blood based on proteins (A, B, or their absence) at surface of red blood cells.
allele
One of two or more molecular forms of a gene that arise by mutation and specify slightly different versions of the same trait.
continuous variation
Of a population, a more or less continuous range of small differences in a given trait among its individuals.
dihybrid cross
Intercross between two individuals, each heterozygous for two genes (e.g., AaBb).
diploid
Presence of two of each type of chromosome (i.e., pairs of homologs) in a cell nucleus at interphase.
gene
Unit of information for a heritable trait in DNA, passed from parents to offspring.
heterozygous condition
For a specified trait, having two different alleles at a locus.
homozygous dominant condition
Having a pair of dominant alleles at a gene locus.
homozygous recessive condition
Having a pair of recessive alleles at a gene locus
hybrid
individual having a nonidentical pair of alleles for a trait being studied
indpendent assortment
in meiosis, each homologous chromosome and its partner are assorted into different gametes independently of other pairs
melanin
Brownish-black pigment; protects human skin from ultraviolet radiation.
monohybrid cross
Intercross between two individuals, each heterozygous for one gene (e.g., Aa).
multiple allele system
Three or more slightly different molecular forms of a gene that occur among the individuals of a population.
mutation
Heritable change in DNA.
phenotype
Observable trait or traits of an individual that arises from gene interactions and gene–environment interactions.
pleiotropy
Positive or negative effects that alleles at a single gene locus have on two or more traits.
probability
The chance that each outcome of an event will occur is proportional to the number of ways in which the outcome can be reached.
Punnett-square method
Construction of a simple diagram to predict the probable outcomes of a genetic cross.
testcross
Experimental cross to determine whether an individual of unknown genotype that shows dominance for a trait is either homozygous dominant or heterozygous.
What is a gene locus?
the location for specific gene on a chromosome. Alleles are at the corresponding loci (plural) on a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Are alleles always identical?
a pair of alleles may be identical or nonidentical.
What are genes?
genes are units of information about heritable traits, which are transmitted from parents to offspring. Each gene has a specific locus on a chromosome.
What is a mutation?
a mutation alters a genes molecular structure and its message about a trait. All molecular forms of the same gene are known as alleles.
Offspring that are hybrids means that...
there is a cross between two individuals that breed, and the result is a hybrid, each one has inherited NONidentical alleles.
Homozygous condition
when a pair of alleles ona a homologous chromosome are identical.
homozygous condition
when a pair of alleles on a homologous chromosome are not identical
What is a homozygous dominant individual?
an individual who has a pair of dominant alleles (AA) for the trait being studied.
What is a homozygous recessive individual?
they have a pair of recessive alleles (aa)
What is a heterozygous individual?
it has a pair of non identical alleles. (Aa)
What is a genotype?
refers to the particular alleles that an individual carries.
What is a phenotype?
refers to an individuals observable traits.
P stands for
parents
F1 stands for
first generation
F2 stands for
2nd generation
What is a monohybrid cross?
uses first generation offspring of parents that breed true for different forms of a trait. (AA x aa = Aa)
What is mendel's theory of segregation?
diploid cells have pairs of genes on pairs of homologous chromosomes. The two genes of each pair are separated from each other during meiosis, so they end up in different gametes.
What is mendel's theory of independent assortment?
As meiosis ends, genes on pairs of homologous chromosomes have been sorted out for distribution into one gamete or another. Independently of gene pairs of other chromosomes.