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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
THRILL
Fine vibration felt by the hand on the chest surface resulting from a loud murmur
BRUIT
Abnormal heart sound heard by listening with a stehoscope - indicates increased turbulence often caused by a partial obstruction
MURMUR
Sound heard thru stethoscope produced by abnormal opening and closing of heart valves and abnormal blood flow thru heart. Murmurs are not aloways considered to be abnormal
PULSUS ALTERNANS
Alternating pulse. Mechanical alternation, a pulse regular in time but with alternate beats stronger and weaker. Often detectable only with sphygmomanometer and usually indeacates (L) ventricular failure and accompanied by a (L)sided S3 sound
PARADOXICAL PULSE
An exaggeration of normal variation in pulse volume with respiration, becoming weaker with inspiration and stronger with expiration. Characteristic of cardiac tamponade. Changes are independent of changes in cardiac rate measured directly or by EKG
THIRD HEART SOUND
Occurs in early diastole and corresponds with the end of the first phase of rapid ventricular filling. Normal in childrean and younger people, but abnormal in others
FOURTH HEART SOUND
The sound produced in late diastole in association with ventricular filling due to atrial systole and related to reduced ventricular compliance. A low frequency oscillation that may be normal in elderly due to decline in ventricular compliance, but is nearly always abnormal at younger ages, if high intensity or palpable. Common in ventricular hypertrophy, esp. in HTN and invariable during acute MI. Fourht heart sounds may arise from (R) or (L) vntricle or both
PERICARDIAL FRICTION RUB
Auscultatory sound produced by rubbing together of inflamed pericardial membranes in pericarditis. Also called pericardial rub
CARDIAC TAMPONADE
Interference with venous return of blood to heart due to extensive accumulation of blood in the pericardium (pericardial effusion). Tamponade may occur as complication of dissecting thoracic aneurys, pericarditis, renal failure, acute MI, hypothyroidism, autoimmune disease (ie,lupus), chest trauma or a malignancy. Fluid in the pericardial sac can by seen on an EKG. Treatment involves emergent fluid removal, by needle aspiration or ER surgery (pericardial window)
COR PULMONALE
Enlargement of (R) ventricle due to pulmonary HTN that may occur due to emphysema or bronchiectasis. (R) ventricle eventually weakens resulting in (R)sided CHF
DEXTROCARDIA
Location of the heart in (R) hemithorax due to disease process or congenital mirror-image reversal
TETRALOGY OF FALLOT
A congenital anolmaly which consists of pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, dextroposition of the aorta (aorta is on (R) side instead of (L) and hypertrophy of (R) ventricle. Condition results in a blue baby at birth due to inadequate O2. Requires ER surgery
WOLFF-PARKINSON-WHITE SYNDROME
A form of pre-excitation characterized by short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave
ORTHOSTATIC OR POSTURAL HYPOTENSION
Low BP when rising from chair or bed. Drop in BP precipitated by changes in body position. May be related to hydration status, drug S.E. or caused by dysfunction in ANS' ability to maintain BP with positional changes(ie autonomic neuropathy due to diabetes)
PISTOL-SHOT SOUND
Sound created by lightly compressing an artery during aortic regurgitation. Sometimes is audible without compression
COARCTATION OF AORTA
A congenital heart defect that results in narrowing of the lumen of the aorta. Narrowing occurs most often distal to the origin of the (L) subclavian a. Coarctation occurs in approx 7% of pts with congenital heart dis. and is twice as common in males. Surgery is req'd. Symptoms include HA, dizziness, fainting, nosebleeds, diminished pulses in LE and mm cramps in leges with activity. Some indivs may be asymptomatic
PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
A condition where normal channel b/w pulmonary a. and the aorta fails to close at birth. After birth this channel normally closes in response to lung ventilation. Affected infants demo poor growth, SOB, and rapid respiratory rate. Diagnosed by EKG. Treatment involves indomethacin to stimulate ductus arteriosus closure. Surgical ligation will be req'd in unresponsive cases
STOKES-ADAMS SYNDROME
Transient asystole or ventricular fibrillation in presence of AV Block
RAYNAUD'S PHENOMENON
Intermittent bilateral attacks of ischemia of the fingers or toes and sometimes ears or nose. Marked by severe pallor and often accompanied by paraesthesia and pain. Brought on by cold or emotional stimuli and relieved by heat. When idiopathic or primary it's called Raynaud's Disease
BUERGER'S DISEASE
Thromboangiitis Obliterns: A progressive occlusive dis. of the arteries and veins in LE's Cause is unknown. Smoking accelerates the occlusive effects of the dis. It's autoimmune in nature
ALLEN TEST
A test for radial or ulnar patency. Radial or ulnar a. is digitally compressed by examiner after blood has been forced out of the hand by clenching it into a fist. Failure of blood to diffuse back into the hand when opened indicates that the artery not compressed is occluded
PITTING EDEMA
Swelling of subcutaneous tissues caused by obstruction of lymphatic drainage. Results from fluid accumulation and may arise from surgery, radiation or the presence of a tumor in the area of the lymph nodes
LYMPHEDEMA
Swelling of subcutaneous tissues caused by obstruction of lymphatic drainage. It results from fluid accumulation and may arise from surgery, radiation or presence of a tumor in the area of the lymph nodes