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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
This type of immunity has:
- Chemical and Physical barriers
- Non-Specific Mechanisms
Innate (natural) immunity - General
This type of immunity has:
-Both specific and adaptive
Adaptive (acquired) immunity - Specific
First Line of Defenses
Skin, mucous membranes, vomiting, coughing, urination, defecation.
Physical Barriers
First Line of Defenses
Mucous, perspiration, saliva, tears, cerumen, chemicals derived from normal flora, sebum
Biochemical Barriers
-Inflammation
-Phagocytosis
Second line of defense
What line of defense exhibits this?
-Cell-Mediated
-Antibody mediated (humoral)
Third Line of Defense
Specific Immunity
This is a non-specific and non-adaptive. A secondary exposure will demonstrate the same response.
It is immediate.
Inflammation
This is a universal response to injury occurring in vascular tissues of the body.
-Mediated by chemicals in circulation
-Increases movement of plasma and blood cells into the tissues around injury.
-Defends against infections and promotes tissue repair.
-It is necessary but can be painful and carry risks.
Inflammation
-Destroy injurious agents
-Confine agents to limit their effects on the host.
-Stimulate the immune response
-Promote regeneration and repair of tissue.
Purposes of Inflammation
-Fever exogenous and endogenous chemical mediators act on the hypothalamus.
Systematic manifestation of inflammation.
This elevates so-called "acute-phase" reactants.
What is this a manifestation of and what reactants are elevated?
Inflammation

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and Blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP)

Leukocytosis (shift to the left)
Heat, redness, swelling, pain
-Related to mircrocirculation changes
-Vasodilation
-Increased capillary permeability
-White cell migration from the capillaries to the site of inflammation.
Local manifestation of inflammation.
Vasodilation to increase blood flow and decrease blood flow velocity.

Stimulation of endothelial cells to retract and become leaky
Events of acute Inflammation
This is the process that does the following.
-Dilutes toxins and toxic products
-Brings in plasma proteins
-Removes bacterial products and dead cell
-Migration of immune cells
Exudation
A critical cell in the inflammatory response.
They are large, granular cells in loose connective tissue, adjacent to blood vessels.
Mast Cell
Early, initial activators of the inflammatory response
Mast Cells
-Histamine, chemotactic factors and cytokines provide an immediate response.

This is part of Mast Cell
Degranulation of preformed mediators
Inflammation
-Cuases vasodilation of capillaries and increses vascular permeability.
Effects of Histamine
Contracts smooth muscle in teh bronchi, GI tract, and uterus
Effects of Histamine
Icreases bronchial, intestinal and salivary secretions,
Dialation of cerbral blood vessels (headache)
Stimulates gastric juices
Stimulates never endings to cause pain.
Effects of Histamine
Degranulation
Encourages neutrophil migration
Additional cytokines to influence the adaptive immune response.
Neutrophil chemotactic factor