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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
introduction of type I DM
- accounts for 10-15% of all DM
- char. by hyperglycemia
- propensity to develop DKA (ketoacidosis)
- may occur at any age, mostly before 30
- peak age is 10 - 14
islet volume and numbers
- 1 mil islet cells, few scattered among the duct system of pancreas.
- contains 4 types of cells
4 types of islet cells
1. B cells
2. a cells
3. gamma cells
4. PP cells
a cells
more on periphery, 20% cells, elaborate glucagon, which stimluates the liver to begin gluconeogenesis when there is low plasma glu
B cells
derived for endoderm. found anywhere along the pancreatic duct system. first evident in embryos in 10 weeks. 70% of cells. secrete and release insulin from dense core vesicals in response to increase in plasma glucose
gamma cells
- represent 5-10% of the islet cells
- contain somatostatin which suppresses both insulin and glucagon
PP cells
- 1-2%
- secrete polypeptides that stimulate gastri and enteric secretions
insulin acts in glu metabolism thru the following processes
1. uptake and utilization by cells for the body esp. peripheral tissues such as gut, fat, and muscle
2. glu production/storage in the liver
insulin production is solely by B cells of the islet
(what happens before diabetes becomes clinical)
- DNA encodes the base prs for the transcription to mRNA
- mRNA binds to ribosomal RNA in RER
- Translation goes from mRNA to a sequence of AA
- post-transitional modifications occur in the golgi apparatus
- autoimmunity attacks B cells
- B mass declines
- Diabetes is when 80% B cell mass is destroyed
Stages of first years of diabetes
- honeymoon phase - first 2 yrs - decreased need for insulin
- preproinsulin - RER - translation - disulfide bonding makes alpha and beta subunits stick together
- endopeptidase - in the golgi leads to cleavage of the C-peptides
- insulin is stored w/ equimolar conc of C peptides in granules
- NO C - PEPTIDES = NO ENDOGENOUS INSULIN